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Major research stations in Antarctica
Antarctica is interesting for many types of researchers. For example, glaciologists study the ice and snow, while oceanographers look at the oceans. The ice, snow and oceans affect the global climate and are presently ch...
31 Jul 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Cold places on the Southern Continent
Antarctica is the coldest, driest and windiest continent on Earth. This graph shows the annual temperatures and seasonal variation at three locations in Antarctica - the research bases Bernardo O'Higgins (Chile - on the ...
31 Jul 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Antarctica, topography and bathymetry (topographic map)
Antarctic is the fifth largest continent of the world at 14 million square kilometres and is covered by a permanent continental ice sheet. The ice is distributed in two major ice sheets, the East Antarctic and the West A...
31 Jul 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Cryosphere - winter seasons, Northern and Southern Hemispheres
Seasonal variation in the extent of ice and snow cover is greatest in the Northern Hemisphere. Imagine the Earth with white caps on the top and bottom. The top cap increases by a factor of six from summer to winter, whil...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Fisheries in the Southern Ocean
Fisheries, together with tourism, represents a major economic activity around Antarctica. In the old days whales were hunted for oil - these days fish and krill are captured for fish meal and human consumption. The areas...
31 Jul 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Area with near-surface permafrost (North of 45°N)
Simulated a) permafrost area and active layer thickness (a) 1980- 1999 and (b) 2080-2099. (c) Observational estimates of permafrost (continuous, discontinuous, sporadic, and isolated). (d) Time series of simulated globa...
01 Oct 2009 - by Laura Margueritte
Antarctic References
Images of Antarctica (left) and Greenland (right) to scale. Antarctica is 50 per cent larger than the United States or Europe. Greenland is 7 times smaller than Antarctica. There is enough ice in Antarctica to raise glob...
27 Oct 2009 - by Laura Margueritte
Mass balance of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet
Increase in mass loss by the West Antarctic ice sheet. The mass loss has been steadily increasing since the 1970s as a result of accelerations in glacier flow; snowfall has not changed significantly in Antarctica over t...
27 Oct 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Sea level rise caused by the melting of mountain and subpolar glaciers
Another process that results in rising sea levels is the addition of water mass from land ice. Melting glaciers and ice caps, as well as the vast ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica, raise sea-levels if their water ma...
22 Nov 2010 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Rapid decline of the San Quintin glacier, Northern Patagonia
Glaciers grow and retreat at intervals depending on changes in local climate, and local variations in temperature and precipitation play a particularly important role in this. Retreating and diminishing mountain glaciers...
22 Nov 2010 - by Viktor Novikov, Zoï Environment
Sea Level Anomalies
Melting and warming will have consequences on ocean circulation. Additionally melting of inland glaciers and continental ice sheets on Greenland and Antarctica, and the thermal expansion of ocean waters are causing sea l...
06 Oct 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
The 'Hole': A Result of Specil Weather Conditions over the Pole Repeated Every Spring
The Antarctic continent is circled by a strong wind in the stratosphere which flows around Antarctica and isolates air over Antarctica from air in the midlatitudes.
02 Nov 2009 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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