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Urban population: status and trends Urban population: status and trends
Since the dawn of civilization, people have been aggregating in towns and cities. This trend has reached an even higher rate with the dawn of industrialisation, and especially in developing countries, as seen in the graphic. From 1975 to 2015 the number of people in urban areas is projected to more than double.
20 Sep 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Gender equality and empowerment of women: education status Gender equality and empowerment of women: education status
The Millennium Development Goal 3 address gender equality and empowerment of women. This map displays the status in 2001 of an indicator for target 4: 'Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education, preferably by 2005, and in all levels of education no later than 2015'. According to the data the situation needs to be addressed primarily in central Africa and West and Southern Asia.
20 Sep 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Millennium Development Goals: 2005 Trends Millennium Development Goals: 2005 Trends
The Millennium Development Goals, originally devised in 2001 together with the Millennium Declaration, outline a set of reachable and realistic goals and targets. There are eight goals, addressing various areas of development, and each of these have one or several specific targets. Many of the targets have quantitative measures attached to them. The Millennium Project, a UN research initiative set up to evaluate the progress have rated the exist...
20 Sep 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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World development: health and economy World development: health and economy
By looking more closely at the regions we can see that the situation in the world is quite diverse. This chart portrays the status of development with two important parameters, health and economy. Regions, like Sub-Saharan Africa or the Commonwealth of Independent States (former Soviet Republics) are quite spread out widely in the diagram, in both dimensions. Worth noting is the countries far from the imaginary line towards the top right corner....
20 Sep 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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World route map (World Summit 2005 and beyond) World route map (World Summit 2005 and beyond)
This timeline, shaped as a subway map, takes a tongue-in-cheek look at international events in development and environment leading up to the Millennium Declaration, the 2005 World Summit and beyond, with a milestone set at 2015 (the year specified for the Millennium Development Goals).
20 Sep 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Temperature trends and projections Temperature trends and projections
The global average surface temperature has increased over the 20th century by about 0.6 degrees Celsius. This increase in temperature is likely to have been the largest for any century in the last 1000 years. Evidence from tree ring records, used to reconstruct temperatures over this period, suggests that the 1990s was the warmest period in a millennium. It is very likely that nearly all land areas will warm more rapidly than the global average, ...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Variations of the Earth's surface temperature for the past 100 millions years Variations of the Earth's surface temperature for the past 100 millions years
The global average surface temperature has increased over the 20th century by about 0.6 degrees Celsius. This increase in temperature is likely to have been the largest for any century in the last 1000 years.
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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CO2 emissions from industrial processes and land use changes CO2 emissions from industrial processes and land use changes
Shows the different levels of CO2 emissions from industrial processes and land use changes from different regions. The major greenhouse gases are included within six sectors: Energy; Industrial Processes; Solvent and Other Product Use; Agriculture; Land Use Change and Forestry; and Waste. Contributing to emissions Historically the developed countries of the world have emitted most of the anthropogenic greenhouse gases. The U.S. emits most in t...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Modeled temperature compared to observed temperature for the last 150 years Modeled temperature compared to observed temperature for the last 150 years
As we can see from models of temperature changes caused by natural forcing, we should have observed a decrease in the global average temperature lately, but we have not. We have observed an increase. A climate model can be used to simulate the temperature changes that occur from both natural and anthropogenic causes. The simulations in a) were done with only natural forcings: solar variation and volcanic activity. In b) only anthropogenic forc...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Back to the future: The science of building scenarios Back to the future: The science of building scenarios
Diagram showing four scenarios for the future each with different influences between market orientation and environmental, and regional and global. Then predictive charts show the scenarios in terms of emissions, concentrations and impacts of CO2 levels.
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Kyoto protocol, cost of implementation Kyoto protocol, cost of implementation
The Kyoto Protocol is only a first step towards combating climate change. Drastic reductions of greenhouse gas emissions are required to avoid the most threatening consequences of global warming. Concerns are raised that the price for the economy will be too high, but studies indicate that there will only be a small reduction in GDP to reach the Kyoto targets and that it is possible to stabilize the concentration of CO2 at low costs. The GDP los...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Global atmospheric concentration of CO2 (outtake) Global atmospheric concentration of CO2 (outtake)
Chart showing the increase in CO2 levels in the atmosphere from 1870 to 2004 and predicted levels to the year 2100. Historically the developed countries of the world have emitted most of the anthropogenic greenhouse gases. The U.S. emits most in total, and is one of the countries with highest emissions per capita. China is the second largest emitter, but has very low emissions per capita. Over the last 20 years, industrial development has led to...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Climate change: processes, characteristics and threats Climate change: processes, characteristics and threats
Most people have heard about climate change, they might even express a real concern about it, but how many would actually consider it a threat? Because the changes can be slow and sometimes difficult to identify within the normal variation of climatic conditions, many of us think they will not affect our lives. However, some parts of the world are already being severely affected by climatic change – both the people and the environment. And unfort...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Mitigating climate change: cost in 2050 (out of GDP) Mitigating climate change: cost in 2050 (out of GDP)
Global average GDP might be reduced by 1–4% if we reduce the emissions of CO2 so that we stabilize the concentration in the atmosphere at 450 ppmv. In 2003 the concentration was 375 ppmv. If we stabilise at higher concentration levels, the GDP reduction will be less. The projected mitigation scenarios do not take into account potential benefits of avoided climate change. Cost-effectiveness studies with a century time scale estimate that the mit...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Sensitivity, adaptability and vulnerability Sensitivity, adaptability and vulnerability
Sensitivity is the degree to which a system is affected, either adversely or beneficially, by climate-related stimuli. Climate-related stimuli encompass all the elements of climate change, including mean climate characteristics, climate variability, and the frequency and magnitude of extremes. The effect may be direct (e.g., a change in crop yield in response to a change in the mean, range or variability of temperature) or indirect (e.g., damages...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Factors influencing the greenhouse effect Factors influencing the greenhouse effect
There are three main factors that directly influence the energy balance of the earth: the total energy influx, which depends on the earth's distance from the sun and on solar activity; the chemical composition of the atmosphere, and albedo, the ability of the earth's surface to reflect light. The only factor that has changed significantly in the last 100 years is the chemical composition of the atmosphere. This resource also includes a graphic th...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Population and development in Africa Population and development in Africa
As population increases, so does the demand for natural resources. This graphic shows how the world's population distribution has changed since 1750 (in 50-year increments), with projections for 2050 and 2150. It also shows how Africa's population and the world's population have increased since 1750, with projected data to the year 2150. The figures are based on an index of 100 in the year 1750.
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Delphine Digout, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Freshwater resources Freshwater resources
Access to water is perhaps one of the greatest challenges for sustainable development in Africa. This resource includes three graphics. The first shows the average annual freshwater withdrawal, in cubic metres per capita per year, at the national level for Africa. The second graphic shows the annual volume of water resources, in cubic kilometres, that each continent has, based on the average of figures from 1921 to 1985. The final graphic shows t...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Food Production Index Food Production Index
Per capita food production is declining in Africa, but it is increasing steadily in the world as a whole. This graphic shows the net food production per capita (PIN base 1989-1991) for Africa and for the world for the time period 1961 to 2001.
17 May 2005 - by Digout, Delphine, based on a sketch by Philippe Rekacewicz; UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Cooling factors Cooling factors
The amount of aerosols in the air has direct effect on the amount of solar radiation hitting the Earth's surface. Aerosols may have significant local or regional impact on temperature. Water vapour is a greenhouse gas, but at the same time the upper white surface of clouds reflects solar radiation back into space. Albedo - reflections of solar radiation from surfaces on the Earth - creates difficulties in exact calculations. If e.g. the polar ice...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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