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Benefits  of SLCP controle measures for Agriculture Benefits of SLCP controle measures for Agriculture
Implementation of the 16 control measures specified in the Time to Act publication is expected to have significant benefits for agriculture worldwide. Rapid reduction of methane and sot has the potential to avoid an annual loss of over 50 metric tonnes of crop yields per year by 2030.
19 Jun 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
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Effects on Agriculture - SLCPs, a Threat to Agricultural Productivity Effects on Agriculture - SLCPs, a Threat to Agricultural Productivity
SLCPs, especially tropospheric O3, detrimentally impact ecosystems including crop yields, and are affecting food security. Present day global relative yield losses due to tropospheric O3 exposure has been estimated for four major crops and range between 7-12% for wheat, 6-16% for soybean, 3-5% for rice and 3-5% for maize.
19 Jun 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
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Agriculture and population in the Mediterranean basin Agriculture and population in the Mediterranean basin
Agriculture in the Mediterranean Basin, despite many different sub-climates, is mainly rain-fed. Cereals, vegetables, and citrus fruits account for over 85 % of the Mediterranean’s total agricultural production (UNEP/MAP/BP/RAC 2009). Cultivation of other products, such as olives for olive oil and grapes for wine, also occupies a significant amount of agricultural land (Leff et al. 2004).
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Land acquisition by agricultural use Land acquisition by agricultural use
12 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Trends in Food prices Trends in Food prices
FAO Food Price Index
09 Mar 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius/GRID-Arendal
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Loss of biodiversity with continued agricultural expansion, pollution, climate change and infrastructure development Loss of biodiversity with continued agricultural expansion, pollution, climate change and infrastructure development
Figure 27: Loss of biodiversity with continued agricultural expansion, pollution, climate change and infrastructure development. (Source: GLOBIO; Alkemade et al., 2009).
01 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Small scale bioenergy applications - impacts on livelihood Small scale bioenergy applications - impacts on livelihood
Energy access is a primer for any type economic development. Nowhere is energy access a greater challenge than in areas and regions where the population lives in poverty. As illustrated, bioenergy can deliver considerable positive social impacts to these communities. Small-scale bioenergy applications, such as generators fuelled by biofuels, can power many technologies which increase productivity and output, including water pumps to irrigate cro...
29 Feb 2012 - by Nieves Lopez Izquierdo
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World bioenergy technical potential in 2050 World bioenergy technical potential in 2050
Studies indicate that global bioenergy use is approximately 10 percent of the global energy mix, with a growth rate of 1.3 percent per year. Future projections for the supply of bioenergy are shown in the figure. The analysis is based on four scenarios for environmental targets, based on technical potentials that differ depending on agricultural efficiency, production systems, technology and water supplies. The scenarios span a wide range of gl...
01 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Energy costs in Bot Trang village, Cambodia Energy costs in Bot Trang village, Cambodia
Over the past few years a small energy revolution has taken place in the village of Bot Trang in northwest Cambodia. Bot Trang is not on Cambodia’s national grid: in the old days Mr. Tham Bun Hak, a local farmer, would supply 80 households in the village with electricity from his diesel fired generator – but now it’s all run on jatropha. With the assistance of local NGOs and public partnerships, Mr. Tham developed a jatropha project that has made...
29 Feb 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Biofuels production and forest area variation in selected countries Biofuels production and forest area variation in selected countries
Gains and losses in forest area vary globally, and the impact divers greatly between the various crops used for biofuels. Forest-cover is enhanced through aorestation or by natural expansion, and reduced either by deforestation or natural disasters which may prevent forest from naturally regenerating itself. Forest degeneration is often caused by overexploitation of forest areas by humans, pests, disease or recurrent forest fires. Generally,...
01 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Additional people at risk of hunger in 2020 Additional people at risk of hunger in 2020
Biofuels have been criticised for causing food insecurity, but many other factors often play a far more significant role than biofuels. But rapid, largescale growth in biofuel production without sufficient safeguards does pose a risk for food security. This risk needs to be seen in the context of population growth, changing diets, slowing crop-yield improvements,and climate-change impacts on agriculture. While much has been said about the risk...
01 Mar 2012 - by Nieves Lopez Izquierdo
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Impacts of first-generation biofuels on agricultural prices Impacts of first-generation biofuels on agricultural prices
This figure outlines possible scenarios for the impact of biofuels on agricultural prices and food security. Although there are several factors that affect agricultural prices, including seasonal variation, market speculation,and extreme weather patterns, some biofuel development scenarios indicate a relationship between agricultural prices and biofuel production. Here, the scenario projects that the largest price increase will be for cerea...
29 Feb 2012 - by Nieves Lopez Izquierdo
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Land required to drive 100 kilometres Land required to drive 100 kilometres
The graphic compares different liquid biofuels and alternative drive systems such as an electric vehicle running on electricity produced from wind power.
29 Feb 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Potential risks of energy crop expansion on land access Potential risks of energy crop expansion on land access
Poor land tenure security due to lack of appropriate rules and processes, and biofuels production encroaching on land used by pastoralists or for cultural purposes affect local livelihoods and access to land, particularly for poor rural people in developing countries. This figure indicates various measures which should be taken to mitigate this risk.
29 Feb 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Suitability by crop type in Uganda Suitability by crop type in Uganda
Recently Uganda has outlined its national strategy for bioenergy to contribute to increasing the renewable energy mix from 4 to 16 percent by 2017. Several biofuel crops have been identified, including sugarcane, maize, oil palm and jatropha. A suitability assessment of these crops illustrates that the potential output from certain biofuel feedstocks is high. Several projects are underway to help the country meet their target. To red...
01 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Potential biofuels output in Uganda Potential biofuels output in Uganda
Recently Uganda has outlined its national strategy for bioenergy to contribute to increasing the renewable energy mix from 4 to 16 percent by 2017. Several biofuel crops have been identified, including sugarcane, maize, oil palm and jatropha. A suitability assessment of these crops illustrates that the potential output from certain biofuel feedstocks is high. Several projects are underway to help the country meet their target. To red...
29 Feb 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Indirect land-use change induced by increased biofuels production Indirect land-use change induced by increased biofuels production
This figure indicates land requirements for biofuels production in response to current biofuels mandates. Depending on projected biofuels demand and available arable land, additional land requirements may exceed a nation’s own resources, and hence have a spill-over effect on other countries and regions. For example, studies indicate that most European countries will not have sufficient available land resources to produce the feedstocks requ...
29 Feb 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Potential biofuels production on abandoned agricultural land Potential biofuels production on abandoned agricultural land
Land-use planning is one strategy to manage competition for land and, at the same time, reduce environmental and social impacts. Assessment of land suitability and availability can identify both high-risk areas where land conversion should be avoided, and areas where bioenergy production is appropriate. Restoring formerly degraded land and using underused and/or abandoned land can boost output without increasing pressure to convert la...
29 Feb 2012 - by Nieves Lopez Izquierdo
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Estimated feedstock efficiency and environmental impacts Estimated feedstock efficiency and environmental impacts
The negative consequences of iLUC have been hotly debated. Recent debate has focused increasingly on a pragmatic approach to reducing the need for land, thereby reducing risks from direct and indirect changes in land use. These approaches include: • Using degraded and/or underused land where the risks of increased GHGs and the loss of biodiversity would be substantially lower. However, the process for identifying such land areas needs ...
29 Feb 2012 - by Nieves Lopez Izquierdo
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Land required for biofuels by feedstock Land required for biofuels by feedstock
When assessing the sustainability of biofuels within the context of conservation, comparison questions are important. What else can the land be used for? One option might be conservation, whereas another might be for a different production system. Which production system is the most suitable and efficient for the land being used? Here, the land-use and end-use efficiency correlation is an interesting aspect when seeking to determine the o...
29 Feb 2012 - by Nieves Lopez Izquierdo
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