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No shelter - refugees, sanitation and slums No shelter - refugees, sanitation and slums
In the face of any calamity we instinctively take refuge under a roof. This is little use against a chemical or nuclear accident, but for many there is no other resort. The number of people currently living in shanty towns is rising in all the big cities of the developing world, where urban growth is generally uncontrolled. The map shows how small the proportion of city dwellers with improved access to sanitation in many places is, giving an ide...
01 Feb 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Global costs of extreme weather events Global costs of extreme weather events
The loss data on great natural disasters in the last decades show a dramatic increase in catastrophe losses. A decade comparison since 1960 is shown in the table. The reasons for this development are manifold and encompass the increase in world population and the simultaneous concentration of people and values in large conurbations, the development of highly exposed regions and the high vulnerability of modern societies and technologies, and fina...
01 Feb 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Conflicts and disasters - potential powder kegs (landmines and other explosives) Conflicts and disasters - potential powder kegs (landmines and other explosives)
The planet is scattered with hazardous or explosive leftovers from a succession of technical breakthroughs – be they military or industrial – just waiting to be washed away by a flood or mudslide or carried off by a hurricane. If disaster strikes these “powder kegs” multiply the danger to people and the environment (posing a particularly acute threat to already scarce water resources).
01 Feb 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Crushed by war - world conflicts Crushed by war - world conflicts
For people in countries at war or subject to economic embargos many goods are scarce, food and water constituting the most crucial shortages. But they also have to deal regularly with death and injury. In such countries disaster prevention may well not be a priority.
01 Feb 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Global average temperature 1880 - 2100 Global average temperature 1880 - 2100
The graph shows the average global temperature from 1880 to 2100. It shows that the average global temperature has slowly increased since 1880 and is estimated to increase noticably over the course of the next hundred years.
12 Feb 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Global and selected annex 1 countries emissions of greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O) in projections Global and selected annex 1 countries emissions of greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O) in projections
Emissions from human activities, and primarily fossil fuels, contribute to climate change, global warming and the greenhouse effect. This is primarily from industry, energy, transportation and related sectors. Please note that this collection of graphics has since been updated, please see http://www.grida.no or http://unfccc.int/ for the latest information and graphics
12 Feb 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Projection of global average temperatures Projection of global average temperatures
Emissions from human activities, and primarily fossil fuels, contribute to climate change, global warming and the greenhouse effect. This is primarily from industry, energy, transportation and related sectors. Please note that this collection of graphics has since been updated, please see http://www.grida.no or http://unfccc.int/ for the latest information and graphics
12 Feb 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Pro-poor growth, absolute and relative definition Pro-poor growth, absolute and relative definition
Pro-poor growth is a term used for primarily national policies to stimulate economic growth for the benefit of poor people (primarily in the economic sense of poverty). Pro-poor growth can be defined as absolute, where the poor benefits from overall growth in the conomy, or relative - which refers to targeted efforts to increase the growth specifically among poor people.
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Water, irrigated cropland percentage by region Water, irrigated cropland percentage by region
Irrigated land currently produces 40% of the world’s food on 17% of the world’s land. A broadening of irrigation and more effective rain fed agriculture will be necessary to meet the need for increasing agricultural outputs – for domestic use and exports.
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Water requirements for food production 1960-2050 Water requirements for food production 1960-2050
The requirements for water in agriculture in developing countries will need to increase in order to meet the Millennium Development Goal 1, target 2 'Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger'. To decrease hunger the outputs in agriculture will need to increase, and thus the water use. The data has been calculated for developing countries with minimum set of calories.
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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The composition and levels of wealth per capita for low-income countries The composition and levels of wealth per capita for low-income countries
In low-income countries, the natural section represents a quarter of the total wealth, this represents the land that is managed either by household, individual or communally, and the potential for generating income. Physical capital, represents a much smaller share as people will have less potential, compared to higher income countries, to acquire equipment, structures and infrastructure.
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Contribution of forest to GDP, and ratio of forest exports out of total exports, for selected countries Contribution of forest to GDP, and ratio of forest exports out of total exports, for selected countries
Forestry provides more than 8% of the GDP in some of the poorest countries. In most of the developing country production is consumed domestically, but for some countries forestry contributes significantly to total exports like in Liberia and the Central African Republic.
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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World economy cartogram World economy cartogram
To highlight the distribution of wealth and power in the world of today, this cartogram sizes the countries according to their relative financial status, here presented through gross domestic product (gdp) per capita, offering an alternative world view to a regular map. Countries such as China and India become much smaller, next to giants in Western Europe, North America and Japan. Africa represents a minor speck, while South and Central America ...
13 Feb 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal, Vladimir S. Tikunov
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p08-09-hazards p08-09-hazards
No data.
13 Feb 2007 - by Bounford.com and UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Mass balance reference glaciers in nine mountain ranges Mass balance reference glaciers in nine mountain ranges
Thirty reference glaciers with almost continuous mass balance measurements since 1975 show an average annual mass loss of 0.58 m water equivalent for the past decade (1996–2005), which is more than twice the loss rate of the period 1986–1995 (0.25 m), and more than four times the rate of the period 1976–1985 (0.14 m). The results from these 30 continuous mass balance series correspond well to estimates based on a larger sample of more tha...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Overview of world glaciers and ice caps Overview of world glaciers and ice caps
By far the largest area of glaciers and ice fields are found in Canada (about 201 000 km2), followed by Alaska (about 75 000 km2) with about 700 km2 in the rest of the USA. Glaciers and ice fields are concentrated in the High Arctic and western cordillera. The total area of glaciers and ice caps, without the ice sheets and surrounding glaciers and ice caps in Greenland and Antarctica, sums up to 540 000 km2.
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Temperatures over previous centuries from various proxy records Temperatures over previous centuries from various proxy records
Evidence from tree rings and other temperature proxies suggests that during the previous 500 years global temperatures were 1.0ºC cooler than those of the 20th century during a period roughly from 1300 to 1870 – known as the Little Ice Age. While overall temperatures during the Little Ice Age were cooler than now, there was much year-to-year variability and some warm periods. The coldest part of the Little Ice Age, from 1645 to 1715, was also a t...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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The Cryosphere, components and world maps The Cryosphere, components and world maps
Snow and the various forms of ice - the cryosphere - play different roles within the climate system. The two continental ice sheets of Antarctica and Greenland actively influence the global climate over time scales of millennia to millions of years, but may also have more rapid effects on, for example, sea level. Snow and sea ice, with their large areas but relatively small volumes, are connected to key interactions and feedbacks at global scales...
01 Oct 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Albedo of basic thick sea ice surface types Albedo of basic thick sea ice surface types
The albedo for different surface conditions on the sea ice range widely, from roughly 85 per cent of radiation reflected for snow-covered ice to 7 per cent for open water. These two surfaces cover the range from the largest to the smallest albedo on earth. Melting snow, bare ice and ponded ice lie within this range. There is a general decrease in the albedo of the ice cover during the melt season as the snow-covered ice is replaced by a mix of me...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Melting ice on Mount Kilimanjaro, East Africa Melting ice on Mount Kilimanjaro, East Africa
Close to 50 per cent of the glaciers in Africa, on the Rwenzori Mountains, Mount Kenya and Kilimanjaro have disappeared, while larger glaciers – particularly on Kilimanjaro – have been fragmented. Changes in glacier area and volume are being used as indicators for global warming and climate change.
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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