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Simulated Future Temperature Trends Simulated Future Temperature Trends
Weather patterns are altered.
27 Oct 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Annual Temperatures Increases for 2001-2005 Relative to 1951-1980 Annual Temperatures Increases for 2001-2005 Relative to 1951-1980
Average surface temperature anomaly (oC)
27 Oct 2009 - by Laura Margueritte
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East Siberian Arctic Shelf East Siberian Arctic Shelf
The degradation of arctic sub-sea permafrost is already releasing methane from the massive, frozen, undersea carbon pool and more is expected with further warming.
27 Oct 2009 - by Laura Margueritte
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Area with near-surface permafrost (North of 45°N) Area with near-surface permafrost (North of 45°N)
Simulated a) permafrost area and active layer thickness (a) 1980- 1999 and (b) 2080-2099. (c) Observational estimates of permafrost (continuous, discontinuous, sporadic, and isolated). (d) Time series of simulated global permafrost area (excluding glacial Greenland and Antarctica).
01 Oct 2009 - by Laura Margueritte
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Depht-corrected density of Labrador Sea water (northern North Atlantic) at 200-800 m depth Depht-corrected density of Labrador Sea water (northern North Atlantic) at 200-800 m depth
The global ocean circulation system will change under the strong influence of arctic warming.
27 Oct 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Antarctic References Antarctic References
Images of Antarctica (left) and Greenland (right) to scale. Antarctica is 50 per cent larger than the United States or Europe. Greenland is 7 times smaller than Antarctica. There is enough ice in Antarctica to raise global sea level by 60 metres and 7 metres in Greenland.
27 Oct 2009 - by Laura Margueritte
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Temperature anomalies of the intermediate Atlantic Water in Arctic Ocean Temperature anomalies of the intermediate Atlantic Water in Arctic Ocean
The Arctic Ocean connections are changing
27 Oct 2009 - by Laura Margueritte
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Arctic Ocean Arctic Ocean
Left panel: Schematic of the Arctic Ocean, central basin (Canada and Eurasian basins) and arctic continental shelves (with approximate boundaries for each Arctic Ocean coastal sea), and major rivers draining into the region. Right panel: The three generic types of continental shelves (i.e., inflow, interior and outflow) are shown
27 Oct 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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The Arctic Ocean The Arctic Ocean
The Arctic Ocean experiences much less exchange with the atmosphere than other oceans; momentum exchange (wind drag), heat exchange and freshwater exchange are limited due to the sea ice cover.
01 Oct 2009 - by Laura Margueritte
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Global Sea-level Rise Global Sea-level Rise
The loss of ice from the Greenland Ice Sheet has increased and will contribute substantially to global sea level rise.
27 Oct 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Near Surface Temperature Near Surface Temperature
Summary of arctic amplification depicted from one of the climate models participating in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC 2007).
27 Oct 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Gas Arctic Gas Arctic
The temperature regime of sub-sea permafrost is determined by the annual temperature of the surrounding seawater, just like the thermal regime of terrestrial permafrost is determined by the arctic surface temperature.
27 Oct 2009 - by Laura Margueritte
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Global Carbon Storage in Soils Global Carbon Storage in Soils
Arctic terrestrial ecosystems will continue to take up carbon, but warming and changes in surface hydrology will cause a far greater release of carbon.
27 Oct 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Mass balance of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet Mass balance of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet
Increase in mass loss by the West Antarctic ice sheet. The mass loss has been steadily increasing since the 1970s as a result of accelerations in glacier flow; snowfall has not changed significantly in Antarctica over the past 50 years.
27 Oct 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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South West Greenland Ocean Temperature South West Greenland Ocean Temperature
Initially, meltwater was assumed to be the prime cause of glacier acceleration, making its way to the ground beneath ice sheets, lubricating it and causing the glaciers to flow more quickly to the sea.
27 Oct 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Regional Variability in Sea-level Change Regional Variability in Sea-level Change
Regional variability in sea level change relative to the global average by the end of this century.
27 Oct 2009 - by Laura Margueritte
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Radiation Radiation
Arctic sea ice and atmospheric circulation.
27 Oct 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
3
Methane in Air Above Water Surface Methane in Air Above Water Surface
Mixing ratio of methane in the air above the water surface measured along a ship’s route in September 2005. The dotted line shows the Latitude-specific monthly average of 1.85 parts per million by volume established for the Barrow, Alaska, USA, monitoring station at 71° 19’ N, 156° 35’ W (http://www. cmdl.noaa.gov/ccgg/insitu.html); this is the normal level of methane in the atmosphere at this latitude.
27 Oct 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet Mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet
Changes in mass of the Greenland Ice Sheet from 1958-2007.
27 Oct 2009 - by Laura Margueritte
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Surface Temperature Degree Surface Temperature Degree
No data
27 Oct 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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