Seismic risk: recorded earthquakes in the Southern Caucasus
Peacefully resolving the overriding political, economic and social concerns of our time requires a multifaceted approach, including mechanisms to address the links between the natural environment and human security. UNDP, UNEP, OSCE and NATO have joined forces in the Environment and Security (ENVSEC) Initiative to offer countries their combined pool of expertise and resources towards that aim.
ENVSEC assessment of environment and security linkag...
01 Nov 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Environment and security priority areas in Eastern Europe
Environmental problems often compound external security tensions and worsen internal security challenges in Eastern Europe. Of particular concern are environmental hazards concentrated along national borders (including the borders with the EU, Russia and borders between the three countries).
29 Nov 2007 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Eastern Europe through history
The region’s borderline position has determined its many specific features. Neighbouring cultures deeply penetrated and influenced Eastern European societies, shaping contrasting developmental orientations. Eastern European lands changed hands many times in history and in some periods they were split between Western and Eastern powers. This is a glimpse of 4 periods between 1000 A.D. to 1938 A.D.
01 Nov 2007 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Water - cooperation or conflict?
History shows that conflicts over water often emerge and give rise to political tensions, but that most disputes are resolved peacefully. However, the absence of conflict is, at best, only a partial indicator of the depth of cooperation. Measuring the level of conflict between governments over water is inherently difficult as water is seldom a stand-alone foreign policy issue. Oregon State University has attempted to compile data covering every r...
26 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Tigris and Euphrates rivers fragmentation
It has been predicted that access to water will create conflict between countries. In Africa, central Asia, west Asia and the Americas, some countries are already arguing fiercely over access to rivers and inland seas, and confrontations could arise as water shortages grow (Gleick, 2000). Countries currently or potentially involved in international disputes over access to river water and aquifers include:
- Turkey, Syria and Iraq (the Tigris and...
26 Jan 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz
Dependency ratio in renewable water
The dependency ratio is a good indicator of where tension and conflict over water-sharing and use can occur. The map clearly depicts such areas including central Asia, the Middle East (especially Syria and Iraq), India and Pakistan, and surprisingly, low land countries such as the Netherlands.
26 Jan 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, February 2006
Excessive withdrawal of renewable water resources
The countries known to be experiencing stress or scarcity of water per capita are roughly those which are excessively using their renewable water resources (North Africa, Middle-East and central Asia including Afghanistan and Pakistan). Excessive use is also of concern in some of the northern European countries such as Germany, Denmark or Poland. More so, as a consequence of damming, the Tigris and Euphrates in the eastern mountains of Turkey are...
26 Jan 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz (Le Monde diplomatique), February 2006
Transboundary water governance - averting conflict
Most governments recognize that violence over water is seldom strategically workable or economically viable and the most hostile enemies have a capacity for cooperation where water is concerned. The institutions that they create to avert conflict have shown extraordinary resilience. The considerable time taken to negotiate the establishment of these institutions - 40 years for the Jordan agreement for example - bears testimony to the sensitivity ...
26 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Trafficking of women and girls in Nepal
Some estimates from Maiti Nepal suggest that trafficking from Nepal may have increased from an estimated 3-5,000 per year during the pre-war times (1990) to possibly 12-20,000 per year in 2010. This includes internal and external trafficking. Internal trafficking increased extensively during
and after the ten years of armed conflict in Nepal, though great uncertainty exists about such estimates.
05 Dec 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal