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Temperature and CO2 concentration in the atmosphere over the past 400 000 years Temperature and CO2 concentration in the atmosphere over the past 400 000 years
Over the last 400,000 years the Earth's climate has been unstable, with very significant temperature changes, going from a warm climate to an ice age in as rapidly as a few decades. These rapid changes suggest that climate may be quite sensitive to internal or external climate forcings and feedbacks. This figures have been derived from the Vostok ice core, taken in Antarctica.
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Emissions of carbon dioxide, in Africa and selected OECD countries Emissions of carbon dioxide, in Africa and selected OECD countries
Africa represents only a small fraction, 3.6%, out of the total carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per year, yet 14% of the population of the world lives here. The emissions per inhabitant in Libya, the Seychelles and South Africa are on the level of the lowest among OECD countries with the other African countries trailing lower behind them. Regionally, emissions (both per capita and in total) are at their highest in North Africa and in the country o...
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Past and future CO2 concentrations Past and future CO2 concentrations
Since pre-industrial times, the atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases has grown significantly. Carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration has increased by about 31%, methane concentration by about 150%, and nitrous oxide concentration by about 16% (Watson et al 2001). The present level of carbon dioxide concentration (around 375 parts per million) is the highest for 420,000 years, and probably the highest for the past 20 million years.
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Kyoto protocol, timeline and history Kyoto protocol, timeline and history
The Kyoto Protocol In 1997 world leaders adopted the Kyoto Protocol requiring rich countries to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions to 5.2% below the 1990 level, calculated as an average over the period 2008-2012. Under the Kyoto Protocol the rich countries have different targets, that in sum adds up to a reduction of 5.2%. For example, the European Union aims for an 8% cut in total, Germany committed to a 21% cut and the United Kingdom to 12.5...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Carbon cycle Carbon cycle
Carbon is the basis of all organic substances, from fossil fuels to human cells. On Earth, carbon is continually on the move – cycling through living things, the land, ocean, atmosphere. What happens when humans start driving the carbon cycle? We have seen that we can make a serious impact – rapidly raising the level of carbon in the atmosphere. But we really have no idea what we are doing. At the moment we don’t even know what happens to all the...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Temperature and CO2 concentration in the atmosphere over the past 400 000 years Temperature and CO2 concentration in the atmosphere over the past 400 000 years
Over the last 400,000 years the Earth's climate has been unstable, with very significant temperature changes, going from a warm climate to an ice age in as rapidly as a few decades. These rapid changes suggest that climate may be quite sensitive to internal or external climate forcings and feedbacks. This figures have been derived from the Vostok ice core, taken in Antarctica.
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
5
Main greenhouse gases Main greenhouse gases
A table of the main greenhouse gases and their attributes, sources and concentration levels from 1998. Naturally occurring greenhouse gases include water vapour, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone. Greenhouse gases that are not naturally occurring include hydro-fl uorocarbons (HFCs), perfl uorocarbons (PFCs), and sulphur hexafl uoride (SF6), which are generated in a variety of industrial processes. Water vapour is the most abunda...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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National carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per capita National carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per capita
Shows various countries and their levels of CO2 emissions per capita. Also indicates the difference from high income to low income nations on CO2 output. Central to any study of climate change is the development of an emissions inventory that identifies and quantifies a country’s primary anthropogenic sources and sinks of greenhouse gas. Emissions are not usually monitored directly, but are generally estimated using models. Some emissions can b...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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CO2 concentration in the atmosphere (1959-1998) CO2 concentration in the atmosphere (1959-1998)
CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere have been measured at an altitude of about 4,000 meters on the peak of Mauna Loa mountain in Hawaii since 1958. The measurements at this location, remote from local sources of pollution, have clearly shown that atmospheric concentrations of CO2 are increasing. The mean concentration of approximately 316 parts per million by volume (ppmv) in 1958 rose to approximately 369 ppmv in 1998. The annual variation is d...
12 Feb 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Human influences on the atmosphere during the industrial era Human influences on the atmosphere during the industrial era
In many of the world’s largest cities (Beijing, Calcutta, Mexico City, Rio de Janeiro, etc.) WHO World Health Organization) air quality guidelines are not met. In 1996 global emissions of carbon dioxide were nearly four times the 1950 total.
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Total carbon market value per year Total carbon market value per year
The total value of the carbon market for 2003 topped $300 million. And, depending on international regulation, some observers project that it will increase to $10–40 billion by 2010. Markets are also being created for more diverse commodities ranging from aquifer recharge credits, renewable energy credits, wasteload allocations for point and non-point source pollutants, and mitigation credits for wetlands, biodiversity, and riparian buffer zones.
01 Oct 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Characteristic time and space scales related to ecosystems and their services Characteristic time and space scales related to ecosystems and their services
The time scale of change refers to the time required for the effects of a perturbation of a process to be expressed. Inertia refers to the delay or slowness in the response of a system to factors altering their rate of change, including continuation of change in the system after the cause of that change has been removed.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by source, 2004 Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by source, 2004
Overall, agriculture (cropping and livestock) contributes 13.5 % of global greenhouse gas emissions mostly through emissions of methane and nitrous oxide (about 47% and 58% of total anthropogenic emissions of CH4 and N2O, respectively). The largest producer is power generation at 25.9% followed by industry with 19.4%.
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Projected impact of climate change Projected impact of climate change
Future climate change and projected impacts: Increased growth and yield rates due to higher levels of carbon dioxide and temperatures could result in longer growing seasons. For example, in mid to high latitude regions, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report moderate local increases in temperature (1-2ºC) can have small beneficial impacts on crop yields.
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Historical trends in carbon dioxide concentrations and temperature Historical trends in carbon dioxide concentrations and temperature
The more recent history, from the middle ages and up until now, show increasing temperatures, rising as the world emerged from the Little Ice Age (LIA), around 1850. With the industrial era, human activities have at the same time increased the level of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere, primarily through the burning of fossil fuels. Carbon dioxide is one of the main greenhouse gases, and scientists have been able to connect human activities ...
31 Jul 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Carbon cycle Carbon cycle
Living systems play a vital role in the carbon cycle. Photosynthesising organisms – mostly plants on land and various kinds of algae and bacteria in the sea – use either atmospheric carbon dioxide or that dissolved in sea water as the basis for the complex organic carbon compounds that are essential for life.
27 May 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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The vicious cycle of depletion The vicious cycle of depletion
Agricultural systems in the temperate zone tend to occupy fertile soils that would have formerly supported temperate grassland or forest. Land clearance for croplands and pasture has greatly reduced above ground carbon stocks from their original state and soil carbon stocks are also often depleted as tillage disrupts the soil, opening it to decomposer organisms and generating aerobic conditions that stimulate respiration and release of carb...
27 May 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Uptake of Carbon Dioxide from the Atmosphere Uptake of Carbon Dioxide from the Atmosphere
Atmosphere-ocean exchanges of carbon.
27 Oct 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Global emissions of carbon dioxide, 2006 Global emissions of carbon dioxide, 2006
The region of Latin America and the Caribbean is highly vulnerable to climate change despite the fact that it contributes relatively little to global greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in 2006 (excluding those associated with land use changes) amounted to 38,754 million of metric tons of CO2 equivalent (MtCO2-e), with Mexico and Brazil being the main emitters in the region (WRI, 2010). The importance of Latin Am...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Greenhouse gas emissions, 2005 (includes land use change) Greenhouse gas emissions, 2005 (includes land use change)
The disaggregation of emissions by type of gas makes clear the domination of carbon dioxide (CO2), both globally and at the regional level. On a country basis, the five top emitters in the world are China and the United States, followed by Russia and Japan. The fifth top emitter is Brazil, when greenhouse gas emission associated with land use change is taken into account.
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Assosciate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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