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Forests and Conflicts Forests and Conflicts
Around the world, conflicts and wars are taking a toll on forests and on the communities that rely on them for their livelihood. Dense forests can serve as hideouts for insurgent groups or can be as a vital source of revenue for warring parties to sustain conflict.
20 Jun 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz assisted by Cecile Marin, Agnes Stienne, Guilio Frigieri, Riccardo Pravettoni, Laura Margueritte and Marion Lecoquierre.
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Forests in Narcotics and Arms Trafficking Areas Forests in Narcotics and Arms Trafficking Areas
Dense forests can serve as hideouts for insurgent groups or can be as a vital source of revenue for warring parties to sustain conflict. Known cases of forests as sites of rebel camps include Colombia where left-wing guerrillas have camps deep in the Amazonian forest and in mountainous forest areas.
20 Jun 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz assisted by Cecile Marin, Agnes Stienne, Guilio Frigieri, Riccardo Pravettoni, Laura Margueritte and Marion Lecoquierre.
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Regulation of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers Regulation of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers
Water has long been associated with conflicts between neighbouring countries. This graphic shows how water from the Tigris and Euphrates rivers is used in Iraq, and that neighbouring Syria and Turkey influence the flow of this water. The graphic shows the locations of main dams, swamps and horticulture in the region. It also shows five of the major ways in which land is used in the region: forest and grazing land; rain-fed agriculture (grains, ve...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Balkans: topographic and political map Balkans: topographic and political map
The Balkans includes Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Serbia and Montenegro (ex-Yugoslavia). The area is recovering from a long conflict and instability as a result of the dissolution of the former Yugoslavia.
04 Oct 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Sub-Saharan Africa: Mineral resources and political instability Sub-Saharan Africa: Mineral resources and political instability
Africa, south of Sahara, is a region with plenty of valuable mineral resources - metals, oil and diamonds. Foreign investments lead the extraction and exploration in many of these places to supply the world markets. This region is also the site of several open conflicts, recent and trying peace and political instability. Foreign armed forces are present in military bases and peace keeping forces. Copyright Le Monde Diplomatique 2004.
02 Nov 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Le Monde Diplomatique
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Human impact, year 2032 (security first scenario) Human impact, year 2032 (security first scenario)
The GLOBIO-2 model is based on settlements and modern infrastructure such as roads, powerlines and pipelines. This map presents the possible situation in 2032, using the GEO-3 security first scenario. This scenario assumes a world of striking disparities where inequality and conflict prevail.
04 Oct 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Human impact, year 2032 (markets first scenario) Human impact, year 2032 (markets first scenario)
The GLOBIO-2 model is based on settlements and modern infrastructure such as roads, powerlines and pipelines. This map presents the possible situation in 2032, using the GEO-3 markets first scenario. This scenario suggests that most of the world adopts the values and expectations prevailing in today’s industrialized countries.
04 Oct 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Biodiversity loss: state and scenarios 2006 and 2050 Biodiversity loss: state and scenarios 2006 and 2050
These projections of biodiversity loss from 2000 to 2050 were produced by the GLOBIO consortium for UNEP's Global Environment Outlook 4. Across the GEO scenarios and regions, global biodiversity continues to be threatened, with strong implications for ecosystem services and human well-being. All regions continue to experience declines in terrestrial biodiversity in each of the scenarios. The greatest losses are seen in Markets First, followed by ...
26 Jan 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Conflicts and disasters - potential powder kegs (landmines and other explosives) Conflicts and disasters - potential powder kegs (landmines and other explosives)
The planet is scattered with hazardous or explosive leftovers from a succession of technical breakthroughs – be they military or industrial – just waiting to be washed away by a flood or mudslide or carried off by a hurricane. If disaster strikes these “powder kegs” multiply the danger to people and the environment (posing a particularly acute threat to already scarce water resources).
01 Feb 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Crushed by war - world conflicts Crushed by war - world conflicts
For people in countries at war or subject to economic embargos many goods are scarce, food and water constituting the most crucial shortages. But they also have to deal regularly with death and injury. In such countries disaster prevention may well not be a priority.
