Effects on Agriculture - SLCPs, a Threat to Agricultural Productivity
SLCPs, especially tropospheric O3, detrimentally impact ecosystems including crop yields, and are affecting food security. Present day global relative yield losses due to tropospheric O3 exposure has been estimated for four major crops and range between 7-12% for wheat, 6-16% for soybean, 3-5% for rice and 3-5% for maize.
19 Jun 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Soy Expansion in the Brazilian Amazon frontier
Often, small-scale farmers settle the areas along logging roads in order to burn secondary or cleared forest for crop production. These farmers are eventually pushed or bought-out by large-scale cattle ranchers or soy prodcution owners.
27 Sep 2012 - by GRID-Arendal
Suitability by crop type in Uganda
Recently Uganda has outlined its national strategy for
bioenergy to contribute to increasing the renewable energy
mix from 4 to 16 percent by 2017.
Several biofuel crops have been identified, including
sugarcane, maize, oil palm and jatropha. A suitability
assessment of these crops illustrates that the
potential output from certain biofuel feedstocks
is high. Several projects are underway to help the
country meet their target.
01 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Biofuels crops and biodiversity
Biofuels pose several environmental and social
risks. Therefore, to be truly a part of the green
economy, biofuels need to comply with a set of
safeguards along the entire production chain. Any
bioenergy development strategy must integrate
such safeguards at all levels, from policy to
investments and the project itself.
As impacts can be significant, they need to be
assessed from a number of angles, including:
• Direct and indirect lan...
08 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Differentiation between crops, land-use and end-use efficiency
The energy gain from biofuels is often expressed
as a ratio of biofuel energy output to fossil energy
input. However, when considering which biofuels
are the most efficient using this metric, allowance
must also be made for whether or not co-products
such as animal feed and other forms of energy or
biomass production are involved. Economically,
the value of co-products is also critical; and
together with various subsidies and tax incentiv...
01 Mar 2012 - by Nieves Lopez Izquierdo
Changes in agricultural land (pasture and cropland)
For all developing countries over the period 1961–99, expansion of harvested land contributed only 29% to growth in crop production versus the contribution of increases in yields, which amounted to 71%; in sub-Saharan Africa, however, yield increases accounted for only 34% of growth in production.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Major genetically modified crop production countries, 2006
Some regions report increases in some crops and positive financial returns have been reported for genetically modified cotton in studies including South Africa, Argentina, China, India and Mexico. In contrast, the US and Argentina may have slight yield declines in soybeans, and also for maize in the US. Studies on GMOs have also shown the potential for decreased insecticide use, while others show increasing herbicide use.
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Food consumption – trends and projections
Increase in crop production has mainly been a function of increases in yield due to increased irrigation
and fertilizer use. However, this may change in the future towards more reliance on cropland expansion, at the
cost of biodiversity. (Source: FAO, 2006).
02 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Freshwater use by sector at the beginning of the 2000s
The agricultural sector is by far the biggest user of freshwater. Analysis indicates that:
- In the United States, agriculture accounts for some 49% of total freshwater use, with 80% of this volume being used for irrigation (Shiklomanov, 1999).
- In Africa and Asia, an estimated 85-90% of all freshwater used is for agriculture (Shiklomanov, 1999).
- According to estimates for the year 2000, agriculture accounted for 67% of the world’s total fr...
26 Jan 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz (Le Monde diplomatique)