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Tag: Climatology

Climate feedbacks - the connectivity of the positive ice/snow albedo feedback, terrestrial snow and vegetation feedbacks and the negative cloud/radiation feedback
Feedback refers to the modification of a process by changes resulting from the process itself. Positive feedbacks accelerate the process, while negative feedbacks slow it down. Part of the uncertainty around future clima...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
World ocean thermohaline circulation (alternative version)
The global conveyor belt thermohaline circulation is driven primarily by the formation and sinking of deep water (from around 1500m to the Antarctic bottom water overlying the bottom of the ocean) in the Norwegian Sea. W...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Historical trends in carbon dioxide concentrations and temperature, on a geological and recent time scale
The most recent geological history, in the last hundred thousand years, has been characterised by cycles of glaciations, or ice ages. The historic temperatures, through these times, have been low, and continental ice she...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Increases in annual temperatures for a recent five-year period, relative to 1951-1980
Warming is widespread, generally greater over land than over oceans, and the largest gains in temperatures for the planet are over the North American Arctic, north central Siberia, and on the Antarctic Peninsula. These r...
18 Apr 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Estimated contributions to sea-level rise (1993-2003)
The two main reasons for sea-level rise are thermal expansion of ocean waters as they warm, and increase in the ocean mass, principally from land-based sources of ice (glaciers and ice caps, and the ice sheets of Greenla...
01 Oct 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Projected temperatures in the 21th century
Projected Arctic annual land temperature increases for the first half of the 21st century relative to the average temperature for 1980–99. The average of the IPCC models (the blue line) shows an increase of 3ºC by 2050. ...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Change in the age of ice on the Arctic Ocean, comparing September ice ages in 1988, 1990, 2001 and 2005
The age of sea ice in the Arctic is changing, and not only the extent and concentrations. Studies show that in recent years there is a higher proportion of younger ice to older ice than was observed in the late 1980s. Th...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Trends in Arctic temperature, 1880-2006
A history of Arctic land temperature anomalies from 1880 through 2006 is shown in this figure. The zero line represents the average temperature for 1961–1990. In the late 1800s the Arctic was relatively cold, although t...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Trends in sea level, 1870-2006
Coastal and island tide-gauge data show that sea level rose by just under 20 cm between 1870 and 2001, with an average rise of 1.7 mm per year during the 20th century and with an increase in the rate of rise over this pe...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Schematic diagram of glacier, permafrost and forest limits as a function of mean annual air temperature and average annual precipitation
Glaciers and ice caps form around the world where snow deposited during the cold/humid season does not entirely melt during warm/dry times. This seasonal snow gradually becomes denser and transforms into perennial firn (...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Projected sea-level rise for the 21st century
The projected range of global averaged sea-level rise from the IPCC 2001 Assessment Report for the period 1990 to 2100 is shown by the lines and shading. The updated AR4 IPCC projections made are shown by the bars plotte...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
World ocean thermohaline circulation
The global conveyor belt thermohaline circulation is driven primarily by the formation and sinking of deep water (from around 1500m to the Antarctic bottom water overlying the bottom of the ocean) in the Norwegian Sea. W...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Effects of sea-level rise on water resources of small islands and low-lying coastal areas
The water resources of small islands and low-lying coastal areas are very susceptible to sea-level rise. This figure illustrates the direct impacts on the water resources sector, as well as the plethora of higher-order i...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Annual snowfall pattern for a typical mountain environment, Columbine Pass, Colorado 1971-2000
Mountain snow cover typically develops in the autumn and grows to a maximum depth in early spring. As day length and sun angles increase, so do air temperatures, causing snow cover to warm and begin to melt. Snow cover ...
01 Oct 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Overview on glacier changes since the end of the Little Ice Age
Glaciers and ice caps reached their Holocene (the past 10 000 years) maximum extent in most mountain ranges throughout the world towards the end of the Little Ice Age, between the 17th and mid-19th century. Over the past...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Arctic temperature anomaly patterns
Natural climate variability is organized into spatial patterns of high and low pressure regions, represented by the Arctic Oscillation (also called the Northern Annular Mode) and North Pacific patterns in the Northern...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Permafrost extent in the Northern Hemisphere
Permafrost zones occupy up to 24 per cent of the exposed land area of the Northern Hemisphere. Permafrost is also common within the vast continental shelves of the Arctic Ocean. This subsea permafrost formed during the l...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Arctic temperatures in the 20th century, modeled and observed
Observed Arctic winter land temperatures and IPCC model recreations for the 20th century. Note that although these model runs are able to capture the range of Arctic warm and cold periods, the timing of the peaks varies,...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Increases in annual temperatures for a recent five-year period, relative to 1951-1980
Warming is widespread, generally greater over land than over oceans, and the largest gains in temperatures for the planet are over the North American Arctic, north central Siberia, and on the Antarctic Peninsula. These r...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Trends in Arctic sea-ice extent in March (maximum) and September (minimum) in the time period of 1979–2006
For the Northern Hemisphere (primarily the Arctic), observations using remote sensing technologies have been used to measure the extent and the to assess the development. Despite considerable year-to-year variability, si...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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