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Energy potential from one tonne input: organic matter and landfill material Energy potential from one tonne input: organic matter and landfill material
Dierent biofuels pathways have dierent eciencies in the growth of feedstocks, conversion processes and end-uses. This chain of eciency pertaining to input and output needs to be considered in national planning processes to identify the most suitable biofuel feedstocks for a given country, region and local context. For example, the energy potential of landll material is released through combustion, whereas bioethanol, (both from crops...
01 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Global production of biofuels Global production of biofuels
Global production of biofuels. In 2009, liquid biofuels provided 2.7 percent of all global road transport fuels.
01 Mar 2012 - by Nieves Lopez Izquierdo
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Global ethanol production Global ethanol production
The snapshot of biofuel production in this figuere shows global ethanol production currently concentrated in two countries.
01 Mar 2012 - by Nieves Lopez Izquierdo
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Global biodiesel production, 2009 Global biodiesel production, 2009
Global biodiesel production in 2009.
01 Mar 2012 - by Nieves Lopez Izquierdo
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Energy efficiency of fuels - how many kilometres can we drive ? Energy efficiency of fuels - how many kilometres can we drive ?
The picture shows energy efficiency of various fuels.
01 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Bioenergy, general concept Bioenergy, general concept
The development of biorefineries can greatly support efforts to increase resource efficiency. Biorefineries integrate biomass conversion processes and equipment to produce fuel, power, and chemicals from biomass. By producing multiple products, a biorenery can take advantage of the dierences in biomass components and intermediate products, thus maximising the value of a biomass feedstock.
01 Mar 2012 - by Nieves Lopez Izquierdo
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Wealth of nations and energy consumption Wealth of nations and energy consumption
To date, energy use and economic growth have been closely linked. As figure shows, there is a linear relationship between energy consumption and wealth as measured in the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of nations.
01 Oct 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Green jobs Green jobs
If properly planned and managed, biofuels can contribute to a number of policy objectives which support the development of the green economy. For example, because agriculture is labour-intensive, job opportunities can be found throughout the biofuel value chain, particularly where conversion from feedstock to biofuel occurs close to where the feedstock is produced. The additional income from new jobs is likely to have a multiplier effect wh...
01 Mar 2012 - by Nieves Lopez Izquierdo
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The enlarged biofuels family The enlarged biofuels family
Figure illustrates the various feedstocks, which can be converted to biofuels for transport. However, this represents only part of the larger bioenergy family, which covers liquid, solid and gaseous biofuels for different uses, including electricity production, and the traditional biomass for energy use.
01 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Savings in greenhouse gas emissions by fuel type Savings in greenhouse gas emissions by fuel type
Biofuels, in the use phase, emit the carbon that has been previously absorbed during plant growth. Inputs during cultivation and conversion need to be accounted for. However, the bulk of GHG emissions are related to land-use change. The carbon footprint varies considerably depending on the type of land converted, the type and yield of the feedstock (tonnes per hectare), as this figure shows. It is therefore key that any GHG analysis takes ...
01 Mar 2012 - by Nieves Lopez Izquierdo
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Technical and sustainable biomass supply potentials and expected demand for biomass in 2050 (primary energy) Technical and sustainable biomass supply potentials and expected demand for biomass in 2050 (primary energy)
Technical and sustainable biomass supply potentials and expected demand for biomass in 2050 (primary energy).
01 Mar 2012 - by Nieves Lopez Izquierdo
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Research budgets of CGIAR, Monsanto and NARS in South America Research budgets of CGIAR, Monsanto and NARS in South America
Agricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology (AKST) has the capacity to improve livelihoods, although effects have varied by region and social group. The ability to access and benefit from AKST is uneven, with industrialized countries gaining more than developing countries. Monsanto is by far the largest investor in agricultural research in South America.
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Public and private agriculture research and development spending by region, 2000 Public and private agriculture research and development spending by region, 2000
Investments in agricultural research and development (R&D) are still growing, but the growth rate declined during the 1990s. In addition, investment trends among countries have increasingly diverged. Investment in publicly funded agricultural R&D in many industrialized countries has stalled or declined and has become a small proportion of total spending on science and technology (S&T).
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Fifty million climate refugees by 2010 Fifty million climate refugees by 2010
Today we find a world of asymmetric development, unsustainable natural resource use, and continued rural and urban poverty. There is general agreement about the current global environmental and development crisis. It is also known that the consequences of these global changes have the most devastating impacts on the poorest, who historically have had limited entitlements and opportunities for growth.
03 Jan 2008 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
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Measures of Poverty: Hunger Density Measures of Poverty: Hunger Density
Population Density of Children Age 0-5 Underweight (per square kilometer). Children are defined as underweight if their weight-for-age z-scores are more than two standard deviations (2 SD) below the median of the NCHS/CDC/WHO International Reference Population.
03 Jan 2008 - by The Trustees of Columbia University in the City of New York
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Measures of Poverty: Child Malnutrition - Latin America Measures of Poverty: Child Malnutrition - Latin America
Children are defined as underweight if their weight-for-age z-scores are more than two standard deviations (2 SD) below the median of the NCHS/CDC/WHO International Reference Population. There are serious problems of child malnutrition in Latin America but not as persistent as in Asia.
03 Jan 2008 - by Copyright 2005. The Trustees of Columbia University in the City of New York
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Key relationships between future challenges and agricultural knowledge, science and technology (AKST) options for action Key relationships between future challenges and agricultural knowledge, science and technology (AKST) options for action
The general model has been to continuously innovate, reduce farm gate prices and externalize costs. This model drove the phenomenal achievements of AKST in industrial countries after WWII and the spread of the Green Revolution beginning in the 1960s. But, given the new challenges we confront today, there is increasing recognition within formal S&T organizations that the current AKST model requires revision.
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Measures of Poverty: Child Malnutrition - Asia Measures of Poverty: Child Malnutrition - Asia
Children are defined as underweight if their weight-for-age z-scores are more than two standard deviations (2 SD) below the median of the NCHS/CDC/WHO International Reference Population. There is a high incidence of of malnutrition in Asia.
03 Jan 2008 - by The Trustees of Columbia University in the City of New York
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Global soil degradation Global soil degradation
In many parts of the world natural resources have been treated as though unlimited, and totally resilient to human exploitation. This perception has exacerbated the conflicting agricultural demands on natural capital, as have other exploitative commercial enterprises. Both have affected local cultures and had undesirable long-term impacts on the sustainability of resources. The consequences include: land degradation (about 2,000 million ha of lan...
03 Jan 2008 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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The percentage of agricultural work carried out by women compared with the percentage of female extension staff in selected African countries The percentage of agricultural work carried out by women compared with the percentage of female extension staff in selected African countries
Only 15% of the world’s agricultural public sector extension agents are women [Global 3]. Women's access to extension is limited by lack of access to membership in rural organizations which often channel or provide training opportunities, and by gender blind agricultural policies that give inadequate attention to women farmer's needs in terms of crops and technology.
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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