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Rapid decline of the San Quintin glacier, North Patagonia Rapid decline of the San Quintin glacier, North Patagonia
Glaciers grow and retreat at intervals depending on local climate changes, particularly variations in temperature and precipitation . Retreating and diminishing mountain glaciers all over the world, except in the Antarctica, indicate a general trend of global warming.
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Global atmospheric concentration of CO2 Global atmospheric concentration of CO2
Atmospheric CO2 has increased from a pre-industrial concentration of about 280 ppmv to about 367 ppmv at present (ppmv= parts per million by volume). CO2 concentration data from before 1958 are from ice core measurements taken in Antarctica and from 1958 onwards are from the Mauna Loa measurement site. The smooth curve is based on a hundred year running mean. It is evident that the rapid increase in CO2 concentrations has been occurring since the...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Antarctic Specially Protected Areas Antarctic Specially Protected Areas
The 1961 Antarctic treaty system, which governs the land and water south of 60 degrees latitude south, gives the environment an overall protection against human development. In addition, certain areas are specifically designated for protection, such as the Antarctic specially protected areas (ASPA), presented in this map.
28 Sep 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Tourism in the Antarctic Tourism in the Antarctic
the graph shows the number of tourist and ships going to the Antarctic from 1981 to 1996. It shows a steady increase of both tourists and ships going to antarctica. Studies have been done to estimate the effects the increased tourism has on the antarctic environment. A great number of tourists can cause disruption in wildlife breeding and reduce populations. Reports of ships hitting underwater rocks, casuing oil spills that greatly affect nearby ...
28 Sep 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Antarctica, topography and bathymetry (topographic map) Antarctica, topography and bathymetry (topographic map)
Antarctic is the fifth largest continent of the world at 14 million square kilometres and is covered by a permanent continental ice sheet. The ice is distributed in two major ice sheets, the East Antarctic and the West Antarctic, and in addition there are shelf ice, extending over the sea water. Antarctic inland ice ranges in thickness up to 5000 m, with an average thickness of about 2400 m, making Antarctica by far the highest of the continents....
04 Oct 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Antarctica, topographic map Antarctica, topographic map
Antarctic is the fifth largest continent of the world at 14 million square kilometres and is covered by a permanent continental ice sheet. The ice is distributed in two major ice sheets, the East Antarctic and the West Antarctic, and in addition there are shelf ice, extending over the sea water. Antarctic inland ice ranges in thickness up to 5000 m, with an average thickness of about 2400 m, making Antarctica by far the highest of the continents....
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
2
Antarctica, overview Antarctica, overview
Antarctic is the fifth largest continent of the world at 14 million square kilometres and is covered in a permanent continental ice. The ice is distributed in two major ice sheets, the East Antarctic and the West Antarctic, and in addition there are shelf ice, extending over the sea water.
04 Oct 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
3
Antarctica, overview Antarctica, overview
Antarctic is the fifth largest continent of the world at 14 million square kilometres and is covered in a permanent continental ice. The ice is distributed in two major ice sheets, the East Antarctic and the West Antarctic, and in addition there are shelf ice, extending over the sea water.
17 Mar 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
4
Temperature and CO2 concentration in the atmosphere over the past 400 000 years Temperature and CO2 concentration in the atmosphere over the past 400 000 years
Over the last 400,000 years the Earth's climate has been unstable, with very significant temperature changes, going from a warm climate to an ice age in as rapidly as a few decades. These rapid changes suggest that climate may be quite sensitive to internal or external climate forcings and feedbacks. This figures have been derived from the Vostok ice core, taken in Antarctica.
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
4
Temperature and CO2 concentration in the atmosphere over the past 400 000 years Temperature and CO2 concentration in the atmosphere over the past 400 000 years
Over the last 400,000 years the Earth's climate has been unstable, with very significant temperature changes, going from a warm climate to an ice age in as rapidly as a few decades. These rapid changes suggest that climate may be quite sensitive to internal or external climate forcings and feedbacks. This figures have been derived from the Vostok ice core, taken in Antarctica.
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Overview of world glaciers and ice caps Overview of world glaciers and ice caps
By far the largest area of glaciers and ice fields are found in Canada (about 201 000 km2), followed by Alaska (about 75 000 km2) with about 700 km2 in the rest of the USA. Glaciers and ice fields are concentrated in the High Arctic and western cordillera. The total area of glaciers and ice caps, without the ice sheets and surrounding glaciers and ice caps in Greenland and Antarctica, sums up to 540 000 km2.
