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Change in precipitation for scenarios A2 and B2; Tropical America Change in precipitation for scenarios A2 and B2; Tropical America
When global surface temperatures increase, changes in precipitation and atmospheric moisture are very likely to increase: the hydrological cycle will be more active, and the atmosphere will increase its water holding capacity. Atmospheric water vapour is a climatically critical greenhouse gas, and more of it leads to a stronger greenhouse effect through natural feedback systems. As a rule of thumb, precipitation will increase in areas that alre...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Human Development Index (HDI) in 2002 Human Development Index (HDI) in 2002
Human development is about much more than the rise or fall of national incomes. It is about creating an environment in which people can develop their full potential and lead productive, creative lives in accord with their needs and interests. People are the real wealth of nations. Development is thus about expanding the choices people have to lead lives that they value. And it is thus about much more than economic growth, which is only a means — ...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Gross product per person 1950-1994 Gross product per person 1950-1994
The graphic shows the evolution of gross world product per person from 1950 to 1994 in U.S Dollars. It clearly shows the steady and periodically dramatical growth of the gross world product per person since 1950.
28 Sep 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Population by income level Population by income level
The rich world consumes more and thus produces more waste. The World Bank classification based on gross national income per capita is an indication of the global consumption level. Over the last two decades the world as a whole did not get any richer but China and Indonesia, two densely populated countries, entered the 'middle income world', as defined by the World Bank. Consumer items are available to a growing number of individuals, particular...
15 Dec 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
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Pro-poor growth, absolute and relative definition Pro-poor growth, absolute and relative definition
Pro-poor growth is a term used for primarily national policies to stimulate economic growth for the benefit of poor people (primarily in the economic sense of poverty). Pro-poor growth can be defined as absolute, where the poor benefits from overall growth in the conomy, or relative - which refers to targeted efforts to increase the growth specifically among poor people.
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Energy efficiency generally improves with economic growth...but greenhouse gases increase too Energy efficiency generally improves with economic growth...but greenhouse gases increase too
In 1992 76 million people living in urban areas were exposed to air pollutant concentrations exceeding WHO guidelines. In developing countries 1.9 million people die each year because of indoor air pollution exposure and 500,000 die as a result of outdoor pollutant levels.
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Total agricultural output Total agricultural output
Substantial gains in agricultural productivity over the past 50 years have reduced rates of hunger and malnutrition, improved the health and livelihoods of many millions of people and stimulated economic growth in numerous countries. World cereal production has more than doubled since 1961 with average yields per hectare increasing around 150% in many high and low income countries, with the exception of most nations in sub-Saharan Africa.
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Are
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Natural resources - agricultural potential Natural resources - agricultural potential
Soils underpin the production of a wide range of agricultural and industrial goods and services. Soil productivity is essential to agricultural activities - for food security, cash income and supporting the livelihoods of the poor. Agriculture is the major engine of economic growth in a majority of developing countries – for instance low income developing countries have a high share of agriculture in gross domestic product. This map presents a ...
12 May 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Natural resources for pro-poor economic growth Natural resources for pro-poor economic growth
To alleviate rural poverty, one way is to sustainably use the natural resources available to the people and the communities. By supporting and expanding fisheries, small-scale mining, forestry, ecosystem services and other similar activities and making it easier to run a businesses out of these, economic growth can be gained. This illustration symbolizes this in the form of a tree, with different natural resources as leaves and the trunk being ma...
12 May 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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World poverty distribution World poverty distribution
Three-quarters of all poor people still live in rural areas. They are heavily reliant on natural resources for their livelihoods: soil, water, forests and fisheries underpin commercial and subsistence activities and often provide a safety net to the poor in times of crises. These natural resources which are abundant in many developing countries - represent an important asset and potential wealth for poor people and their communities. As many of t...
