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Arctic sea ice minimum extent in September 1982, 2005 and 2007 Arctic sea ice minimum extent in September 1982, 2005 and 2007
The red line indicates the median minimum extent of the ice cover for the period 1979–2000. This figure compares the Arctic sea ice extent in September for the years 1982 (the record maximum since 1979), 2005 and 2007 (the record minimum). The ice extent was 7.5 million km2 in 1982 and only 5.6 million km2 in 2005 and down to 4.3 million km2 in 2007. As has been observed in other recent years, the retreat of the ice cover was particularly pronoun...
18 Apr 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Ringed seal pupping lair, with the pup in the lair and the female approaching the haul-out hole from the water Ringed seal pupping lair, with the pup in the lair and the female approaching the haul-out hole from the water
Ringed seals are the 'classic' Arctic seal in many regards, being found as far north as the Pole because of their ability to keep breathing holes open in ice that can reach 2 metres in depth. This species is certainly one of the most vulnerable of the high-Arctic seals to the declines in the extent or quality of sea ice because so many aspects of their life-history and distribution are tied to ice. Ringed seals also require sufficient snow cover...
01 Nov 2007 - by Robert Barnes, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Changes in biodiversity and ecosystems based on human impact 1990-2050 Changes in biodiversity and ecosystems based on human impact 1990-2050
Modelling, using the GLOBIO1 model, over the Arctic, assessing the impacts on the environment based on infrastructure development between 1990 and 2050 in three different scenarios. The development of roads, pipelines and powerlines fragments the natural habitats and reduces the wilderness qualities.
26 Jan 2006 - by Even Husby, Julien Rouaud, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Transport routes of POP and concerned areas Transport routes of POP and concerned areas
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) mainly Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), are brought into the Barents region and the whole of the Arctic region from many different locations.
04 Oct 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Dominating air currents Dominating air currents
The pollution from industrialized nations are affecting the environment in the Arctic region. The main areas of indutrial activity in the northern hemisphere are spreading to specific areas in the Arctic though air currents.
04 Oct 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Ocean currents and sea ice extent Ocean currents and sea ice extent
Arctic Ocean circulate in a large clockwise rotational pattern moving from east to west around the polar ice cap. This rotating pattern, known as a gyre, occurs as a result of the clockwise winds that typically occur in this region. The Barents region is affected by this and the ice edge extent in the Arctic.
04 Oct 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Major global bird migration routes to the Arctic Major global bird migration routes to the Arctic
Bird species that migrate to the Arctic coasts and wetlands arrive from nearly every corner of the planet. During the summer, the sun never or nearly never sets, resulting in a short but intensive breeding season when millions of migratory birds arrive in the Arctic to breed. The majority of these birds seek the wetlands and coastal shores of the tundra plains. No other place on Earth receives so many migratory species from nearly all corners of...
17 May 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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The decrease of Arctic sea ice, minimum extent in 1982 and 2007, and climate projections [Norwegian] The decrease of Arctic sea ice, minimum extent in 1982 and 2007, and climate projections [Norwegian]
Sattelite observations of the september extent of sea ice in the Arctic shows in 2007 shows a 23% decrease from the previous minimum, in 2005, and 39% below the average minimum extent for the time period 1979-2000. The bottom part of this graphic shows the development according to the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA) and the merging of five global climate models - the resultant projections shows sucessive decreases for this century. The Ar...
28 Sep 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Major River Systems in the Arctic Major River Systems in the Arctic
The Arctic has several of the world’s largest rivers.This graphic shows the major river systems of the Arctic and their annual discharges in cubic kilometres, and the catchment area of the Arctic Ocean. The major river systems shown are the Mackenzie, Yukon, Nelson, Kolyma, Indigirka, Lena, Kotya, Yenisey, Ob, Pechora, Severnyy and Dvina.
28 Sep 2005 - by CAFF (Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna); see source field
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Arctic pelagic food web Arctic pelagic food web
The marine animal food chain is very complex and multilayered as are most food chains. This is a quick reference to represent the complete food chain in regards to pelagic crustaceans and invertebrates.
28 Sep 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Coastal Arctic food web (drift ice) Coastal Arctic food web (drift ice)
The coastal Arctic food web is closely related to drift ice conditions and seasonal use of shorelines by both terrestrial and sea mammals. Numerous species depend upon each other and the transport of food to and from the marine areas to the coast and inland. Indigenous peoples use most of the food chain and traditionally use both environments for hunting, fishing and gathering.
28 Sep 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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The decrease of Arctic sea ice, minimum extent in 1982 and 2007, and climate projections The decrease of Arctic sea ice, minimum extent in 1982 and 2007, and climate projections
Sattelite observations of the september extent of sea ice in the Arctic shows in 2007 shows a 23% decrease from the previous minimum, in 2005, and 39% below the average minimum extent for the time period 1979-2000. The bottom part of this graphic shows the development according to the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA) and the merging of five global climate models - the resultant projections shows sucessive decreases for this century. The Ar...
01 Dec 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Arctic, topography and bathymetry Arctic, topography and bathymetry
The Arctic is extremely diverse in terms of landscapes, varying from pack and drift ice to rugged shores, flat coastal plains, rolling hills and mountains surpassing 6000 metres above sea level (Denali, 6,194 m asl, in sub-arctic and boreal Alaska). The region has rivers and lakes, tundra and the largest forests in the world (the Russian Taiga).
04 Oct 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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National level of protection of major Arctic vegetation zones National level of protection of major Arctic vegetation zones
The Arctic region has varying levels of protected areas that correspond to different vegetation zones. This is from a report by Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF), Habitat Conservation Report No. 2.
13 Feb 2006 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Protected Areas in North Scandinavia and Northwest Russia Protected Areas in North Scandinavia and Northwest Russia
In 1996 several areas were already protected by various agreements and several more were proposed, some were very early in construction as size and exact boundaries were not known. The area covers Northern Norway, Sweden, Finland and Northwest Russia.
13 Feb 2006 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Arctic bathymetry and topography Arctic bathymetry and topography
Shows bathymetry and topography for the Arctic region as done for the Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF), Habitat Conservation Report No. 2: Proposed Protected Areas in the Circumpolar Arctic 1996.
01 Nov 2006 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Coastal and Marine Protected Areas Coastal and Marine Protected Areas
This graphic includes marine protected areas and protected areas with major or minor marine components. This was part of the the Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF), Habitat Conservation Report No. 2.
13 Feb 2006 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Existing and Proposed Protected Areas Existing and Proposed Protected Areas
The areas that were protected in 1996 are shown on a complete map of the circumpolar area of the world along side with the proposed protected areas. The countries inclused in the information are: Canada, Finland, Greenland/Denmark, Iceland, Norway, Russia, Sweden, and USA.
13 Feb 2006 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Protected areas of the Arctic Protected areas of the Arctic
Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF), Habitat Conservation Report No. 2 shows the areas in the Arctic which have been protected by various governmental treaties and declarations (As of 1996 IUCN classification).
13 Feb 2006 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Arctic vegetation zones Arctic vegetation zones
Distribution of major vegetation zones and level of protection in the Arctic is shown based on the percentage of area covered. This is part of a report by the Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF).
13 Feb 2006 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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