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Arctic char species complex, distribution map Arctic char species complex, distribution map
The Arctic char species complex, sensu stricto, represent a key component of the marine and freshwater ecosystems of the north. Chars are stressed by factors such as fisheries, climate change and pollutants. We are possibly altering char biodiversity without documenting it and understanding its relevance. Concerted pan-Arctic biodiversity assessments, sustained research, and coordinated monitoring of chars are required to outline the scope of div...
17 Mar 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, GRID-Arendal & CAFF
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Vitality of indigenous languages of the Arctic Vitality of indigenous languages of the Arctic
UNESCO has classified the vitality of each of the Arctic indingenous languages on which data was collected for the ABA study. It is striking to note that 20 languages have become extinct since the 1800s and that ten of these extinctions have taken place after 1990 indicating an increasing rate of language extinction. Of these extinctions, one was in Finland, one in Alaska, one in Canada, and seventeen in the Russian Federation. With this in mind,...
17 Mar 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, GRID-Arendal & CAFF
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Location of datasets in the Arctic Species Trend Index (ASTI) Location of datasets in the Arctic Species Trend Index (ASTI)
Dramatic changes, such as sea ice loss, are projected to occur in Arctic ecosystems over the next century. Understanding how the Arctic’s living resources, including its vertebrate species, are responding to these changes is essential in order to develop effective conservation and adaptation strategies. Arctic species that are adapted to these extreme environments are expected to be displaced, in part, by the encroachment of more southerly specie...
17 Mar 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, GRID-Arendal & CAFF
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Arctic conservation area (CAFF), topographic map, ABA version (2010) Arctic conservation area (CAFF), topographic map, ABA version (2010)
The Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna is a working group under the Arctic Council, for the countries of Russia, Denmark, USA, Canada, Sweden, Iceland, Norway and Finland and indigenous peoples. Monitoring, assessment, protected areas and conservation strategies are all tasks under this working group. The area that the working group primarily addresses is presented in this map.
17 Mar 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, GRID-Arendal & CAFF
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Murre colonies in the Arctic Murre colonies in the Arctic
The two species of murres (known as guillemots in Europe), the thick-billed murre, Uria lomvia, and common murre, Uria aalge, both have circumpolar distributions, breeding in Arctic, sub-Arctic, and temperate seas from California and northern Spain to northern Greenland, high Arctic Canada, Svalbard, and Novaya Zemlya. The thick-billed murre occurs mostly in Arctic waters, while the common murre, although overlapping extensively with the thick-bi...
17 Mar 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, GRID-Arendal & CAFF
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Trends in Arctic vegetation productivity 1982-2005 (Greening of the Arctic) Trends in Arctic vegetation productivity 1982-2005 (Greening of the Arctic)
Arctic vegetation has undergone enormous change in the past, most notably in response to the glacial and interglacial periods of the Quaternary. Data from many sources and at several scales suggest that recent climate change is already affecting terrestrial Arctic ecosystems. Comparisons of historical and contemporary aerial photographs provide evidence that Arctic vegetation has already undergone significant shifts in recent decades, foreshadowi...
17 Mar 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, GRID-Arendal & CAFF
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Trends in speakers of Arctic indigenous languages (1989-2006) Trends in speakers of Arctic indigenous languages (1989-2006)
Language not only communicates, it defines culture, nature, history, humanity, and ancestry. The indigenous languages of the Arctic have been formed and shaped in close contact with their environment. They are a valuable source of information and a wealth of knowledge on human interactions with nature is encoded in these languages. If a language is lost, a world is lost. This deep knowledge and interconnectedness is expressed in Arctic song, subs...
17 Mar 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, GRID-Arendal & CAFF
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Simulated projections for Polar cod distribution with global warming Simulated projections for Polar cod distribution with global warming
Polar cod (Boreogadus saida) was found to be sensitive to the warming scenarios and the model predicted that it would be extirpated in most of its range even under the milder warming scenario. This is due to its occurrence in the Arctic Ocean, which largely precludes it from moving northwards. Polar cod was predicted to be extirpated around Greenland and its abundance was largely reduced in other parts of the Arctic Ocean after 30 years of hypot...
17 Mar 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, GRID-Arendal & CAFF
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Arctic terrestrial species trends 1970-2005 (ASTI) Arctic terrestrial species trends 1970-2005 (ASTI)
Dramatic changes, such as sea ice loss, are projected to occur in Arctic ecosystems over the next century. Understanding how the Arctic’s living resources, including its vertebrate species, are responding to these changes is essential in order to develop effective conservation and adaptation strategies. Arctic species that are adapted to these extreme environments are expected to be displaced, in part, by the encroachment of more southerly specie...
17 Mar 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, GRID-Arendal & CAFF
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Distribution of common eider, breeding and wintering ranges in the Arctic Distribution of common eider, breeding and wintering ranges in the Arctic
The common eider, Somateria mollissima, has a circumpolar distribution breeding mainly on small islands in Arctic and boreal marine areas in Alaska (Bering Sea region), Canada, Greenland, Iceland, western Europe, and the Barents Sea region. In Russia, there is a gap in distribution along the mainland coast from the Yugorski Peninsula (Kara Sea) to Chaunskaya Bay in east Siberia (Figure 5.1). Important wintering areas include the Gulf of Alaska/Be...
01 Nov 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Wolverine population in the Arctic Wolverine population in the Arctic
Wolverines occur in various distinct populations across the circumpolar region, ranging from Fennoscandia and the Russian Federation, Mongolia and China, through to Alaska, Canada, and some of the northernmost states of the USA. Habitat loss and fragmentation, small population size and low genetic diversity, harvesting, illegal poaching, and reductions in wolverines’ prey base all contribute to overall global declines in wolverine populations. Th...
01 Nov 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Towns and industrial activities in the Arctic Towns and industrial activities in the Arctic
The Arctic is home to approximately 4 million people, with the share of indigenous and non-indigenous populations varying widely between the Arctic states. Larger settlements are usually located in resource-strategic positions. Rich deposits of natural resources are spurring industrial activity in the region. The Russian Arctic, for example, holds 1.5 of the country’s population, but accounts for 11% of its gross domestic product and 22% of its e...
13 Oct 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Red king crab native and invasive distribution Red king crab native and invasive distribution
The red king crab is native to the Okhotsk and Japan Seas, the Bering Sea, and the northern Pacific Ocean, where it is an important economic resource. In Alaskan waters, red king crabs have historically been the second most valuable species to fishermen after salmon, although since the 1980s overharvesting has led to the closure of some areas to fishing. The king crab also has an invasive distribution in the Barents Sea. Since its introduction in...
13 Oct 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Compensation for sheep losses in Norway Compensation for sheep losses in Norway
Minimizing conflicts with livestock husbandry is the most important challenge for the conservation of wolverines. In Fennoscandia, few areas exist within the wolverines’ range where there is no conflict potential with sheep and/or domestic reindeer. For example in Norway, the practice is to leave sheep unattended on mountain pastures to graze during summer. Higher stock numbers and the loss of herding and livestock guarding traditions have increa...
01 Nov 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Polar bear sub-populations and pollution Polar bear sub-populations and pollution
There are thought to be between 20,000 and 25,000 bears in the world, which occur in19 relatively discrete sub-populations, some of which are shared between nations. Topping the food chain in the Arctic, the polar bear is exposed to high levels of pollutants that are magnified with each step higher in the food web (a process known as biomagnification). Recent studies have suggested that the immune system may be weaker in polar bears with higher l...
13 Oct 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Marine mammals in the Arctic Marine mammals in the Arctic
Seven species of marine mammals live in the Arctic year-round – the bowhead whale, beluga whale, narwhal, ringed seal, beaded seal, walrus, and polar bear - and many more migrate to the Arctic seasonally. Many marine mammals aggregate in specific areas across the Arctic, for example to feed, or for whelping, pupping or moulting. A common feature of marine mammals in the Arctic is that they are associated with sea ice, although the ecological rela...
13 Oct 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Projected changes in the Arctic climate, 2090 Projected changes in the Arctic climate, 2090
The averages of the scenarios in the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA) are presented in this figure, for the year 2090, with the surface temperatures over land, the size of the polar ice cap, and the outer limits of permafrost.
13 Oct 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Seal catches in the Arctic Seal catches in the Arctic
Large-scale commercial harvests are restricted to harp and hooded seals, except for the hooded seal population in the Jan Mayen area of the Greenland Sea. Both species faced intense commercial hunting in the 19th and 20th centuries, first for oil, and later mainly for the highly prized pelts of pups.Seal products nowadays also include a significant aphrodisiac trade (particularly for harp seal sex organs), and seal oil has become a popular health...
13 Oct 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Murre colonies and human activities Murre colonies and human activities
The thick-billed murre and common murre have ranges 1,000,000 km2 and number in the millions or tens of millions of breeding pairs. However global populations are declining, although increases have occurred in some regions. These seabirds, together with other species of alcids, face a number of direct and indirect marine and terrestrial threats, which influence their survival and reproductive success. These include transboundary pollutants, by-ca...
13 Oct 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Wild caribou (rangifer) herds and areas of reindeer husbandry Wild caribou (rangifer) herds and areas of reindeer husbandry
Distribution and observed trends of wild Rangifer populations throughout the circumpolar Arctic (from The Circum Arctic Rangifer Monitoring and Assessment Network, CARMA). Currently wild reindeer and caribou have declined by about 33% since populations (herds) peaked in the 1990s and early 2000s (3.8 million compared to 5.6 million) which followed almost universal increases in the 1970s and 1980s. In Arctic Eurasia reindeer herding represents a l...
01 Oct 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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