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Region: global

Possible individual ranges of yield and cropland area losses by 2050
Figure 24: Possible individual ranges of yield and cropland area losses by 2050 with climate change (A2 scenario), non-food crops incl. biofuels (six OECD scenarios), land degradation (on yield and area, respectively, s...
02 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Trends in food commodity prices, compared to trends in crude oil prices (indices)
The impacts of reduced food availability, higher food prices and thus lower access to food by many people have been dramatic. It is estimated that in 2008 at least 110 million people have been driven into poverty and ...
02 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Potential for cropland expansion
Current projections suggest that an additional 120 million ha – an area twice the size of France or one-third that of India – will be needed to support the traditional growth in food production by 2030, mainly in deve...
02 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Food lost
Food losses in the field (between planting and harvesting) could be as high as 20–40% of the potential harvest in developing countries due to pests and pathogens (Kader, 2005). Postharvest losses vary greatly among co...
02 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Supermarket share of retail food sales
Large urban markets create the scope for the establishment of big supermarket chains, with implications for the entire food supply chain. In 2002, the share of supermarkets in the processed/packaged food retail market...
02 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Food consumption – trends and projections
Increase in crop production has mainly been a function of increases in yield due to increased irrigation and fertilizer use. However, this may change in the future towards more reliance on cropland expansion, at the co...
02 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Projected changes in cereal productivity in Africa, due to climate change – current climate to 2080
Water is essential not only to survival but is also equally or even more important than nutrients in food production. Agriculture accounts for nearly 70% of the water consumption, with some estimates as high as 85% (H...
02 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
World capture fisheries and aquaculture production
Current projections for aquaculture suggest that previous growth is unlikely to be sustained in the future as a result of limits to the availability of wild marine fish for aquaculture feed (FAO, 2008). Small pelagic...
02 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
FAO Food price index (FFPI)
The current world food crisis is the result of the combined effects of competition for cropland from the growth in biofuels, low cereal stocks, high oil prices, speculation in food markets and extreme weather events. T...
02 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Crushed by war and world conflicts
Conflicts increase the risk of food supply instability tremendously (Figure 31). Countries in conflict and post-conflict situations tend to be food insecure, with more than 20% of the population, and in many cases far...
02 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Country income groups (World Bank classification)
There are huge regional differences in the above trends. Globally, poverty rates have fallen from 52% in 1981 to 42% in 1990 and to 26% in 2005. In Sub-Saharan Africa, however, the poverty rate remained constant at ar...
02 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Water requirements for food production 1960-2050
The requirements for water in agriculture will need to increase in order to meet the Millennium Development Goal 1, target 2 'Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger'. To decrease hu...
02 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Market access (estimated travel time) in agricultural areas
Accessibility to food is also determined by the long-term trend in food prices (which is a different issue from price volatility). The rising trend in global food prices is likely to persist in the next decade. In the...
02 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Agricultural trends, production, fertilisers, irrigation and pesticides
Figure 8: Global trends (1960–2005) in cereal and meat production, use of fertilizer, irrigation and pesticides. (Source: Tilman, 2002; FAO, 2003; International Fertilizer Association, 2008; FAOSTAT, 2009).
02 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Projected agriculture in 2080 due to climate change
With our climate changes, we have to adapt our ways to a new environment – in most cases warmer and possibly wetter and drier. Projections on the climate in the future provide some guidance for us, but how can we create ...
02 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Trends in mean depth of fish catches
Food losses in the field (between planting and harvesting) could be as high as 20–40% of the potential harvest in developing countries due to pests and pathogens (Kader, 2005). Postharvest losses vary greatly among co...
02 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Projected land use changes
A central component in preventing loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services, such as provisioning of water, from expanding agricultural production is to limit the trade-off between economic growth and biodiversity b...
02 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Trends in world agricultural exports
The availability of food within a specific country can be guaranteed in two ways: Either by food production in the country itself or by trade. The first option has been discussed extensively in the previous chapters. ...
02 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Selected drought events in Africa, 1981-1999, and livestock impacts
Water scarcity in terms of drought or depleted groundwater could therefore have great impacts on livestock and rangelands. These interactions are also complex. While drought can directly threaten livestock, other fact...
02 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Trends in urban and rural populations, less developed regions, 1960-2030 (estimates and projections)
According to the latest UN estimates, almost all of the world’s population growth between 2000 and 2030 will be concentrated in urban areas in developing countries (Figure 32). By 2030, almost 60% of the people in dev...
02 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal