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Taxation system in eastern DR Congo conflict zone - CNDP taxation on local resources Taxation system in eastern DR Congo conflict zone - CNDP taxation on local resources
Militias, as here from DRC, put considerable emphasis upon controlling entrance roads to cities and the road network, as well as ports, in order to tax any good passing. Here, charcoal, being the primary energy supply to cities and thus abundant in large volumes, automatically becomes a significant source of income to militias.
19 Jun 2014 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID Arendal
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Illegal logging and the Congo conflict Illegal logging and the Congo conflict
Illegal logging directly fuels many conflicts, as timber is a resource available for conflict profiteers or to finance arms sales. Without public order, militants, guerrillas or military units impose taxes on logging companies or charcoal producers, issue false export permits and control border points. They frequently demand the removal of all vehicle checkpoints and public patrolling of resource-rich areas as part of the peace conditions followi...
19 Jun 2014 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID Arendal
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Illegal charcoal trade in eastern DR Congo Illegal charcoal trade in eastern DR Congo
The illicit charcoal trade in eastern DRC, but also into Uganda, Rwanda and Tanzania, is a significant income to criminals and militias. Militias in DRC are estimated to make 14–50 million USD annually on road taxes (2001 figures, see UNSC, 2001 and UNEP-INTERPOL, 2012).
19 Jun 2014 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID Arendal
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Forests and conflicts Forests and conflicts
Around the world, conflicts and wars are taking a toll on forests and on the communities that rely on them for their livelihood. Dense forests can serve as hideouts for insurgent groups or can be a vital source of revenue for warring parties to sustain conflict.
19 Jun 2014 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID Arendal
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Charcoal business in Virunga area Charcoal business in Virunga area
The multitude of military groups operating in this region makes Virunga one of the most dangerous parks in the DRC. The charcoal trade is one of many lucrative illicit trades in the park, which also include timber extraction, gold mining, and marijuana cultivation.
19 Jun 2014 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID Arendal
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The illegal charcoal trade controlled by Al Shabaab The illegal charcoal trade controlled by Al Shabaab
Al Shabaab’s main income appears to be from charcoal, and taxing of other commodities, as well as possibly ex-pat finance. At a single roadblock they have been able to make up to USD 8–18 million per year for taxing passing charcoal traffic in Badhaadhe District, Lower Juba Region. Al Shabaab retains about one third of the income, which alone constitutes about USD 38–56 million. The overall size of the illicit charcoal export from Somalia has b...
19 Jun 2014 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID Arendal
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Sub-Saharan Africa conflicts and the elephant range Sub-Saharan Africa conflicts and the elephant range
Approximately 19,000 elephants are located within or very near conflict zones in countries with civil wars or significant unrest and armed non-state groups. Up to a maximum 15% of elephant populations are killed annually in or very near conflict zones (ca. 2,850 elephants). An estimated 100,000 elephants are located within a 500 km striking range of such areas of which approximately 5,000 elephants are killed. Within and near conflict zones non-s...
19 Jun 2014 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID Arendal
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Illegal Logging and the Congo Conflict Illegal Logging and the Congo Conflict
Illegal logging directly fuels many conflicts as timber is a resource available for conflict profiteers or to finance arms sales. Without public order, militants, guerillas or military units impose taxes on logging companies or charcoal producers, issue false export permits and control border points. They frequently demand the removal of all vehicle check points and public patrolling of resource-rich areas as part of the peace conditions followin...
27 Sep 2012 - by GRID-Arendal
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Land mines in the Balkans Land mines in the Balkans
Some 11 countries in Europe (Western, Central Europe and the Balkans) are affected by anti-personnel mines. Several Balkan countries are severely affected as a result of the recent armed conflicts. However, the long-term legacy of anti-personnel mine contamination is also apparent in this region, where some countries are still removing anti-personnel mines laid during the Second World War.
01 May 2003 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Ethnic groups in the South Eastern Europe Ethnic groups in the South Eastern Europe
Since the fall of the Iron Curtain, ethnic tension has been a major factor in the development of the political situation in the Balkan Region. The break up of communist Yugoslavia lead to wide spread confict in the 1990-ies and has lead to the formation of new countries.
