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Forest conservation and sustainable management initiatives Forest conservation and sustainable management initiatives
In November 2009, in an attempt to preserve the forests and slow deforestation, the Governments of Guyana and Norway signed a memorandum of understanding for cooperation on issues related to combating climate change, protecting biodiversity and improving sustainable development, with a particular focus on reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in the framework of REDD-plus. Within the region, Panama, the Plurinational State ...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Global emissions of carbon dioxide, 2006 Global emissions of carbon dioxide, 2006
The region of Latin America and the Caribbean is highly vulnerable to climate change despite the fact that it contributes relatively little to global greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in 2006 (excluding those associated with land use changes) amounted to 38,754 million of metric tons of CO2 equivalent (MtCO2-e), with Mexico and Brazil being the main emitters in the region (WRI, 2010). The importance of Latin Am...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Retreat of seven Andean glaciers Retreat of seven Andean glaciers
The seven Andean glaciers Antizana 15a and Antizana 15b in Ecuador, and Broggi, Uruashraju, Yanamarey, Cajap and Pastoruri in Peru have shown a substantial retreat since the 1970s and this is a clear indication of how climate change is affecting the region.
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Index of biodiversity potential in Central America Index of biodiversity potential in Central America
Biodiversity is vitally important to human well-being as it provides ecosystem services on which humans depend. For many species that are sensitive to even small variations in climate, their primary threat is climate change. Variations in climate affect different species of flora and fauna differently, producing, in some cases, a disruption in food chains and/or in reproductive patterns. It is therefore necessary to reduce or control greenhouse g...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Greenhouse gas emissions scenarios and surface temperature projections Greenhouse gas emissions scenarios and surface temperature projections
Climate change manifests itself primarily through a gradual increase in the average temperatures of the earth’s surface, alterations in precipitation patterns, changes in the intensity and/or frequency of extreme climatic events, a slow but significant reduction in the cryosphere (including glaciers) and a rise in sea levels. Available scientific evidence associates the phenomenon of climate change with increased concentrations of anthropogenic g...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Rapid decline of the San Quintin glacier, Northern Patagonia Rapid decline of the San Quintin glacier, Northern Patagonia
Glaciers grow and retreat at intervals depending on changes in local climate, and local variations in temperature and precipitation play a particularly important role in this. Retreating and diminishing mountain glaciers all over the world, except in the Antarctica, indicate a general trend of global warming. In addition to its rapid decrease in size, the San Quintín glacier located in North Patagonia, Chile, has also been exhibiting cracks and f...
22 Nov 2010 - by Viktor Novikov, Zoï Environment
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Change in sea level as a result of changes in ocean density and circulation Change in sea level as a result of changes in ocean density and circulation
Changes in sea levels resulting exclusively from changes in ocean density and circulation patterns, results of atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCM) for climate change scenario A1B (this scenario assumes future rapid demographic and economic growth, introduction of new and more efficient technologies, accompanied by a balanced use of all types of energy sources) show that there will be significant spatial variability, i.e., changes ...
01 Oct 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Latin America greenhouse gas emitters by sector Latin America greenhouse gas emitters by sector
According to reports from the region’s countries, contained in national communications to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the main sources of greenhouse gas emissions relate to changes in land use, forestry, agriculture and energy consumption. Brazil stands out as the highest emitter of greenhouse gasses caused by land use changes, accounting for more than 800,000 metric tons of CO2 equivalent. The importance of agricul...
22 Nov 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Expected impacts of climate change in 2050 Expected impacts of climate change in 2050
It is expected that by 2050 there will be threats to ecosystem services in the Andes and Mexico, in the Central American and Caribbean sub-regions, and in southeastern Brazil, while there will be negative effects on fishing in the Pacific coastal areas of Peru and Chile. The decrease in precipitation will have adverse effects on agricultural yields in several regions and countries throughout the continent. Particularly noteworthy within Latin Ame...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Retreat of tropical glaciers Retreat of tropical glaciers
The retreat of glaciers is a clear indication of how climate change is affecting the Latin American region. The Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador show evidence of reductions in the size of their glaciers. In Peru and the Plurinational State of Bolivia, the shrinkage of their glaciers, compared to 1970 and 1975, is even more striking. Since 1970 there has been a substantial reduction in the surface area of the smaller glacier...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Chacaltaya glacier Chacaltaya glacier
The retreat of glaciers is a clear indication of climate change in Latin America. Since the mid-1990s, the Chacaltaya glacier in the Plurinational State of Bolivia has lost half of its surface area and two thirds of its volume, endangering the long-term sustainability of the glacier (Francou et. al. 2003).
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Hydrometeorological events in Latin America and the Caribbean Hydrometeorological events in Latin America and the Caribbean
Latin America and the Caribbean has seen a recent increase in extreme climatic events, and with it a rise in the number of people affected. The number of storms between 2000 and 2009 increased by 12 compared to the period between 1970 and 1979. In this same time period, floods quadrupled. The number of people affected by extreme temperatures, forest fires, droughts, storms and floods grew from 5 million in the 1970s to more than 40 million in the...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Estimated deaths attributable to climate change, 2000 Estimated deaths attributable to climate change, 2000
The extent to which mortality is attributable to climate change remains a matter of intense debate. Data from the World Health Organization (WHO) for 2000 indicate that, in Latin America and the Caribbean, there were between 2 and 40 deaths per million inhabitants from floods, malaria and diarrhoea. In terms of regions, the most severe health effects have been in Africa, though significant effects are also being felt in Latin America and in certa...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Official Development Assistance Official Development Assistance
In addition to funds specifically for CDM projects, another source of funds for developing countries facing climate change are those designated as Official Development Assistance (ODA). Between 2000 and 2007, the region of Latin America and the Caribbean received 8.5% of these funds. One category of these resources is directed at providing development assistance that targets the objectives of the three Rio Conventions: the United Nations Conventi...
22 Nov 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Summary of climate change patterns projected for 2100 in Latin America and the Caribbean Summary of climate change patterns projected for 2100 in Latin America and the Caribbean
Regional climate change patterns projected for the end of the century indicate that the Central American and Caribbean sub-regions will experience an increase in the intensity of hurricanes, along with a reduction in precipitation and a corresponding series of droughts. In Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, the Plurinational State of Bolivia, Chile and Argentina, glaciers will continue to shrink, while countries with coasts on the Pacific and Atlantic Ocea...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Mean changes in runoff Mean changes in runoff
Changes in precipitation and temperature influence changes in runoff and the availability of water. Results from models of changes in runoff are consistent with predictions for precipitation. For 2090-2099, in areas for which increases in the rainfall regimen are expected, increases in runoff are also projected. The anticipated changes in runoff are based on the A1B climate change scenario which assumes future rapid demographic and economic growt...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Warming of the earth's surface Warming of the earth's surface
Climate projections for Latin America and the Caribbean indicate that temperature increases will vary according to the particular emissions scenario and country or region concerned. According to the A1B climate change scenario (this scenario assumes future rapid demographic and economic growth, introduction of new and more efficient technologies, accompanied by a balanced use of all types of energy sources) regional increases this century are pro...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Trends in regional average surface temperatures Trends in regional average surface temperatures
Latin America and the Caribbean follows the global trend of recent increases in temperatures. Observational records show that the region, with a few variations, has been warming through the 20th century. As in the rest of the world, the average temperature increased gradually from early 1900s except a somewhat cooler period in the 1960s and 1970s. In the 1980s the temperature again started to increase and has continued to increase until today, ...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Population distribution in the circumpolar Arctic, by country (including indigenous population) Population distribution in the circumpolar Arctic, by country (including indigenous population)
The Arctic represents one of the most desolate and sparsely populated areas in the World, with few economic opporunities and inhostile climate. This map - based on the Arctic Human Development Report (AHDR) definition of the Arctic, presents the distribution by country. Note that except for Greenland and Northern Canada, indigenous peoples form a minority, though they can form the majority in local communities. They are therefore particularly vul...
17 May 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Projected changes in the Arctic climate, 2090 Projected changes in the Arctic climate, 2090
The averages of the scenarios in the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA) are presented in this figure, for the year 2090, with the surface temperatures over land, the size of the polar ice cap, and the outer limits of permafrost.
17 May 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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