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Taxation system in eastern DR Congo conflict zone - CNDP taxation on local resources Taxation system in eastern DR Congo conflict zone - CNDP taxation on local resources
Militias, as here from DRC, put considerable emphasis upon controlling entrance roads to cities and the road network, as well as ports, in order to tax any good passing. Here, charcoal, being the primary energy supply to cities and thus abundant in large volumes, automatically becomes a significant source of income to militias.
19 Jun 2014 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID Arendal
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Energy consumption, economic development and CO2 emissions; selected Latin America countries Energy consumption, economic development and CO2 emissions; selected Latin America countries
As a rule of thumb, economic growth is closely related to growth in energy consumption because the more energy is used, the higher the economic growth. However, it is possible to decouple energy consumption and economic growth to some extent.. More efficient use of energy may entail economic growth and a reduction in energy use. Energy efficiency may very well be an economic driving force. With an increasing use of sustainable energy sources, th...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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CO2 emissions, energy use and economic development; Latin America and the Caribbean CO2 emissions, energy use and economic development; Latin America and the Caribbean
Economic growth and increased energy demand are closely linked to increased emissions of CO2. If there is a shock in the economy, the response as reduced emissions of CO2, can be almost without inertia if the shock is large. The 'oil crisis' in the early seventies-- during which energy prices rose substantially over a short period of time -- led to an almost immediate and sustained divergence of the formerly closely linked emissions and GDP in m...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Trends in economy, Latin America and the Caribbean Trends in economy, Latin America and the Caribbean
In the period 1970-2002, Latin American economic development indicators were fluctuating significantly – from a decrease of 5.6 percent in 1971-1980 GDP growth to only 1.2 percent in 1981-1990, and an increase up to 3.3 percent GDP growth per year in the decade 1991-2000. The poverty that followed the collapse of the petroleum business in the 1980s was only reversed in the 1990s. During the last decade, as a result of economic reforms and private...
17 May 2005 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Forest and Biodiversity under Threat by Economic Development Forest and Biodiversity under Threat by Economic Development
Southeast Asia, containing the world’s third largest tropical forests, is experiencing deforestation rates higher than almost anywhere else on Earth. The region’s forests and animals living in the forest are endangered by defragmentation and conversion to agriculture or other land uses, such as oil palm plantations and logging.
20 Jun 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz assisted by Cecile Marin, Agnes Stienne, Guilio Frigieri, Riccardo Pravettoni, Laura Margueritte and Marion Lecoquierre.
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The richer we get, the more we discard - human consumption, waste and living standards The richer we get, the more we discard - human consumption, waste and living standards
According to various scenarios, the economic development (presented in this graphic as Gross Domestic Product, GDP) will most likely continue for the next decades – but at a slower pace for those countries that can afford advanced waste management strategies. As 1.3 billion Chinese thunder into the great pleasures of consumption, municipal waste is certainly a major environmental concern.
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Water withdrawal and consumption Water withdrawal and consumption
Freshwater use is partly based on several socio-economic development factors, including population, physiography, and climatic characteristics. This graphic illustrates freshwater use, in cubic kilometres per year, from 1900 to 2000 for the world's major regions, and projects freshwater use for 2000 to 2025. It also shows how much water was withdrawn and consumed, in cubic kilometres per year, by each continent at the end of the 1990's. Finally, ...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Water consumption - top countries Water consumption - top countries
Freshwater use is partly based on several socio-economic development factors, including population, physiography, and climatic characteristics. This graphic illustrates the world's top 20 water consumers per capita, in cubic metres, which signify which countries are more effective in using the water.
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Development of fossil fuel resources in the Arctic, 2005 Development of fossil fuel resources in the Arctic, 2005
Barents Sea: The 2004 lifting of an embargo on offshore hydrocarbon exploration in the Norwegian Barents has renewed activity there. Regulation of exploration is animportant political issue. Debate in 2005 focused on environmental protection and establishing areas free of oil development. In Russia five companies were selected as finalists in the joint development of the Shtokman gas field, in the Barents Sea. This field is estimated to hold twic...
13 Feb 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Development of fossil fuel resources in the Arctic, 2005 Development of fossil fuel resources in the Arctic, 2005
Barents Sea: The 2004 lifting of an embargo on offshore hydrocarbon exploration in the Norwegian Barents has renewed activity there. Regulation of exploration is animportant political issue. Debate in 2005 focused on environmental protection and establishing areas free of oil development. In Russia five companies were selected as finalists in the joint development of the Shtokman gas field, in the Barents Sea. This field is estimated to hold twic...
