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Region: global

Electrification and traditional fuels in Sub-Saharan Africa
The Southern African Development Community (SADC) consists of 15 countries, with 233 million inhabitants. Apart from Mauritius and the countries around South Africa in the Southern African Customs Union (SACU), the remai...
12 May 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Natural resources - marine resources
Primary ocean productivity, as measured in grammes of carbon per square meter, from remote sensing imagery outlines the areas with rich marine life. These areas are characterised by an abundance of marine life and they p...
01 Feb 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Historical trends in carbon dioxide concentrations and temperature
The more recent history, from the middle ages and up until now, show increasing temperatures, rising as the world emerged from the Little Ice Age (LIA), around 1850. With the industrial era, human activities have at the ...
31 Jul 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Major global bird migration routes to the Arctic
Bird species that migrate to the Arctic coasts and wetlands arrive from nearly every corner of the planet. During the summer, the sun never or nearly never sets, resulting in a short but intensive breeding season when mi...
31 Jul 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Climate change - ice and snow and the albedo effect
Changes in the polar regions can cause more warming in the entire planet earth system through feedback effects. One such effect is the reduction of ice and snow due to warmer temperatures. When the white and gray snow an...
31 Jul 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Increases in annual temperatures for a recent five-year period, relative to 1951-1980
Warming is widespread, generally greater over land than over oceans, and the largest gains in temperatures for the planet are over the North American Arctic, north central Siberia, and on the Antarctic Peninsula. These r...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Protected areas, Arctic and Antarctic
Protected areas are very important for conserving biodiversity. In these areas, human activities are managed to achieve specific conservation goals, for example, to protect a certain species or to conserve a representati...
31 Jul 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Cryosphere - winter seasons, Northern and Southern Hemispheres
Seasonal variation in the extent of ice and snow cover is greatest in the Northern Hemisphere. Imagine the Earth with white caps on the top and bottom. The top cap increases by a factor of six from summer to winter, whil...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Coldwater coral reefs, distribution
Scientists are just beginning to learn about the many species in the remote, deep waters of the polar oceans. Corals, for example, are not limited to the warm, shallow waters of the tropics. They also exist in many cold,...
31 Jul 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
The Antarctic hole
Despite progress achieved under the Montreal Protocol, the ozone “hole” over the Antarctic was larger than ever in September 2006. This was due to particularly cold temperatures in the stratosphere, but also to the chemi...
31 Jul 2008 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Projected impacts of climate change
Global climate change may impact food production across a range of pathways (Figure 17): 1) By changing overall growing conditions (general rainfall distribution, temperature regime and carbon); 2) By inducing more ex...
02 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Trends in population, developed and developing countries, 1750-2050 (estimates and projections)
Each day 200,000 more people are added to the world food demand. The world’s human population has increased near fourfold in the past 100 years (UN population Division, 2007); it is projected to increase from 6.7 bill...
02 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Many of the largest rivers in the Himalayas Hindu Kush region are strongly dependent upon snow and glacial melt for waterflow
Except for the fact that glaciers are melting rapidly in many places, we do not have adequate data to more accurately project when and where water scarcity will affect irrigation schemes in full. Making accurate projecti...
02 Feb 2009 - by Ieva Rucevska, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Biofuels production 1975-2005 (ethanol and biodiesel)
Biofuels have grown quickly in demand and production (Figure 14), fuelled by high oil prices and the initial perception of their role in reducing CO2 emissions (FAO, 2008). Biofuels, including biodiesel from palm oil ...
02 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Dietary change in developing countries, 1964-2030
As nearly half of the world’s cereal production is used to produce animal feed, the dietary proportion of meat has a major influence on global food demand (Keyzer et al., 2005). With meat consumption projected to incr...
02 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
An increasing number of countries are leasing land abroad to sustain and secure their food production
The world regions are sharply divided in terms of their capacity to use science in promoting agricultural productivity in order to achieve food security and reduce poverty and hunger. For every US$100 of agricultural ...
02 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Losses in the food chain – from field to household consumption
i.e., before conversion of food to feed. After discounting the losses, conversions and wastage at the various stages, roughly 2,800 kcal are available for supply (mixture of animal and vegetal foods) and, at the end ...
02 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
FAO Commodity Price Indices
Although production has generally increased, the rising prices coincided with extreme weather events in several major cereal producing countries, which resulted in a depletion of cereal stocks. The 2008 world cereal s...
02 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Trends in productivity 1981-2003 (greening and land degradation)
Unsustainable practices in irrigation and production may lead to increased salinization of soil, nutrient depletion and erosion. An estimated 950 million ha of salt-affected lands occur in arid and semi-arid regions, ...
02 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Agricultural production increases, per commodity 1965-2008
The use of fertilizers accounts for approximately 50% of the yield increase, and greater irrigation for another substantial part (FAO, 2003). Current FAO projections in food demand suggest that cereal demand will incr...
02 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal