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Arctic ozone depletion and stratospheric temperature Arctic ozone depletion and stratospheric temperature
Changes in ozone amounts closely follow temperature, with colder temperatures resulting in more polar stratospheric clouds that intensify ozone destruction. The results are compared from 1979 to 2006.
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Examples of ozone depleting substances (ODS) smuggling patterns in Asia and the Pacific Examples of ozone depleting substances (ODS) smuggling patterns in Asia and the Pacific
In the mid-1990s, when CFCs were phased-out in industrialized countries (non-Article 5 countries), illegal trade in those chemicals emerged. By 1996 this trade had reached alarming proportions, accounting for as much as 12–20% of global trade in ozone depleting substances (ODS).
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Total reported global production of ozone depleting substances (ods) Total reported global production of ozone depleting substances (ods)
Ozone depleting solvents were used in dry cleaning, and to clean metal parts in almost all electronic devices, refrigerating equipment and cars. They also played a part in tasks such as laminating wood for desks, bookshelves and cupboards.
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Vulnerabilities Vulnerabilities
Many people from the higher latitudes grill their skin intensely in the sun during their short summer holidays, but only get minimal exposure to the sun for the rest of the year. Such intermittent exposure to sunlight seems to be a risk factor. On the other hand populations with darker skin pigmentation regularly exposed to similar or even higher UV rays are less prone to skin damage.
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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CFC production and consumption in 2005 CFC production and consumption in 2005
It was once quoted in the US as being second in value only to cocaine. A 2006 estimate indicated that CFCs alone accounted for 7,000 to 14,000 tonnes of this trade, valued at US$ 25 to US$ 60 million. The disparity in production and consumption has created problems around the world.
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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CFC end uses in the us in 1987 CFC end uses in the us in 1987
Ozone depleting solvents were used in dry cleaning, and to clean metal parts in almost all electronic devices, refrigerating equipment and cars. They also played a part in tasks such as laminating wood for desks, bookshelves and cupboards.
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Production of main ozone depleting substance (ODS) gases Production of main ozone depleting substance (ODS) gases
Since the discovery of their destructive nature, other substances have gradually replaced ozone depleting substances (ODS). In some cases it is difficult to find and costly to produce replacements, which may have undesirable side-effects or may not be applicable for every use.
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Skin colour map (indigenous people) Skin colour map (indigenous people)
The twin role played by the skin – protection from excessive UV radiation and absorption of enough sunlight to trigger the production of vitamin D – means that people living in the lower latitudes, close to the Equator, with intense UV radiation, have developed darker skin to protect them from the damaging effects of UV radiation. In contrast, those living in the higher latitudes, closer to the Poles, have developed fair skin to maximize vitamin ...
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Ozone depletion and climate change Ozone depletion and climate change
Ozone depletion and climate change are two distinct problems but as they both modify global cycles, they cannot be totally separated. There are still many uncertainties concerning the relations between the two processes.
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Forest systems Forest systems
Forest systems are lands dominated by trees; they are often used for timber, fuelwood, and non-wood forest products. The map shows areas with a canopy cover of at least 40% by woody plants taller than 5 meters.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Economic benefits under alternate management practices Economic benefits under alternate management practices
In each case, the net benefits from the more sustainably managed ecosystem are greater than those from the converted ecosystem, even though the private (market) benefits would be greater from the converted ecosystem.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Total carbon market value per year Total carbon market value per year
The total value of the carbon market for 2003 topped $300 million. And, depending on international regulation, some observers project that it will increase to $10–40 billion by 2010. Markets are also being created for more diverse commodities ranging from aquifer recharge credits, renewable energy credits, wasteload allocations for point and non-point source pollutants, and mitigation credits for wetlands, biodiversity, and riparian buffer zones.
01 Oct 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Growth in number of marine species introductions Growth in number of marine species introductions
Number of new records of established non-native invertebrate and algal species reported in marine waters of North America, shown by date of first record, and number of new records of non-native marine plant species reported on the European coast, by date of first record.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Inland water and mountain systems Inland water and mountain systems
Inland water systems are permanent water bodies inland from the coastal zone and areas whose properties and use are dominated by the permanent, seasonal, or intermittent occurrence of flooded conditions. Inland waters include rivers, lakes, floodplains, reservoirs, wetlands, and inland saline systems.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Contribution of ecosystems to historical radiative forcing and current greenhouse gas emissions Contribution of ecosystems to historical radiative forcing and current greenhouse gas emissions
Radiative forcing caused by changes in atmospheric composition, alteration in land surface reflectance (albedo), and variation in the output of the sun for the year 2000 relative to conditions in 1750.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Trend in mean depth of catch since 1950 Trend in mean depth of catch since 1950
Fisheries catches increasingly originate from deep areas. Over the years due to depletion in fish stocks the fishing industry has resorted to fishing at greater depths and increasing the damage to fish stocks and the ocean floor.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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World population scenarios World population scenarios
Some factors (such as global population growth) will begin to decline in importance and others (distribution of people, climate change, and changes to nutrient cycles) will gain more importance in the near future.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Conversion of terrestrial biomes Conversion of terrestrial biomes
It is not possible to estimate accurately the extent of different biomes prior to significant human impact, but it is possible to determine the “potential” area of biomes based on soil and climatic conditions.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Extent of cultivated systems, 2000 Extent of cultivated systems, 2000
More land was converted to cropland in the 30 years after 1950 than in the 150 years between 1700 and 1850. Cultivated systems (areas where at least 30% of the landscape is in croplands,shifting cultivation, confined livestock production, or freshwater aquaculture) now cover one quarter of Earth’s terrestrial surface.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Gross Domestic Product (GDP) average annual growth, 1990–2003 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) average annual growth, 1990–2003
Average annual percentage growth rate of GDP at market prices based on constant local currency. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using 1995 official exchange rates. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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