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Severity of land degradation Severity of land degradation
The highest levels of land degradation is in Europe. Specifically degraded soils are found especially in semi-arid areas (Sub-Saharan Africa, Chile), areas with high population pressure (China, Mexico, India) and regions undergoing deforestation (Indonesia).
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Energy efficiency generally improves with economic growth...but greenhouse gases increase too Energy efficiency generally improves with economic growth...but greenhouse gases increase too
In 1992 76 million people living in urban areas were exposed to air pollutant concentrations exceeding WHO guidelines. In developing countries 1.9 million people die each year because of indoor air pollution exposure and 500,000 die as a result of outdoor pollutant levels.
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Sulphur emissions Sulphur emissions
Soil degradation is a key global environmental indicator. Trans-border pollution in Europe has become a serious international and environmental problem. Sulphur emissions from industry in Eastern Europe is one of the most environmentally damaging problem that faces countries today.
07 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Human influences on the atmosphere during the industrial era Human influences on the atmosphere during the industrial era
In many of the world’s largest cities (Beijing, Calcutta, Mexico City, Rio de Janeiro, etc.) WHO World Health Organization) air quality guidelines are not met. In 1996 global emissions of carbon dioxide were nearly four times the 1950 total.
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Women in government decision-making positions in 1998 Women in government decision-making positions in 1998
Women are responsible for most household work (and in many parts of the world the majority of agricultural production), but women’s rights to own land or control resources are constrained, often by traditional customs and religious laws.
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, assisted by Lucie Dejouhanet, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Areas affected by deforestation Areas affected by deforestation
Deforestation is a key global environmental indicator. Many regions of the world are affected by deforestation: namely in South America (Brazil), Central Africa (Congo), Southeast Asia (Indonesia) and Eastern Europe.
07 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Global human development indicators Global human development indicators
Poverty is multidimensional. It varies in scale and context (political, social, cultural, ecological, historical, economic). The rural poor face different challenges from those in urban areas: they are concerned with natural resources (access, quality), whereas the urban poor care about access to energy, housing and sanitation, and about the quality and availability of water.
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, assisted by Lucie Dejouhanet, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Ever growing numbers of refugees Ever growing numbers of refugees
Many people forced into exile for ecological reasons have to claim political refugee status. For instance, in 1992 the thousands of people who fled the drought in Mozambique had political refuge status in Zambia. Gaining this status was easy since Zambia needed to increase its refugee population to qualify for more international aid. After the drought ended, the eco-refugees returned to Mozambique before official repatriation started.
07 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Degraded soils Degraded soils
Soil degradation is a key global environmental indicator. Very degraded soils are found especially in semi-arid areas (Sub-Saharan Africa, Chile), areas with high population pressure (China, Mexico, India) and regions undergoing deforestation (Indonesia). Degraded soils reduce the possibilities for agriculture, increases the expansion of drylands/desert and hightens the risk for erosion. This map presents the state of global soil degradation, fro...
06 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Number of extra skin cancer cases related to UV radiation Number of extra skin cancer cases related to UV radiation
The most widely recognised damage occurs to the skin. The direct effects are sun burn, chronic skin damage (photo-aging) and an increased risk of developing various types of skin cancer. Models predict that a 10 per cent decrease in the ozone in the stratosphere could cause an additional 300,000 non-melanoma and 4,500 (more dangerous) melanoma skin cancers worldwide annually.
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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The colder Antarctic winter drives formation of the hole in the south The colder Antarctic winter drives formation of the hole in the south
The air inside the Antarctic polar vortex is much colder than midlatitude air. “When temperatures drop below -78°C, thin clouds form of ice, nitric acid, and sulphuric acid mixtures. Chemical reactions on the surfaces of ice crystals in the clouds release active forms of CFCs. Ozone depletion begins, and the ozone “hole” appears.
01 Oct 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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The “Hole”: a result of special weather conditions over the pole repeated every spring The “Hole”: a result of special weather conditions over the pole repeated every spring
The Antarctic continent is circled by a strong wind in the stratosphere which flows around Antarctica and isolates air over Antarctica from air in the midlatitudes. The region poleward of this jet stream is called the Antarctic polar vortex. The air inside the Antarctic polar vortex is much colder than midlatitude air.” “When temperatures drop below -78°C, thin clouds form of ice, nitric acid, and sulphuric acid mixtures. Chemical reactions on th...
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Ozone hole size 1980–2006 Ozone hole size 1980–2006
The extent of ozone depletion for any given period depends on complex interaction between chemical and climatic factors such as temperature and wind. The unusually high levels of depletion in 1988, 1993 and 2002 were due to early warming of the polar stratosphere caused by air disturbances originating in mid-latitudes, rather than by major changes in the amount of reactive chlorine and bromine in the Antarctic stratosphere.
01 Oct 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Effects of enhanced UV-B radiations on crops Effects of enhanced UV-B radiations on crops
Experiments on food crops have shown lower yields for several key crops such as rice, soy beans and sorghum. The plants minimize their exposure to UV by limiting the surface area of foliage, which in turn impairs growth. However the observed drop in yield does not seem serious enough for scientists to sound the alarm.
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Common but differentiated responsibilities Common but differentiated responsibilities
All countries can claim “climate credits” by their phase out of ozone depleting substances (ODS) under the Montreal Protocol, and some are beginning to document this contribution. Article 5 countries are those listed as developing and do not have the same goals as industrialized nations.
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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The ozone international awakening timeline The ozone international awakening timeline
A record of major events in the history of producing ozone depleting substances (ODS), the discoveries of the harmful process and the steps made to combat the problem from 1879 to 2006, with predictions to 2070 as the date when the ozone hole over the Antarctic will recover.
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Effects of the Montreal Protocol amendment and their phase-out schedules Effects of the Montreal Protocol amendment and their phase-out schedules
There are currently a hundred and ninety-one Parties to this treaty, demonstrating a greater degree of global participation than almost any other agreement managed by the UN. By 2005 these countries had collectively phased out more than 95% of the production and consumption of the chemicals controlled by the protocol.
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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The ozone protection landscape The ozone protection landscape
Antarctic ozone hole in late 1985, Governments finally recognised the need for stronger measures to reduce consumption and production of various CFCs and halons. The Montreal Protocol came into force on 1 January 1989.
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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All recipient and contributor countries of the Multilateral Fund All recipient and contributor countries of the Multilateral Fund
Countries receive funds according to their compliance needs. That is, they receive funds to phase-out specific amounts of ozone depleting substances (ODS) production and consumption. Hence, ODS producer countries and high consumers receive more funds since they have greater needs.
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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The global solar UV Index The global solar UV Index
The Global Solar UV Index (UVI) is a simple measurement of the UV radiation level at the Earth's surface. It has been designed to indicate the potential for adverse health effects and to encourage people to protect themselves. The higher the Index value, the greater the potential for damage to the skin and eye, and the less time it takes for harm to occur.
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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