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Temperature and precipitation in the Caspian Sea Region
The Caspian Sea region is climatically diverse encompassing the basins of the Volga and Ural rivers in the North, the vast semi-arid and hot arid plains of northern Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan in the east, and the hu...
07 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
Changing Caspian
The Caspian Sea has been endoreic – inwardly draining – since the Pliocene era (about 5 million years ago), prompting some specialists to treat it as the world’s largest lake. Studies of its geomorphology and hydrolog...
05 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
Annual discharge into the Caspian Sea
Most of the water flowing into the sea comes from coastal rivers – currently supplying 300 to 310 km3 a year. The Volga alone accounts for 80% of inflow. But it has dropped substantially during the 20th century, declini...
06 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
Caspian coastline vulnerable to flooding
Uncertainty regarding future variations in the sea level is holding back the development of many coastal zones suitable for holiday amenities or the construction of ports. But stretches of the Caspian coast are alread...
07 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
Regional land degradation
Climate change has increased the frequency and intensity of weather-related events and natural disasters such as floods, droughts, landslides, avalanches, debris flows and mud flows. For example, in the last 30 years ...
07 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
Selected impacts of climate change in the Caspian basin
Several severe droughts have affected various parts of the region in recent years. They seem to confirm scientific models, which, in addition to higher mean temperatures, generally predict more extreme weather events....
07 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Transportation projects converging on the Caspian
The oil boom has changed the way the Caspian Sea is used as a transport route. In the absence of an agreement on the use of the seabed, including the laying of pipelines, crude oil is transported in tanker wagons roll...
07 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
The Caspian Sea: neighbours and players
The surge in the exploitation of hydrocarbons in the Caspian region has changed the rules for development and engagement in many sectors, in particular oil, land and sea transport, and services. National interests mul...
05 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
Markets competing for Caspian oil and gas
For many years, coastal navigation has connected republics in the former Soviet Union. It used the only outlet from the Caspian, the Volga-Don canal, which connects the Black Sea and the Russian canal system to the B...
07 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
Human Development Index (HDI) composition for the Caspian countries compared with Norway (ranked first in 2007)
The characteristic feature in all four post-Soviet countries is a relatively high level of education in relation to national income and rather low life expectancy, indicating high levels of poverty and deficient healthc...
05 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
Gross National Income (GNI) in Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) per capita
Purchasing power parity (PPP) measures how much a currency can buy in terms of an international benchmark (usually dollars), since the cost of goods and services differs between countries. PPP is below the value of a US ...
01 Oct 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
Share of food in total household expenses
In the 1990s following the collapse of the Soviet regime and massive market deregulation, the breakdown of total household expenditure radically changed. Its focus shifted towards basic human needs, such as food, for whi...
05 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
Caspian basin
The Caspian Sea runs north and south, extending over 1 200 kilometres, with an average width of 320 kilometres, with 7 000 km coastline. It covers approximately 400 000 square kilometres (an area slightly larger than Ge...
05 Mar 2012 - by IEVA RUCEVSKA AND PHILIPPE REKACEWICZ
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01 Mar 2012 - by GRID-Arendal
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01 Mar 2012 - by GRID-Arendal
North Caspian giant oilfields
The giant Kashagan offshore field was discovered in July 2000, 80 kilometres south of Atyrau. It is the largest Caspian offshore field and one of the largest fields discovered anywhere in the world in the past 30 year...
07 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
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01 Mar 2012 - by GRID-Arendal
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01 Mar 2012 - by GRID-Arendal
Turkmenistan, topographic map
Turkmenistan is located in Central Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran and Kazakhstan, comprising of 488,100 sq km. It has a population of 4,952,081 (2005). Major environmental concerns are: contamination of so...
06 Nov 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Kazakhstan, topographic map
Kazakhstan is located in Central Asia, northwest of China; a small portion west of the Ural River in eastern-most Europe, comprising of 2,717,300 sq km. It has a population of 15,185,844 (2005). Major environmental conce...
03 Oct 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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