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
3
Antarctica, showing rates of surface-elevation change derived from satellite radar-altimeter measurements Antarctica, showing rates of surface-elevation change derived from satellite radar-altimeter measurements
The figure shows rates at which the ice-sheet mass was estimated to be changing based on radar-altimeter data (black), mass-budget calculations (red), and satellite gravity measurements (blue). Rectangles depict the time periods of observations (horizontal) and the upper and lower estimates of mass balance (vertical). Measurements by satellite techniques based on gravity indicate mass loss at a rate of 138 ± 73 billion tonnes per year during 200...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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The Cryosphere, components and world maps The Cryosphere, components and world maps
Snow and the various forms of ice - the cryosphere - play different roles within the climate system. The two continental ice sheets of Antarctica and Greenland actively influence the global climate over time scales of millennia to millions of years, but may also have more rapid effects on, for example, sea level. Snow and sea ice, with their large areas but relatively small volumes, are connected to key interactions and feedbacks at global scales...
01 Oct 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Trends in Antarctic tourism Trends in Antarctic tourism
Antarctic annual sea-ice extent is projected to decrease by 25 per cent by 2100, and this will bring easier access to the Antarctic continent by ship. This is likely to affect not only research, which is a main activity in a continent designated as a “natural reserve devoted to peace and science”, but also commercial activities, such as tourism. Tourism activities are expanding tremendously with the number of shipborne tourists increasing by 430 ...
01 Nov 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Ice sheets, schematic illustration for Greenland and Antarctica Ice sheets, schematic illustration for Greenland and Antarctica
The ice cover in Greenland and Antarctica has two components – thick, grounded, inland ice that rests on a more or less solid bed, and thinner floating ice shelves and glacier tongues. An ice sheet is actually a giant glacier, and like most glaciers it is nourished by the continual accumulation of snow on its surface. As successive layers of snow build up, the layers beneath are gradually compressed into solid ice. Snow input is balanced by glaci...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
4
Cryosphere - winter seasons, Northern and Southern Hemispheres Cryosphere - winter seasons, Northern and Southern Hemispheres
Seasonal variation in the extent of ice and snow cover is greatest in the Northern Hemisphere. Imagine the Earth with white caps on the top and bottom. The top cap increases by a factor of six from summer to winter, while the bottom cap only doubles from summer to winter. This difference is due to snow cover: in the Northern Hemisphere snow cover on land varies from less than 2 million km2 in the summer to 40 to 50 million km2 in the winter3. The...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
4
Antarctica, topographic map Antarctica, topographic map
Antarctic is the fifth largest continent of the world at 14 million square kilometres and is covered by a permanent continental ice sheet. The ice is distributed in two major ice sheets, the East Antarctic and the West Antarctic, and in addition there are shelf ice, extending over the sea water. Antarctic inland ice ranges in thickness up to 5000 m, with an average thickness of about 2400 m, making Antarctica by far the highest of the continents....
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
4
The Cryosphere, world map The Cryosphere, world map
Snow and the various forms of ice - the cryosphere - play different roles within the climate system. The two continental ice sheets of Antarctica and Greenland actively influence the global climate over time scales of millennia to millions of years, but may also have more rapid effects on, for example, sea level. Snow and sea ice, with their large areas but relatively small volumes, are connected to key interactions and feedbacks at global scales...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
4
The “Hole”: a result of special weather conditions over the pole repeated every spring The “Hole”: a result of special weather conditions over the pole repeated every spring
The Antarctic continent is circled by a strong wind in the stratosphere which flows around Antarctica and isolates air over Antarctica from air in the midlatitudes. The region poleward of this jet stream is called the Antarctic polar vortex. The air inside the Antarctic polar vortex is much colder than midlatitude air.” “When temperatures drop below -78°C, thin clouds form of ice, nitric acid, and sulphuric acid mixtures. Chemical reactions on th...
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Ecoregions in Antarctica Ecoregions in Antarctica
Antarctica represents a very unique and special case on our planet. With the richness of the Southern Ocean, the coasts and the Southern islands have relatively high biodiversity and biomass in the form of numerous sea birds - such as penguins and mammals such as seals and sea lions - primarily around the Antarctic peninsula - in the Marielandia Arctic Tundra ecoregion. In contrast - the inland of the Antarctic continent are a cold, windy and inh...
31 Jul 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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