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Climate feedbacks - the connectivity of the positive ice/snow albedo feedback, terrestrial snow and vegetation feedbacks and the negative cloud/radiation feedback Climate feedbacks - the connectivity of the positive ice/snow albedo feedback, terrestrial snow and vegetation feedbacks and the negative cloud/radiation feedback
Feedback refers to the modification of a process by changes resulting from the process itself. Positive feedbacks accelerate the process, while negative feedbacks slow it down. Part of the uncertainty around future climates relates to important feedbacks between different parts of the climate system: air temperatures, ice and snow albedo (reflection of the sun’s rays), and clouds. An important positive feedback is the ice and snow albedo feedback...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Le «trou » : résultat de conditions météo particulières au-dessus du pôle, répétées chaque printemps Le «trou » : résultat de conditions météo particulières au-dessus du pôle, répétées chaque printemps
« Le continent antarctique est entouré de forts vents dans la stratosphère qui soufflent autour de l’Antarctique et isolent l’air qui se trouvent au-dessus de l’Antarctique de l’air qui se trouve aux latitudes moyennes. La région qui se trouve entre ce jet stream et le pôle est appelée région du tourbillon polaire (1). L’air qui se trouve à l’intérieur du tourbillon polaire antarctique est bien plus froid que l’air qui se trouve aux latitudes moy...
26 May 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Historical trends in carbon dioxide concentrations and temperature, on a geological and recent time scale Historical trends in carbon dioxide concentrations and temperature, on a geological and recent time scale
The most recent geological history, in the last hundred thousand years, has been characterised by cycles of glaciations, or ice ages. The historic temperatures, through these times, have been low, and continental ice sheets have covered large parts of the world. Through ancient air, trapped in tiny bubbles in the Antarctic ice, we have been able to see what the temperature cycle was at that time, and also the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2)...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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CO2 air emissions by sources in 1995 CO2 air emissions by sources in 1995
The graph shows CO2 air emissions from selected countries by various sources in 1995. Among the anthropogenic sources of CO2 air emissions are fossil fuel combustion, cement production and land-use conversion.
13 Feb 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Transport routes of POP and concerned areas Transport routes of POP and concerned areas
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) mainly Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), are brought into the Barents region and the whole of the Arctic region from many different locations.
04 Oct 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Dominating air currents Dominating air currents
The pollution from industrialized nations are affecting the environment in the Arctic region. The main areas of indutrial activity in the northern hemisphere are spreading to specific areas in the Arctic though air currents.
04 Oct 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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SO2 air concentration SO2 air concentration
Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a colourless gas with a sharp,irritating odour. It is produced from the burning of fossil fuels (coal and oil) and the smelting of mineral ores that contain sulfur. There are several areas in the Barents region that have very high amounts of SO2 levels that have caused environmental problems.
04 Oct 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Forest damage due to air pollution Forest damage due to air pollution
Air pollution has had an enormous impact of the forest in the Barents region. SPecifically there is alot of damage in Russia near the borders of Norway and Finland. The diagram shows areas of 'forest death' and the subsequent areas of varying levels of forest damage.
04 Oct 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Cooling factors Cooling factors
The amount of aerosols in the air has direct effect on the amount of solar radiation hitting the Earth's surface. Aerosols may have significant local or regional impact on temperature. Water vapour is a greenhouse gas, but at the same time the upper white surface of clouds reflects solar radiation back into space. Albedo - reflections of solar radiation from surfaces on the Earth - creates difficulties in exact calculations. If e.g. the polar ice...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Mining effects on rainfall drainage Mining effects on rainfall drainage
The Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) is the number one environmental problem facing the mining industry. AMD occurs when sulphide-bearing minerals in rock are exposed to air and water, changing the sulphide to sulphuric acid. It can devastate aquatic habitats, is difficult to treat with existing technology, and once started, can continue for centuries (Roman mine sites in Great Britain continue to generate acid drainage 2000 years after mining ceased)....
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Long range transport of air pollutants to the Arctic Long range transport of air pollutants to the Arctic
The major industrial areas of the Northern Hemisphere are a source for long range transport of pollutants. The main air currents are taking industrial air pollution and circulating them with the end result being an increase of pollutants in the biosphere of the Arctic.
28 Sep 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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The Antarctic convergence The Antarctic convergence
The Antarctic convergence represents an important climatic boundary between air and water masses, and is also an approximate boundary for the Southern Ocean, surrounding the Antarctic continent. The water around the land mass is cold and with a slightly lower salinity than north of the convergence zone. The area is also rich in nutrients, providing a key support for the ecosystems in the Southern Ocean.
28 Sep 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Varying contribution to climate change Varying contribution to climate change
Share of transport-related greenhouse gas emissions generated by rail, sea, air and road.
04 Jun 2008 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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The boom in air travel The boom in air travel
Number of air transport passengers per year in millions depicted as USA relative other countries.
04 Jun 2008 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Other options besides flight? Other options besides flight?
Most commonly used air routes, in million passengers a year. Displayed as flights most easily replace by train and flights possibly replaceable by train and ship.
04 Jun 2008 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Emissions of HFC in CO2 equivalents in Norway, 85-96 Emissions of HFC in CO2 equivalents in Norway, 85-96
The graphic shows Emissions of HFC in CO2 equivalents in Norway from 1985 to 1996 with projections to 2010. HFCs are among the most important greenhouse gases and are covered under the Kyoto protocol. Hydrofluorocarbons (HFC's) do not harm or breakdown the ozone molecule, but they do trap heat in the atmosphere, making it a greenhouse gas, aiding in global warming. HFC’s are used in air conditioners and refrigerators.
12 Feb 2006 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Norwegian emissions of N2O Norwegian emissions of N2O
Emissions of N20 have a role in the enhanced greenhouse effect. N20 is a long-lived gas, surviving in the atmosphere for about 130 years. The concentration of N20 in the atmosphere is increasing due to a variety of sources including a small contribution from coal combustion.
12 Feb 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Trends in global temperatures Trends in global temperatures
The figure shows the combined land-surface air and sea surface temperatures (degrees Centigrade) 1861 to 1998, relative to the average temperature between 1961 and 1990. The mean global surface temperature has increased by about 0.3 to 0.6°C since the late 19th century and by about 0.2 to 0.3°C over the last 40 years, which is the period with most reliable data. Recent years have been among the warmest since 1860 - the period for which instrumen...
06 Nov 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Cooling factors Cooling factors
The amount of aerosols in the air has direct effect on the amount of solar radiation hitting the Earth's surface. Aerosols may have significant local or regional impact on temperature. Water vapour is a greenhouse gas, but at the same time the upper white surface of clouds reflects solar radiation back into space. Albedo - reflections of solar radiation from surfaces on the Earth - creates difficulties in exact calculations. If e.g. the polar ice...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Trends in regional average surface temperature in the Ferghana Valley area Trends in regional average surface temperature in the Ferghana Valley area
An important factor when looking at the region in terms of environment and security is the impact of climate change in Central Asia in general, and Ferghana Valley in particular. By modifying people’s livelihood, climate change may have an important security dimension in conjunction with other aggravating factors. In the Ferghana valley it is likely that climate change will primarily affect sector related to water and agriculture. Central Asia is...
16 Mar 2006 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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