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Effects on Public Health - Air Pollution, a Preventable Risk Effects on Public Health - Air Pollution, a Preventable Risk
SLCPs, particularly O3 and BC and co-pollutants, which are important parts of PM2.5 air pollution, are harmful to human health. Globally, PM2.5 is a major global cause of premature mortality. Indoor and outdoor PM2.5 air pollution are the fourth and seventh leading risk factors for early mortality globally. In 2010 indoor and ambient outdoor particulate matter pollution were estimated to have caused over 3.5 and 3.2 million premature deaths respe...
19 Jun 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
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Global Ocean Acidification Global Ocean Acidification
As carbon concentrations in the atmosphere increase, so do concentrations in the ocean, with resultant acidification as a natural chemical process.
06 Oct 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Uptake of Carbon Dioxide from the Atmosphere Uptake of Carbon Dioxide from the Atmosphere
Arctic marine systems currently provide a substantial carbon sink but the continuation of this service depends critically on arctic climate change impacts on ice, freshwater inputs, and ocean acidification.
27 Oct 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Transport SO2 emissions Transport SO2 emissions
Graphics from the year 2000 Baltic 21 biannual indicator-based status report on sustainable development in the Baltic Sea Region (Baltic 21 Series No 1/2000). This graphic shows transport SO2 emissions from 1990 to 1998 in Baltic countries.
10 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Transport CO2 emissions Transport CO2 emissions
Graphics from the year 2000 Baltic 21 biannual indicator-based status report on sustainable development in the Baltic Sea Region (Baltic 21 Series No 1/2000). This graphic shows transport CO2 emissions from 1990 to 1998 in Baltic countries.
10 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Global atmospheric concentration of CO2 (outtake) Global atmospheric concentration of CO2 (outtake)
Chart showing the increase in CO2 levels in the atmosphere from 1870 to 2004 and predicted levels to the year 2100. Historically the developed countries of the world have emitted most of the anthropogenic greenhouse gases. The U.S. emits most in total, and is one of the countries with highest emissions per capita. China is the second largest emitter, but has very low emissions per capita. Over the last 20 years, industrial development has led to...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Mitigating climate change: cost in 2050 (out of GDP) Mitigating climate change: cost in 2050 (out of GDP)
Global average GDP might be reduced by 1–4% if we reduce the emissions of CO2 so that we stabilize the concentration in the atmosphere at 450 ppmv. In 2003 the concentration was 375 ppmv. If we stabilise at higher concentration levels, the GDP reduction will be less. The projected mitigation scenarios do not take into account potential benefits of avoided climate change. Cost-effectiveness studies with a century time scale estimate that the mit...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Factors influencing the greenhouse effect Factors influencing the greenhouse effect
There are three main factors that directly influence the energy balance of the earth: the total energy influx, which depends on the earth's distance from the sun and on solar activity; the chemical composition of the atmosphere, and albedo, the ability of the earth's surface to reflect light. The only factor that has changed significantly in the last 100 years is the chemical composition of the atmosphere. This resource also includes a graphic th...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Change in precipitation for scenarios A2 and B2; Tropical America Change in precipitation for scenarios A2 and B2; Tropical America
When global surface temperatures increase, changes in precipitation and atmospheric moisture are very likely to increase: the hydrological cycle will be more active, and the atmosphere will increase its water holding capacity. Atmospheric water vapour is a climatically critical greenhouse gas, and more of it leads to a stronger greenhouse effect through natural feedback systems. As a rule of thumb, precipitation will increase in areas that alre...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Tropical hydropower dams as greenhouse sources Tropical hydropower dams as greenhouse sources
Large tropical hydropower reservoirs in Latin America may have a potential adverse impact on the climatic system through releasing greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Submerging large areas of land and tropical vegetation under water and fluctuations in water level promote physical-chemical processes that decompose the organic matter and generate methane and carbon dioxide emissions. In the initial years of operation, emission levels are especi...
17 May 2005 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Planets and atmospheres Planets and atmospheres
A planet's climate is decided by its mass, its distance from the sun and the composition of its atmosphere. Mars is too small to keep a thick atmosphere. Its atmosphere consists mainly of carbon dioxide, but the atmosphere is very thin. The atmosphere of the Earth is a hundred times thicker.
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Sources of greenhouse gases Sources of greenhouse gases
Shows the sources for greenhouse gases, contributing to climate change, and their relative radiative forcing effect (radiative forcing is the change in the balance between radiation coming into the atmosphere and radiation going out)
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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UN Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) UN Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)
The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Convention is the foundation of global efforts to combat global warming. Opened for signature in 1992 at the Rio Earth Summit, its ultimate objective is the 'stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic human-induced interference with the climate system. The Convention's supreme body is the Conference of the Parties (COP)...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Six IPCC scenarios Six IPCC scenarios
The projection of future climate change depends partly on the assumptions made about future emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosol precursors and the proportion of emissions remaining in the atmosphere.
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Historical Forest Carbon Balance 1855-1995 Historical Forest Carbon Balance 1855-1995
Through processes of respiration and through the decay of organic matter or burning of biomass, forests release carbon. A carbon ‘sink’ is formed in the forest when the uptake of carbon is higher than the release. The conversion of forested to nonforested areas in developing countries has had a significant impact on the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the tmosphere, as has forest degradation caused by over-exploitation of forests for timber ...
01 Oct 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz assisted by Cecile Marin, Agnes Stienne, Guilio Frigieri, Riccardo Pravettoni, Laura Margueritte and Marion Lecoquierre.
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Emissions due to solid waste disposal on land Emissions due to solid waste disposal on land
Landfi ling is the most common waste management practice, and results in the release of methane from the anaerobic decomposition of organic materials. Methane is around 20 times more potent as a GHG than carbon dioxide. If the disposal of organic matter were to be decreased (for example by composting or incineration) it would be possible to reduce the amount of methane emissions. However, landfill methane is also a source of energy, and some lan...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Global atmospheric concentration of CO2 1870-1990 Global atmospheric concentration of CO2 1870-1990
Historically the developed countries of the world have emitted most of the anthropogenic greenhouse gases. The U.S. emits most in total, and is one of the countries with highest emissions per capita. China is the second largest emitter, but has very low emissions per capita. Over the last 20 years, industrial development has led to a rapid rise in the volume of emissions from Asia, but on a per capita basis, emissions in this region are still at ...
28 Sep 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Acidification due to climate change - impacts for oceans and coral reefs Acidification due to climate change - impacts for oceans and coral reefs
As carbon concentrations in the atmosphere increase from land use changes and emissions from fossil fuels - so do concentrations in the ocean, with resultant acidification as a natural chemical process. The skeletons of coldwater coral reefs may dissolve, perhaps already within a few decades. The impacts will be greatest at high latitudes. This will have an impact on all marine organisms with calcerous shells and body parts, in addition to coral ...
01 Feb 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Emissions of N2O in Norway, 85-96 Emissions of N2O in Norway, 85-96
The graph shows emissions of N2O in Norway from 1985 to 1996. Nitrous oxide (N2O) is emitted to the atmosphere by both natural such as combustion and anthropogenic sources such as industrial processes and fertilizers.
12 Feb 2006 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Emissions of N20 in Norway, 85-96 Emissions of N20 in Norway, 85-96
The graph shows emissions of N20 in Norway from 1985 to 1996 with projections to 2010. N20 can occour naturally or have anthropogenic sources such as fertilizrs, combustion and various industrial processes.
12 Feb 2006 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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