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Region: global

Severity of land degradation
The highest levels of land degradation is in Europe. Specifically degraded soils are found especially in semi-arid areas (Sub-Saharan Africa, Chile), areas with high population pressure (China, Mexico, India) and regions...
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Energy efficiency generally improves with economic growth...but greenhouse gases increase too
In 1992 76 million people living in urban areas were exposed to air pollutant concentrations exceeding WHO guidelines. In developing countries 1.9 million people die each year because of indoor air pollution exposure and...
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Sulphur emissions
Soil degradation is a key global environmental indicator. Trans-border pollution in Europe has become a serious international and environmental problem. Sulphur emissions from industry in Eastern Europe is one of the mo...
07 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Human influences on the atmosphere during the industrial era
In many of the world’s largest cities (Beijing, Calcutta, Mexico City, Rio de Janeiro, etc.) WHO World Health Organization) air quality guidelines are not met. In 1996 global emissions of carbon dioxide were nearly four ...
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Women in government decision-making positions in 1998
Women are responsible for most household work (and in many parts of the world the majority of agricultural production), but women’s rights to own land or control resources are constrained, often by traditional customs an...
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, assisted by Lucie Dejouhanet, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Areas affected by deforestation
Deforestation is a key global environmental indicator. Many regions of the world are affected by deforestation: namely in South America (Brazil), Central Africa (Congo), Southeast Asia (Indonesia) and Eastern Europe.
07 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Global human development indicators
Poverty is multidimensional. It varies in scale and context (political, social, cultural, ecological, historical, economic). The rural poor face different challenges from those in urban areas: they are concerned with nat...
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, assisted by Lucie Dejouhanet, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Ever growing numbers of refugees
Many people forced into exile for ecological reasons have to claim political refugee status. For instance, in 1992 the thousands of people who fled the drought in Mozambique had political refuge status in Zambia. Gaining...
07 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Degraded soils
Soil degradation is a key global environmental indicator. Very degraded soils are found especially in semi-arid areas (Sub-Saharan Africa, Chile), areas with high population pressure (China, Mexico, India) and regions un...
06 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Number of extra skin cancer cases related to UV radiation
The most widely recognised damage occurs to the skin. The direct effects are sun burn, chronic skin damage (photo-aging) and an increased risk of developing various types of skin cancer. Models predict that a 10 per cent...
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
The colder Antarctic winter drives formation of the hole in the south
The air inside the Antarctic polar vortex is much colder than midlatitude air. “When temperatures drop below -78°C, thin clouds form of ice, nitric acid, and sulphuric acid mixtures. Chemical reactions on the surfaces of...
01 Oct 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
The “Hole”: a result of special weather conditions over the pole repeated every spring
The Antarctic continent is circled by a strong wind in the stratosphere which flows around Antarctica and isolates air over Antarctica from air in the midlatitudes. The region poleward of this jet stream is called the An...
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Ozone hole size 1980–2006
The extent of ozone depletion for any given period depends on complex interaction between chemical and climatic factors such as temperature and wind. The unusually high levels of depletion in 1988, 1993 and 2002 were due...
01 Oct 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Effects of enhanced UV-B radiations on crops
Experiments on food crops have shown lower yields for several key crops such as rice, soy beans and sorghum. The plants minimize their exposure to UV by limiting the surface area of foliage, which in turn impairs growth....
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Common but differentiated responsibilities
All countries can claim “climate credits” by their phase out of ozone depleting substances (ODS) under the Montreal Protocol, and some are beginning to document this contribution. Article 5 countries are those listed as ...
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
The ozone international awakening timeline
A record of major events in the history of producing ozone depleting substances (ODS), the discoveries of the harmful process and the steps made to combat the problem from 1879 to 2006, with predictions to 2070 as the da...
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Effects of the Montreal Protocol amendment and their phase-out schedules
There are currently a hundred and ninety-one Parties to this treaty, demonstrating a greater degree of global participation than almost any other agreement managed by the UN. By 2005 these countries had collectively phas...
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
The ozone protection landscape
Antarctic ozone hole in late 1985, Governments finally recognised the need for stronger measures to reduce consumption and production of various CFCs and halons. The Montreal Protocol came into force on 1 January 1989.
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
All recipient and contributor countries of the Multilateral Fund
Countries receive funds according to their compliance needs. That is, they receive funds to phase-out specific amounts of ozone depleting substances (ODS) production and consumption. Hence, ODS producer countries and hig...
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
The global solar UV Index
The Global Solar UV Index (UVI) is a simple measurement of the UV radiation level at the Earth's surface. It has been designed to indicate the potential for adverse health effects and to encourage people to protect thems...
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal