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Centralized or decentralized? - Uganda. A study case Centralized or decentralized? - Uganda. A study case
Looking at the costs and benefits, centralized systems may not be the answer in terms of best result for the investment. The chart on the left shows that the financial NPV does not change with increasing population size for centralized sewage and wastewater connection, however the economic NPV (which includes benefits to health and the environment) shows a positive trend with increas- ing populations. Centralized systems therefore generate a grea...
01 Mar 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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World fresh water supply World fresh water supply
Water is the life force of our planet, but only 1 per cent of all the freshwater on Earth is available for human use.
01 Mar 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Water for food Water for food
The volume of water required to produce different food products varies enourmously, as do the waste products.
01 Mar 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Population increase and water resources Population increase and water resources
The world’s water resources will not change, but the human population and its demands on supply are growing rap- idly. Meeting these demands will require wise investment in how we use and reuse our water (UN Water Statistics).
01 Mar 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Wastewater, Health and Human well being - Investing in water supply and sanitation Wastewater, Health and Human well being - Investing in water supply and sanitation
Investment to improve basic access to a safe water source and sanitation (WHO scenario A) can have a significant return with the largest impact on health in particular averting diarrhoea cases and time saved (increasing productivity). Urbanized areas provide a large proportion of GDP, therefore the future development of developing countries is dependent on the productivity of growing urban areas.
01 Mar 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Child mortality rates Child mortality rates
Child mortality rates by cause and region, 2004. Source: WHO, 2008.
01 Mar 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Converting water into red meat Converting water into red meat
Production of red meat has a significant demand on water with impacts on quality.
01 Mar 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Logging in the Congo river basin forest Logging in the Congo river basin forest
China is the largest consumer of logs from the DRC, buying near 38% of the roundwood produced in official statistics in 2008 (Ministère des Eaux, Forêts, Chasses et Pêches du DRC, 2009). However, the official numbers only reflect approximately half of what is being cut, the remaining illegally, often transported across borders to neighboring countries.
17 Mar 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni
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Mining the conflict - Importing from Kivu war zone Mining the conflict - Importing from Kivu war zone
Accessibility to minerals and illegal exploitation has been central in the conflict and in financing continued warfare in the DRC.
01 Mar 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni
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Mining the forest Mining the forest
Mining and deforestation.
01 Mar 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni
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Ebola - A Central Africa decennal course - 1994-2003 Ebola - A Central Africa decennal course - 1994-2003
Ebola epidemic outbreaks across the Congo Basin are a significant threat to gorillas, and also impact the few remaining populations less exposed to poaching and habitat loss.
06 Mar 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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The Walikale community gorilla reserve The Walikale community gorilla reserve
The Walikale community gorilla reserve.
01 Mar 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni
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Mineral deposits in eastern Congo Mineral deposits in eastern Congo
Mineral deposits in eastern Congo are at the heart of conflict and the continued unhindered transport across borders and the funds from companies based in the EU and Asia are key to the continuation of environmental crime, destruction of gorilla habitat and atrocities.
01 Mar 2010 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
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Corporation Corporation
Multinational companies in the EU and in Asia, among other, operate through subsidiary companies in the DRC region and contribute directly or most often indirectly with funds for financing the illegal exploitation of resources in the DRC – without criminal investigations.
01 Mar 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius
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Wood exports from Congo Basin Wood exports from Congo Basin
Companies originating in the EU, and companies based in Austria, Belgium, Canada, China, Hong Kong (China), India, Malaysia, Thailand, Rwanda, South Africa, Switzerland, The Netherlands, The Russian Federation, The United Arab Emirates, and the UK and Northern Ireland are involved in exporting minerals and timber from conflict regions in the DRC (UNSC, 2008). Principle export points are Mombasa and Dar Es Salaam.
01 Mar 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni
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Taxation system in eastern DR Congo conflict zone - Part of CNDP incomes from local resources Taxation system in eastern DR Congo conflict zone - Part of CNDP incomes from local resources
Militias and collaborating subsidiary companies or dealers are involved in everything from road “taxes” and “taxes” on local impoverished populations to massive scale exploitation of minerals, timber and charcoal.
01 Mar 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni
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Corruption Corruption
Even though the logging concessions fall out- side of the protected areas, it is not uncommon – due to lack of resources for enforcement – that companies log inside protected areas, where often more valuable timber is present, and export this as part of their legal conces- sions – many however with at least 50% underreporting.
01 Mar 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius
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Charcoal illegal trade Charcoal illegal trade
As valuable timber becomes rare outside of parks, militias enter parks and illegally cut and produce charcoal inside parks – even the best protected park of the Virungas housing large shares of the Worlds remaining mountain gorilla popula- tion. Rangers here destroyed over a thousand kilns for charcoal inside the park in 2009.
01 Mar 2010 - by Riccaro Pravettoni
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Charcoal business in Virunga area Charcoal business in Virunga area
Charcoal business in the Virunga area.
01 Mar 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni
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Under siege - Gorrila territory affected by war, mining and logging Under siege - Gorrila territory affected by war, mining and logging
The pressure on protected areas by militias and refugees in Eastern DRC.
01 Mar 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni
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