07 Oct 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Arctic development hotspots Arctic development hotspots
Projects in developing extraction of fossil fuels, such as oil and natural gas are underway in several places in the Arctic - both on land and in the sea. The fuels are to be transported by both land and sea pipelines, as well as shipped on water. The development of these activities threaten natural habitats, in hotspots for conservation and wildlife. This map displays some of the latest hotspots with current or proposed development, together wit...
01 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Rainfall variability and economic growth in Zimbabwe Rainfall variability and economic growth in Zimbabwe
In Zimbabwe, trends in economic growth have been linked to rainfall variability, which can be attributed to sensitivity in the agricultural sector. Improved water resources management is critical to the stability and security that is required for economic development. The recent decline in growth can be caused by other factors such as land reform policies (starting in 2000).
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Poverty levels in the Caucasus ecoregion Poverty levels in the Caucasus ecoregion
The Caucasus ecoregion, with the countries Azerbaijan, Georgia, Armenia and parts of Russia, Turkey and Iran represents a region in transition. Poverty is a key factor in human and economic development. The highest levels are in the parts of the Russian Federation present in the region, as well as in Georgia, Azerbaijan and Armenia. The value for Turkey and Iran are for the whole of the countries, and the values may not be representative for the ...
06 Nov 2008 - by Manana Kurtubadze
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Heavy industry in the Caucasus ecoregion Heavy industry in the Caucasus ecoregion
The Caucasus region is important in terms of heavy industry. Being rich with natural mineral resources, extraction industry is playing an important role in the overall economic development. However, concerns related to unsustainable mining practices increasingly worries the public. Within the Southern Caucasus, Armenia displays the greatest number of mine sites and identified mineral deposits. Within Armenia, the mining industry is concentrated i...
29 Jan 2008 - by Manana Kurtubadze
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Poverty in the Caucasus ecoregion Poverty in the Caucasus ecoregion
The Caucasus ecoregion, with the countries Azerbaijan, Georgia, Armenia and parts of Russia, Turkey and Iran represents a region in transition. Poverty is a key factor in human and economic development. This map show still very high poverty, up to 73 per cent in regions such as Ingushetia and Georgia.
06 Nov 2008 - by Manana Kurtubadze
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Transportation network in the Caucasus ecoregion Transportation network in the Caucasus ecoregion
Transportation routes through mountain regions have always been of vital importance not just for mountain dwellers but also for traders between regions. In the Caucasus, transport routes are of immense importance as they connect Asia and Europe and facilitate the transportation of crucial industrial inputs from one continent to the other. Increase in freight transportation occurred between the 1970s and 1980s and regained momentum in the late 199...
29 Jan 2008 - by Manana Kurtubadze
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Human vulnerability and food insecurity – rainfall and economy in Sub-Saharan Africa Human vulnerability and food insecurity – rainfall and economy in Sub-Saharan Africa
For Sub-Saharan Africa, patterns in economic growth follow precipitation patterns closely. As rainfall has decreased over the last 30 years, so has the financial development. Rainfed agriculture represents a major share of the economy of these countries, as well as for domestic food supply. Improved water resources management and a wider resource base are critical to the stability and security that is required for economic development.
12 May 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Energy resources, production and transportation Energy resources, production and transportation
Energy is vital for the internal and external security of all three countries (see figure). A secure, affordable domestic energy supply is critical to economic development, particularly in energy hungry industrial sectors. It is also essential to meet social needs (heating, transportation, etc.) especially for vulnerable groups.
01 Nov 2007 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Inequity in access to clean water and sanitation Inequity in access to clean water and sanitation
The supply of safe drinking water and the provision of sanitation are management issues that raise concerns about inequitable service provision, particularly in developing countries. Although several successful initiatives have been launched to supply safe drinking water to urban populations, efforts still fall short of the required targets for sustainable development. In developing countries water delivery systems are plagued by leakages, illega...
26 Jan 2009 - by Phillippe Rekacewicz, February 2006
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Water withdrawal and consumption: the big gap Water withdrawal and consumption: the big gap
Freshwater use by continents is partly based on several socio-economic development factors, including population, physiographic, and climatic characteristics. Analysis indicates that: - Annual global freshwater withdrawal has grown from 3,790 km3 (of which consumption accounted for 2,070 km3 or 61%) in 1995, to 4,430 km3 (of which consumption accounted for 2,304 km3 or 52%) in 2000 (Shiklomanov, 1999). - In 2000, about 57% of the world’s freshw...
26 Jan 2009 - by Phillipe Rekacewicz, February 2008
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