11 Feb 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Refugee issues in Macedonia in 1999 Refugee issues in Macedonia in 1999
Shows the concentration of refugees within Macedonia and the locations of refugee centers and camps. The refugee influx put significant stress on Macedonia's weak social infrastructure. With the help of NATO and the international community, Macedonia ultimately was able to accommodate the influx.
11 Feb 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Sites visited in Macedonia by the Task Force (UNEP) Sites visited in Macedonia by the Task Force (UNEP)
The grapic shows all the sites the UNEP Task Force visited in Macedonia. Macedonia is part of the Balkans, bordering on Albania, Bulgaria, former Yugoslavia, Serbia and Greece. The graphic is part of the balkan task force' goal to provide and review information on potential and real environmental impacts, as well as those on human settlements, stemming from the ongoing conflict in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY) and neighbouring countrie...
11 Feb 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Refugees and displaced people from the former Yugoslavia since 1991 Refugees and displaced people from the former Yugoslavia since 1991
All the states that emerged from the break-up of Yugoslavia are still fragile, except Slovenia, which joined the EU in 2004, and Croatia, which is well on the way towards European integration. There have been nearly 800,000 people who have left the former Yugoslavia since 1991.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Ethnic diversity in Kosovo Ethnic diversity in Kosovo
Kosovo, an area that has been a part of Serbia and previously Yugoslavia, has a large mixture of ethnic groups that has kept the area politically unstable for years. The largest groups include Albanians, Serbs, Bosniaks and Gorani with further large pockets of other ethnic groups.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Displaced persons for three Balkan countries, 1994-2004 Displaced persons for three Balkan countries, 1994-2004
The wars gave rise to significant movements of population, some temporary, others permanent. It has proved difficult for refugees and displaced persons to return to their former homes. In Bosnia and Herzegovina, the process is often illusory. Returnees hurry to sell recovered property, particularly when it is located in areas in which the ethnic community to which they belong is now in the minority.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Stephane Kluser, Matthias Beilstein, Ieva Rucevska, Cecile Marin, Otto Simonett
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Political history of the Balkan region Political history of the Balkan region
The west Balkans and the Black Sea region are characterized by numerous common risks and challenges, including fragile statehood, a shared history of violent conflict, unconsolidated democratization and economic underdevelopment. Here is a series of maps that reflect the political landscape of the area from 1878 to 2006.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Stephane Kluser, Matthias Beilstein, Ieva Rucevska, Cecile Marin, Otto Simonett
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Population groups in the Balkan region and Eastern Europe Population groups in the Balkan region and Eastern Europe
The wars in former Yugoslavia sped up the process of ethnic homogenization in the west Balkans since modern states started to take form in the 19th century. In Croatia, for instance, the proportion of Serbs in the overall population has dropped from 12 per cent to just 4 per cent in 10 years.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Le Monde Diplomatique and UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Major oil pipeline projects Major oil pipeline projects
A number of oil pipelines are currently under study or construction in the Balkans: the US registered Albanian-Macedonian-Bulgarian Oil Corporation (AMBO) project will carry oil from the Caspian to the Mediterranean, via Bulgaria, Macedonia and Albania; the Adria Group project will channel Russian oil to the Omisalj terminal on the Croatian coast.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz
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Population displacements 1991 to 2001 Population displacements 1991 to 2001
All the states that emerged from the break-up of Yugoslavia are still fragile, except Slovenia, which joined the EU in 2004, and Croatia, which is well on the way towards European integration. Since the Dayton Peace Agreement (1995), Bosnia and Herzegovina has constituted a state, but split into two entities: the Republic of Srpska and the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, itself divided into 10 cantons.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Forests Affected as Hideouts and Refuges Forests Affected as Hideouts and Refuges
Around the world, conflicts and wars are, directly and indirectly, taking a toll on forests and the communities that rely on them for their livelihood. Dense forests in remote areas provide safe haven for refugees fleeing from conflict, which can result in overexploitation of forest resources.
20 Jun 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz assisted by Cecile Marin, Agnes Stienne, Guilio Frigieri, Riccardo Pravettoni, Laura Margueritte and Marion Lecoquierre.
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