12 May 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Natural resource - solar power (potential) Natural resource - solar power (potential)
More than two billion people cannot access affordable energy services today. They depend on inefficient locally collected and often unprocessed biomass-based fuels, such as crop residues, wood, and animal dung. Because convenient, affordable energy can contribute to a household’s productivity and income generating potential, its availability can help families and communities break out of the cycle of poverty. At the same time it also provides gro...
12 May 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Natural resources - minerals Natural resources - minerals
In more than hundred countries around the world, miners dig minerals and metals out of the ground, satisfying a slowly but continuously increasing demand from industrial production, agriculture, construction, high-tech sectors, and merchandise producers. In contrast to the other natural resources presented here, minerals are a finite resource, and the resource and their profits needs to be managed carefully to ensure sustained livelihoods after t...
12 May 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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World map of forest distribution (Natural resources - forests) World map of forest distribution (Natural resources - forests)
Approximately 240 million of the world's poor that live in forested areas of developing countries depend on forests for their livelihoods. Forest and its products provide cash income, jobs, and consumption goods for poor families. Forestry provides formal and informal employment for an estimated 40-60 million people. The sector contributes in some developing countries more than eight per cent to GDP. Timber may be the most important forest produc...
12 May 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Natural resource - water (freshwater run-off) Natural resource - water (freshwater run-off)
Freshwater – a natural resource which has been adopted as a human right by the UN in 2002: 'the human right to water entitles everyone to sufficient; affordable; physically accessible; safe and acceptable water for personal and domestic uses'. People depend on this resource for drinking and cooking, for irrigation of farms, for hygiene and sanitation and for power generation. The map presenting this resource only focuses on one part of the geogra...
12 May 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Natural resources - marine resources Natural resources - marine resources
Primary ocean productivity, as measured in grammes of carbon per square meter, from remote sensing imagery outlines the areas with rich marine life. These areas are characterised by an abundance of marine life and they provide natural resources in terms of fisheries and harvesting of these resources. The map is a part of a set, presenting different natural resources, with a focus on developing countries, and the use of natural resources for econo...
01 Feb 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Projected land use changes Projected land use changes
A central component in preventing loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services, such as provisioning of water, from expanding agricultural production is to limit the trade-off between economic growth and biodiversity by stimulating agricultural productivity and more efficient land use. Further enhancement of agricultural productivity (‘closing the yield gap’) is the key factor in reducing the need for land and, consequently, the rate of bio...
02 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Relative changes in precipitation Relative changes in precipitation
Projections for changes in precipitation patterns are extremely complex, involving a high degree of uncertainty and large heterogeneity. Summer climate projections under climate change scenario A1B (this scenario assumes future rapid demographic and economic growth, introduction of new and more efficient technologies, accompanied by a balanced use of all types of energy sources) show a reduction in precipitation of between 5% and 10% by the end o...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Index of biodiversity potential in Central America Index of biodiversity potential in Central America
Biodiversity is vitally important to human well-being as it provides ecosystem services on which humans depend. For many species that are sensitive to even small variations in climate, their primary threat is climate change. Variations in climate affect different species of flora and fauna differently, producing, in some cases, a disruption in food chains and/or in reproductive patterns. It is therefore necessary to reduce or control greenhouse g...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Greenhouse gas emissions scenarios and surface temperature projections Greenhouse gas emissions scenarios and surface temperature projections
Climate change manifests itself primarily through a gradual increase in the average temperatures of the earth’s surface, alterations in precipitation patterns, changes in the intensity and/or frequency of extreme climatic events, a slow but significant reduction in the cryosphere (including glaciers) and a rise in sea levels. Available scientific evidence associates the phenomenon of climate change with increased concentrations of anthropogenic g...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Mean changes in runoff Mean changes in runoff
Changes in precipitation and temperature influence changes in runoff and the availability of water. Results from models of changes in runoff are consistent with predictions for precipitation. For 2090-2099, in areas for which increases in the rainfall regimen are expected, increases in runoff are also projected. The anticipated changes in runoff are based on the A1B climate change scenario which assumes future rapid demographic and economic growt...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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