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Taxation system in eastern DR Congo conflict zone - CNDP taxation on local resources Taxation system in eastern DR Congo conflict zone - CNDP taxation on local resources
Militias, as here from DRC, put considerable emphasis upon controlling entrance roads to cities and the road network, as well as ports, in order to tax any good passing. Here, charcoal, being the primary energy supply to cities and thus abundant in large volumes, automatically becomes a significant source of income to militias.
19 Jun 2014 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID Arendal
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Illegal charcoal trade in eastern DR Congo Illegal charcoal trade in eastern DR Congo
The illicit charcoal trade in eastern DRC, but also into Uganda, Rwanda and Tanzania, is a significant income to criminals and militias. Militias in DRC are estimated to make 14–50 million USD annually on road taxes (2001 figures, see UNSC, 2001 and UNEP-INTERPOL, 2012).
19 Jun 2014 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID Arendal
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The charcoal supply chain The charcoal supply chain
With current urbanization trends, households are switching from wood fuel to the affordable, convenient and readily accessible charcoal. Wood fuel and charcoal account for up to 90% of the household energy consumption in some countries, in Africa in particular. There exists today a vast illicit, unregulated trade in charcoal, in addition to the legal trade, which provides substantial funds for non-state armed groups.
19 Jun 2014 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID Arendal
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Charcoal business in Virunga area Charcoal business in Virunga area
The multitude of military groups operating in this region makes Virunga one of the most dangerous parks in the DRC. The charcoal trade is one of many lucrative illicit trades in the park, which also include timber extraction, gold mining, and marijuana cultivation.
19 Jun 2014 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID Arendal
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The illegal charcoal trade controlled by Al Shabaab The illegal charcoal trade controlled by Al Shabaab
Al Shabaab’s main income appears to be from charcoal, and taxing of other commodities, as well as possibly ex-pat finance. At a single roadblock they have been able to make up to USD 8–18 million per year for taxing passing charcoal traffic in Badhaadhe District, Lower Juba Region. Al Shabaab retains about one third of the income, which alone constitutes about USD 38–56 million. The overall size of the illicit charcoal export from Somalia has b...
19 Jun 2014 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID Arendal
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Wood charcoal production in Africa Wood charcoal production in Africa
In Africa 90% of wood consumed is estimated used for woodfuel and charcoal (East Africa 94%, North Africa 96%, Central Africa 87%, South Africa 49%, West Africa 92%). Africa has an official charcoal production of 30.6 million tons in 2012, worth approximately USD 6.1–24.5 billion annually at the point of sale.
19 Jun 2014 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID Arendal
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Population growth in Sub-Saharan and Central Africa Population growth in Sub-Saharan and Central Africa
Current population projections by UN’s Population Division suggest an increase from ca. 0.9 billion today to 2.1 billion people by 2050 in Sub-Saharan Africa. The UN further estimates the urbanization in Sub-Saharan Africa, currently at 38 percent, to increase to 56.5 percent in 2050. Among the many environmental effects of this increase in populations, as well as urbanization, is the impact on the continents forests as the relative use of charco...
19 Jun 2014 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID Arendal
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