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Applicability of space technology to Arctic policy areas Applicability of space technology to Arctic policy areas
This figure maps the contribution that each type of space system (communications, weather and climate, navigation, earth observation, surveillance, and science) can make to each policy area (safety, environment, sustainable economic development, sovereignty, and indigenous and social development).
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Space Technologies and Policy Drivers Space Technologies and Policy Drivers
Space systems provide unique opportunities to meet the needs of northern stakeholders concerned with safety, the environment, sustainable economic development, sovereignty, and indigenous rights and social development.
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Boundaries of the Arctic Council Working Groups Boundaries of the Arctic Council Working Groups
When defining Arctic regions, it is understood that no single, clear cut boundary exists to delineate their extent. Rather, this boundary will change with its application: environmental, biological, economic, jurisdictional, or social. For example the Arctic Council working groups have different definitions that reflect each of their interests. The Arctic Monitoring Assessment Program (AMAP), which predates the Arctic Council, created its ‘AMA...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Transport routes of POP and concerned areas Transport routes of POP and concerned areas
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) mainly Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), are brought into the Barents region and the whole of the Arctic region from many different locations.
04 Oct 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Dominating air currents Dominating air currents
The pollution from industrialized nations are affecting the environment in the Arctic region. The main areas of indutrial activity in the northern hemisphere are spreading to specific areas in the Arctic though air currents.
04 Oct 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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National level of protection of major Arctic vegetation zones National level of protection of major Arctic vegetation zones
The Arctic region has varying levels of protected areas that correspond to different vegetation zones. This is from a report by Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF), Habitat Conservation Report No. 2.
13 Feb 2006 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Arctic bathymetry and topography Arctic bathymetry and topography
Shows bathymetry and topography for the Arctic region as done for the Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF), Habitat Conservation Report No. 2: Proposed Protected Areas in the Circumpolar Arctic 1996.
01 Nov 2006 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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The Arctic region The Arctic region
An in-depth map showing the Arctic region, showing the continuous and discontinuous permafrost lines, the phytogeographic Arctic boundary, the limit of the data that has been provided by Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) members and other information.
01 Nov 2006 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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The Arctic region - definitions The Arctic region - definitions
Several definitions of the Arctic, physical temperature boundaries, political boundaries, such as as the CAFF delineation, and the Arctic Circle. Compiled by GRID-Arendal and presented in the CAFF Habitat Conservation Report no.2.
01 Nov 2006 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Arctic, AMAP and CAFF area Arctic, AMAP and CAFF area
Identifying and defining the Arctic is not necessarily obvious, as this map illustrates. The Arctic Council working groups on conservation and pollution operate with slightly different definitions due to both practical and political reasons.
01 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Major wilderness areas in the Arctic Major wilderness areas in the Arctic
The Arctic covers around 33.5 million km2 and holds the largest continuous expanses of unfragmented wilderness in the world, outside of Antarctica. Indeed, seven of the ten largest wilderness areas in the world outside Antarctica are found in the high north. (UNEP/WWF 2001: 25 Largest Wilderness Areas in the Arctic). But in contrast with Antarctica, the Arctic is not uninhabited. Human cultures are and have been a part of these vast and rich ecos...
01 Oct 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Shift in climatic zones, Arctic scenario Shift in climatic zones, Arctic scenario
The scenarios from the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA) project that temperatures will increase dramatically in the Arctic, more than in many other parts of the world. This leads to effects, such as the decrease of area (e.g. tundra) under continous permafrost, the northward move of the tree line and the decrease of Arctic Sea Ice. The synthesis is based on several different models and ensables and this map depicts the situation at the end...
01 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Arctic development scenarios, human impact in 2050 Arctic development scenarios, human impact in 2050
Human activities influence the environment and reduce the value of forests, tundra and plains in terms of original biodiversity and habitat. Primarily larger mammals are hit by the fragmentation caused by roads and pipelines. The GLOBIO methdology has modeled the future impact of human activities in the Arctic, as seen in this map. Infrastructure and settlements are used as proxies for human activities, using the GLOBIO model from the Global Envi...
01 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Mean snow-cover extent in the Northern Hemisphere 1966-2006 Mean snow-cover extent in the Northern Hemisphere 1966-2006
Snow occurs predominantly on the northern continents, on the sea ice of the Arctic Ocean and on Antarctica. On the Northern Hemisphere continents, snow covers a maximum mean area of 45.2 million km2, typically in January. The minimum snow-cover extent usually occurs in August and covers a mean area of 1.9 million km2, most of which is snow on the Greenland ice sheet and on mountain glaciers. As a result, snow cover is the surface characteristic r...
01 Oct 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Northern Sea Route and the Northwest Passage compared with currently used shipping routes Northern Sea Route and the Northwest Passage compared with currently used shipping routes
Climate models project that summer sea ice in the Arctic Basin will retreat further and further away from most Arctic landmasses, opening new shipping routes and extending the navigation season in the Northern Sea Route by between two and four months. Previously frozen areas in the Arctic may therefore become seasonally or permanently navigable, increasing the prospects for marine transport through the Arctic and providing greater access to Arcti...
01 Oct 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Population and main oil and gas production areas in the Arctic Population and main oil and gas production areas in the Arctic
The Arctic represents one of the least populated areas in the world, with only sparse settlements and very few large cities and towns - in comparison with e.g. continental Europe. The largest cities are in Northwest Russia, and Reykjavik is the only national capital in the Arctic. The extraction of natural resources has emerge as a main interest and priority in the Arctic region, and this may cause increases and shifts in population.
31 Jul 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Area with near-surface permafrost (North of 45°N) Area with near-surface permafrost (North of 45°N)
Simulated a) permafrost area and active layer thickness (a) 1980- 1999 and (b) 2080-2099. (c) Observational estimates of permafrost (continuous, discontinuous, sporadic, and isolated). (d) Time series of simulated global permafrost area (excluding glacial Greenland and Antarctica).
01 Oct 2009 - by Laura Margueritte
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The Arctic Ocean The Arctic Ocean
The Arctic Ocean experiences much less exchange with the atmosphere than other oceans; momentum exchange (wind drag), heat exchange and freshwater exchange are limited due to the sea ice cover.
01 Oct 2009 - by Laura Margueritte
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Invasive species response to climate change - Hydrilla spp, current and 2080 habitat suitability Invasive species response to climate change - Hydrilla spp, current and 2080 habitat suitability
As climate change alters Arctic ecosystems and enables greater human activity, biological invasions are likely to increase in the Arctic. To some extent, Arctic terrestrial ecosystems may be predisposed to invasion because many invasive plants are adapted to open disturbed areas. Range map scenarios developed for 16 highly invasive plants either occurring in or at risk of invading Alaska also paint a sobering outlook for the future. This map dep...
17 Mar 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, GRID-Arendal & CAFF
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Arctic char species complex, distribution map Arctic char species complex, distribution map
The Arctic char species complex, sensu stricto, represent a key component of the marine and freshwater ecosystems of the north. Chars are stressed by factors such as fisheries, climate change and pollutants. We are possibly altering char biodiversity without documenting it and understanding its relevance. Concerted pan-Arctic biodiversity assessments, sustained research, and coordinated monitoring of chars are required to outline the scope of div...
17 Mar 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, GRID-Arendal & CAFF
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