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Region: geoeeurope

Yugoslavia, topographic map Yugoslavia, topographic map
Now known as Serbia and Montenegro. Serbia and Montenegro is located in Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea, between Albania and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Major environmental concerns are: pollution of coastal waters from sewage outlets, especially in tourist-related areas such as Kotor; air pollution around Belgrade and other industrial cities; water pollution from industrial wastes dumped into the Sava which flows into the Danube.
04 Oct 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Environment and security priority areas in Eastern Europe Environment and security priority areas in Eastern Europe
Environmental problems often compound external security tensions and worsen internal security challenges in Eastern Europe. Of particular concern are environmental hazards concentrated along national borders (including the borders with the EU, Russia and borders between the three countries).
29 Nov 2007 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Population evolution Population evolution
The populations of Ukraine and Belarus will shrink significantly, with Ukraine expected to lose 9 to 15 million people over the next 50 years (see population figure). Outgoing labour migration makes the situation even worse, hitting Moldova particularly hard, with an estimated 600,000 to 1,000,000 Moldovans (i.e. 40% of the active population) working abroad.
01 Nov 2007 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Energy resources, production and transportation Energy resources, production and transportation
Energy is vital for the internal and external security of all three countries (see figure). A secure, affordable domestic energy supply is critical to economic development, particularly in energy hungry industrial sectors. It is also essential to meet social needs (heating, transportation, etc.) especially for vulnerable groups.
01 Nov 2007 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Environment and security issues in Ukraine Environment and security issues in Ukraine
Compared to its neighbours, Ukraine has a very low Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI) (ranking 108 out of 146 countries; Esty et al. 2005). This is primarily due to the high energy and pollution-intensity of its industry, pressure on ecosystems due to intensive agriculture, water stress on part of its territory, and insufficiently developed environmental institutions.
01 Nov 2007 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Gross National Income (GNI): Belarus, Moldova, Ukraine Gross National Income (GNI): Belarus, Moldova, Ukraine
Though expanding, the region’s economies still lag behind most of their neighbours, with Moldova one of the poorest European countries in terms of per capita GDP. All the countries suffered economic decline in the 1990s followed by some recovery over the last five to ten years (see GNI figure).
01 Nov 2007 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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The continental scale of the Chernobyl accident The continental scale of the Chernobyl accident
The accident involving reactor meltdown and massive release of radioactivity occurred on 26 April 1986 at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant situated seven kilometres south of the Ukraine- Belarus border, at the confluence of the Pripyat and Dnieper rivers. Radioactive fallout affected not only Ukraine and Belarus, but also nearby Russia and countries as far away as Sweden and the UK.
01 Nov 2007 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Energy - environment - security interactions Energy - environment - security interactions
Recently energy demand in the region has reached and surpassed the 1991 level at the same time as the world oil prices have increased dramatically. Russia, for its part, has started a reappraisal of the political and economic costs and benefits of providing indirect energy subsidies. These factors are forcing the three countries to urgently rethink their energy supply options.
07 Nov 2007 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Environment and security issues in Moldova Environment and security issues in Moldova
Since water resources are of particular importance to Moldova, water pollution is viewed as a nationally significant threat. Moldova does not have large lakes, and all its larger rivers originate outside its borders. there are many other issues facing Moldova's environment and security future.
01 Nov 2007 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Peoples of Eastern Europe Peoples of Eastern Europe
Despite common borders and many similarities, the three countries of Eastern Europe do not constitute a region in the sense of political community. Belarus, Moldova and Ukraine have not yet developed visible capacity and projects for regional integration.
01 Nov 2007 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Environment and security issues in Belarus and Ukraine Environment and security issues in Belarus and Ukraine
The Concept of National Security of Belarus focuses on both external and internal security issues. It directly refers to environmental problems such as global climate change, trans-boundary transport of pollution and the risk of serious accidents at industrial facilities located in Belarus and other countries close to Belarus borders, land degradation and radioactive contamination resulting from the Chernobyl.
01 Nov 2007 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Eastern Europe through history Eastern Europe through history
The region’s borderline position has determined its many specific features. Neighbouring cultures deeply penetrated and influenced Eastern European societies, shaping contrasting developmental orientations. Eastern European lands changed hands many times in history and in some periods they were split between Western and Eastern powers. This is a glimpse of 4 periods between 1000 A.D. to 1938 A.D.
01 Nov 2007 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Belarus, Moldova and Ukraine: forest cover Belarus, Moldova and Ukraine: forest cover
There is not a lot of forest coverage in the area. Most of the region consists of plain and lowland, wooded as in Belarus and northern Ukraine, or open steppe as elsewhere. Forests are concentrated in the relatively small mountain regions on the edges of Eastern Europe: in the Carpathians and Crimea.
01 Nov 2007 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Belarus, Moldova and Ukraine: topography Belarus, Moldova and Ukraine: topography
Eastern Europe extends from the northern shore of the Black Sea in Ukraine up to the Baltic Sea basin in Belarus. It covers 845,000 square kilometers and is home to almost 60 million people. These nations share common borders, watersheds, and infrastructure and have many similarities in their geography, history, culture and economy.
29 Nov 2007 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Political patterns and communication axes: Belarus, Moldova, Ukraine Political patterns and communication axes: Belarus, Moldova, Ukraine
Belarus, Moldova and Ukraine are positioned between an enlarging European Union and a historically influential Russia. The area’s unique position and history have played a large part in the overlapping of environmental and security issues. There have been several areas of dispute and inter-ethnic conflict.
01 Nov 2007 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Water basins of Eastern Europe Water basins of Eastern Europe
The region’s eastern boundary roughly corresponds to the Dnieper watershed, and its western and south-western boundaries are loosely defined by the Z. Bug, Prut and Danube rivers as well as by the Carpathian Mountains. Roughly speaking, the Dniester River separates Moldova from Ukraine and the Pripyat marshlands in Polesie divide Ukraine and Belarus.
01 Nov 2007 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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