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Murre sensitivity to changes in temperature Murre sensitivity to changes in temperature
Annual rates of population change of individual murre colonies during 12 years after the 1977 climatic regime shift in the North Pacific and during 9 years after the 1989 shift, in relation to changes in sea surface temperatures around the colonies from one decadal regime to the next. Population data are from 32 U. aalge and 21 U. lomvia colonies, encompassing the entire circumpolar region. Ten sites supported both species, so 43 different study...
17 Mar 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, GRID-Arendal & CAFF
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Trends in Arctic murre populations Trends in Arctic murre populations
The two species of murres (known as guillemots in Europe), the thick-billed murre, Uria lomvia, and common murre, Uria aalge, both have circumpolar distributions, breeding in Arctic, sub-Arctic, and temperate seas from California and northern Spain to northern Greenland, high Arctic Canada, Svalbard, and Novaya Zemlya. The thick-billed murre occurs mostly in Arctic waters, while the common murre, although overlapping extensively with the thick-bi...
17 Mar 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, GRID-Arendal & CAFF
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Distribution of common eider, breeding and wintering ranges in the Arctic Distribution of common eider, breeding and wintering ranges in the Arctic
The common eider, Somateria mollissima, has a circumpolar distribution breeding mainly on small islands in Arctic and boreal marine areas in Alaska (Bering Sea region), Canada, Greenland, Iceland, western Europe, and the Barents Sea region. In Russia, there is a gap in distribution along the mainland coast from the Yugorski Peninsula (Kara Sea) to Chaunskaya Bay in east Siberia (Figure 5.1). Important wintering areas include the Gulf of Alaska/Be...
17 Mar 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, GRID-Arendal & CAFF
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Arctic sea ice food web - schematic illustration Arctic sea ice food web - schematic illustration
Sea ice represents a unique ecosystem in the Arctic, providing habitat to specialized iceassociated species that include microorganisms, fish, birds, and marine mammals. Individual species use sea ice in different ways depending on their biological needs. Ice algae form the base of the food web. Some algae stay attached to the bottom of the ice, some fall into the water column, and some fall to the bottom of the sea, and so provide food for speci...
17 Mar 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, GRID-Arendal & CAFF
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Ice coverage and primary production in the Arctic Ice coverage and primary production in the Arctic
Temperature changes may influence fish populations both directly, through shifts to areas with preferred temperature, and indirectly through the food supply and the occurrence of predators. The length of the ice-free period in the Arctic, for example, affects annual primary production, which is the basis of the food chain supporting populations of fish, sea mammals, and seabirds. As the amount of ice in the Arctic has considerably reduced since t...
17 Mar 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, GRID-Arendal & CAFF
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Protected Areas in the Arctic by IUCN category Protected Areas in the Arctic by IUCN category
Protected areas have long been viewed as a key element for maintaining and conserving Arctic biodiversity and the functioning landscapes upon which species depend. Arctic protected areas have been established in strategically important and representative areas, helping to maintain crucial ecological features, e.g., caribou migration and calving areas, shorebird and waterfowl staging and nesting sites, seabird colonies, and critical components of ...
17 Mar 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, GRID-Arendal & CAFF
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Distribution and trends of wild Rangifer in the Arctic Distribution and trends of wild Rangifer in the Arctic
Distribution and observed trends of wild Rangifer populations throughout the circumpolar Arctic (from The Circum Arctic Rangifer Monitoring and Assessment Network, CARMA). Note: Wild boreal forest reindeer have not been mapped by CARMA and thus are not represented here. Currently wild reindeer and caribou have declined by about 33% since populations (herds) peaked in the 1990s and early 2000s (3.8 million compared to 5.6 million) which followed ...
17 Mar 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, GRID-Arendal & CAFF
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Arctic char species complex, distribution map Arctic char species complex, distribution map
The Arctic char species complex, sensu stricto, represent a key component of the marine and freshwater ecosystems of the north. Chars are stressed by factors such as fisheries, climate change and pollutants. We are possibly altering char biodiversity without documenting it and understanding its relevance. Concerted pan-Arctic biodiversity assessments, sustained research, and coordinated monitoring of chars are required to outline the scope of div...
17 Mar 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, GRID-Arendal & CAFF
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Location of datasets in the Arctic Species Trend Index (ASTI) Location of datasets in the Arctic Species Trend Index (ASTI)
Dramatic changes, such as sea ice loss, are projected to occur in Arctic ecosystems over the next century. Understanding how the Arctic’s living resources, including its vertebrate species, are responding to these changes is essential in order to develop effective conservation and adaptation strategies. Arctic species that are adapted to these extreme environments are expected to be displaced, in part, by the encroachment of more southerly specie...
17 Mar 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, GRID-Arendal & CAFF
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Red Knot, distribution, breeding areas and migratory routes, by subspecies Red Knot, distribution, breeding areas and migratory routes, by subspecies
The red knot, Calidris canutus, is an example of a longdistance migratory shorebird. It has been the subject of extensive research worldwide including studies on its breeding cycle, winter ecology, and stopover sites. It is a typical representative of high Arctic shorebirds and is, therefore, a good indicator species for the whole group. As one of nature’s most prodigious travelers, it excites the interest of wildlife enthusiasts, scientists, and...
17 Mar 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, GRID-Arendal & CAFF
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The Arctic and the World - migration paths The Arctic and the World - migration paths
The Arctic plays host to a vast array of biodiversity, including many globally significant populations. Included among these are more than half of the world´s shorebird species, 80% of the global goose populations, several million reindeer and caribou, and many unique mammals, such as the polar bear. During the short summer breeding season, 279 species of birds arrive from as far away as South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, and South America to ...
17 Mar 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, GRID-Arendal & CAFF
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Arctic conservation area (CAFF), topographic map, ABA version (2010) Arctic conservation area (CAFF), topographic map, ABA version (2010)
The Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna is a working group under the Arctic Council, for the countries of Russia, Denmark, USA, Canada, Sweden, Iceland, Norway and Finland and indigenous peoples. Monitoring, assessment, protected areas and conservation strategies are all tasks under this working group. The area that the working group primarily addresses is presented in this map.
17 Mar 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, GRID-Arendal & CAFF
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Advancement of phenological events in high-arctic Greenland Advancement of phenological events in high-arctic Greenland
It is clear from lower latitudes that phenological trends are linked to temperature changes and experimental warming also results in earlier plant phenology. Yet, in Arctic and alpine ecosystems, the melting of the winter snow pack rather than temperature per se determines the onset of biological activity like the timing of flowering in plants and emergence in invertebrates. As such, the phenology of these groups of organisms, or taxa, could be a...
17 Mar 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, GRID-Arendal & CAFF
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Reindeer herding - vegetation impacts (Norway and Finland) Reindeer herding - vegetation impacts (Norway and Finland)
A very high-resolution false color Ikonos-2 satellite image of Jauristunturit in the border zone shared by Norway and Finland. Image acquired 28 June 2001. The main vegetation type is lichen dominated tundra heath with dwarf shrubs. The difference in whiteness is due to lichen coverage, and the national border with reindeer fence visibly divides the area. The northern portion is Norway, where fruticose lichen coverage is higher. This is a consequ...
17 Mar 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, GRID-Arendal & CAFF
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Wild food harvests in Alaska by area, 1990s Wild food harvests in Alaska by area, 1990s
The harvest of natural resources is a key feature of traditional lifestyles and economies throughout the Arctic, and a continuing reliance on it as a mainstay of indigenous existence in the north is evident. In Alaska, wild food harvests vary considerably by geographic area. The total harvest has been estimated at about 43.7 million pounds (approximately 19.8 million kg) of wild resources, an average of about 375 pounds (170 kg) per capita. This ...
17 Mar 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, GRID-Arendal & CAFF
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Disappearing Arctic lakes - examples in Siberian lakes, 1973 to 1997 Disappearing Arctic lakes - examples in Siberian lakes, 1973 to 1997
The Arctic contains a variety of types of lakes but overall, it is thermokarst lakes and ponds that are the most abundant and productive aquatic ecosystems in the Arctic. They are found extensively in the lowland regions of western and northern Alaska, Canada and Siberia. These (i.e., thaw) lakes are most commonly formed by the thaw of ice-rich permafrost, which leads to the collapse of ground levels and ponding of surface water in the depression...
17 Mar 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, GRID-Arendal & CAFF
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Murre colonies in the Arctic Murre colonies in the Arctic
The two species of murres (known as guillemots in Europe), the thick-billed murre, Uria lomvia, and common murre, Uria aalge, both have circumpolar distributions, breeding in Arctic, sub-Arctic, and temperate seas from California and northern Spain to northern Greenland, high Arctic Canada, Svalbard, and Novaya Zemlya. The thick-billed murre occurs mostly in Arctic waters, while the common murre, although overlapping extensively with the thick-bi...
17 Mar 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, GRID-Arendal & CAFF
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Trends in Arctic vegetation productivity 1982-2005 (Greening of the Arctic) Trends in Arctic vegetation productivity 1982-2005 (Greening of the Arctic)
Arctic vegetation has undergone enormous change in the past, most notably in response to the glacial and interglacial periods of the Quaternary. Data from many sources and at several scales suggest that recent climate change is already affecting terrestrial Arctic ecosystems. Comparisons of historical and contemporary aerial photographs provide evidence that Arctic vegetation has already undergone significant shifts in recent decades, foreshadowi...
17 Mar 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, GRID-Arendal & CAFF
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Trends in speakers of Arctic indigenous languages (1989-2006) Trends in speakers of Arctic indigenous languages (1989-2006)
Language not only communicates, it defines culture, nature, history, humanity, and ancestry. The indigenous languages of the Arctic have been formed and shaped in close contact with their environment. They are a valuable source of information and a wealth of knowledge on human interactions with nature is encoded in these languages. If a language is lost, a world is lost. This deep knowledge and interconnectedness is expressed in Arctic song, subs...
17 Mar 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, GRID-Arendal & CAFF
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Simulated projections for Polar cod distribution with global warming Simulated projections for Polar cod distribution with global warming
Polar cod (Boreogadus saida) was found to be sensitive to the warming scenarios and the model predicted that it would be extirpated in most of its range even under the milder warming scenario. This is due to its occurrence in the Arctic Ocean, which largely precludes it from moving northwards. Polar cod was predicted to be extirpated around Greenland and its abundance was largely reduced in other parts of the Arctic Ocean after 30 years of hypot...
17 Mar 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, GRID-Arendal & CAFF
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