01 Feb 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Population displacements 1991 to 2001 Population displacements 1991 to 2001
All the states that emerged from the break-up of Yugoslavia are still fragile, except Slovenia, which joined the EU in 2004, and Croatia, which is well on the way towards European integration. Since the Dayton Peace Agreement (1995), Bosnia and Herzegovina has constituted a state, but split into two entities: the Republic of Srpska and the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, itself divided into 10 cantons.
11 Feb 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Causual pathway of conflict over resources Causual pathway of conflict over resources
For violence to occur there should be someone able to extract economic profit from the situation. Access to specific natural resources is a factor that can motivate actors to use violence as means of control (diamonds, oil, timber wars) When looking at the process behind violence it is essential to identify players with an incentive for violence. They need to access resources that facilitate mobilization and expansion of violence. However, societ...
16 Mar 2006 - by Luigi de Martino and Viktor Novikov
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Population distribution in the Ferghana valley Population distribution in the Ferghana valley
Given the importance of agriculture for the whole Ferghana basin, natural resources such as land and water have historically been amongst the most important factor in this regions development. The size of the population depending upon these resources is consequently a key political security, and environmental issue. The Ferghana valley is the most populous area in Central Asia. High population densities increase the risk of depletion of natural r...
16 Mar 2006 - by Dominique del Pietro and Diana Rizzolio
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Water issues in the Ferghana Valley Water issues in the Ferghana Valley
Water is a basic production resource for agriculture. Competition for scarce water resources has been recognized as a potential source of international conflict. In the case of the Ferghana Valley, despite the very local character of the conflicts, the presence of international borders/or the implication of communities belonging to another ethnic group has loaded the conflict with a transborder and/or ethnic dimension. Earlier studies have shown ...
16 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Hunger and conflicts in Africa Hunger and conflicts in Africa
Over the last 30 years increasing numbers of people have been affected by severe flooding, drought and variable climate in the Sahel. Millions of Africans have sought refuge from these disasters. These peoples have often had to settle on marginal areas; where some have faced social tensions with new neighbouring communities.
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Ever growing numbers of refugees Ever growing numbers of refugees
Many people forced into exile for ecological reasons have to claim political refugee status. For instance, in 1992 the thousands of people who fled the drought in Mozambique had political refuge status in Zambia. Gaining this status was easy since Zambia needed to increase its refugee population to qualify for more international aid. After the drought ended, the eco-refugees returned to Mozambique before official repatriation started.
07 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Multiple stressors in small-scale agriculture Multiple stressors in small-scale agriculture
There is a need to develop agricultural policies that both reduce emissions and allow adaptation to climate change that are closer to carbon-neutral, minimize trace gas emissions and reduce natural capital degradation. Important questions include how emissions from agriculture and forestry can be effectively reduced, how to produce food with greater input efficiency, and less GHG emissions, how can agriculture, agroforestry and forestry best adap...
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Crushed by war and world conflicts Crushed by war and world conflicts
Conflicts increase the risk of food supply instability tremendously (Figure 31). Countries in conflict and post-conflict situations tend to be food insecure, with more than 20% of the population, and in many cases far more, lacking access to adequate food (IFPRI, 2006). The group of countries that are experiencing civil conflicts cannot meet their basic needs and are large importers of food. In addition, the transport of commodities is haz...
02 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Mining the conflict - Importing from Kivu war zone Mining the conflict - Importing from Kivu war zone
Accessibility to minerals and illegal exploitation has been central in the conflict and in financing continued warfare in the DRC.
01 Mar 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni
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Mineral deposits in eastern Congo Mineral deposits in eastern Congo
Mineral deposits in eastern Congo are at the heart of conflict and the continued unhindered transport across borders and the funds from companies based in the EU and Asia are key to the continuation of environmental crime, destruction of gorilla habitat and atrocities.
01 Mar 2010 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
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