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Climate change vulnerability in Africa Climate change vulnerability in Africa
Multiple stresses make most of Africa highly vulnerable to environmental changes, and climate change is likely to increase this vulnerability. This graphic shows which of the regions of Africa (North Africa, West Africa, Central Africa, East Africa, Southern Africa and the Western Indian Ocean Islands) are most vulnerable to specific impacts of climate change. These impacts include desertification, sea level rise, reduced freshwater availability,...
20 Sep 2005 - by Delphine Digout, Revised by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Human impact - Africa Human impact - Africa
Africa is home to some of the greatest wilderness areas in the world, as well as some of the greatest biodiversity hotspots. The GLOBIO analysis shows that the great deserts and the Central African rain forests have huge remaining tracts that show low human impact and development.
26 Jan 2006 - by Torstein Olsen and Einar Lieng, Statens Kartverk (for UNEP/GRID-Arendal)
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Export of fisheries products in Africa Export of fisheries products in Africa
For some African countries, particularly in West-Africa and to lesser extent also countries along the Indian Ocean, fisheries contribute significantly to exports. Remarkable is also that the fish sector is important for a landlocked country like Uganda bordering Victoria Lake.
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Employment in the travel and tourism industry in Africa Employment in the travel and tourism industry in Africa
About 6.3 million people work in the travel and tourism industry in Africa, where tourism is highly dependent on natural and cultural environment. However, since travel & tourism touches all sectors of the economy, its real impact is even greater.
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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People affected by natural disasters in Africa from 1971 to 2001 People affected by natural disasters in Africa from 1971 to 2001
Poor people all over Africa are vulnerable to droughts and floods since many depend on rainfed agriculture as their main means of subsistence and often live in degraded areas susceptible to rainfall variation (cleared of trees and vegetation).
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Hunger and conflicts in Africa Hunger and conflicts in Africa
Over the last 30 years increasing numbers of people have been affected by severe flooding, drought and variable climate in the Sahel. Millions of Africans have sought refuge from these disasters. These peoples have often had to settle on marginal areas; where some have faced social tensions with new neighbouring communities.
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Water supply and sanitation coverage in Africa Water supply and sanitation coverage in Africa
The water supply situation in Africa is already precarious, and climate change is expected to exacerbate the problem. This graphic shows the amount of water supply coverage at the national level for Africa, and the amount of sanitation coverage, as a percentage, at the national level for Africa. Statistics are shown for rural areas, for urban areas, and for all areas.
17 May 2005 - by Delphine Digout, based on a sketch by Philippe Rekacewicz; UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Threats to coral reefs in Eastern Africa Threats to coral reefs in Eastern Africa
Human land use along coasts and in major river basins can threaten coral reefs through toxic material inputs to coastal ecosystems. This graphic shows the areas of low, medium and high estimated threats to coral reefs on Africa's eastern coast.
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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African wildlife under threat from climate change African wildlife under threat from climate change
Climate change poses a threat to wildlife because as climatic conditions change, many species may be unable to tolerate the changes. This graphic shows the numbers of mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and fish species that are critically endangered, endangered and vulnerable in various regions of Africa and in Africa as a whole, as of 1998.
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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History of variations of the temperature for Africa in relation to the World History of variations of the temperature for Africa in relation to the World
Africa is following the global trend of recent increases in temperatures. This resource includes three graphics. The first shows the main temperature anomaly in degrees Celsius in Africa from 1900 to 2000. The second shows departures from the 1961 to 1990 average temperatures, in degrees Celsius, on a global scale for the time period 1860 to 2000. The final graphic shows departures from the 1961 to 1990 temperatures, in degrees Celsius, for the N...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Sources of water for domestic use in Port Harcourt Sources of water for domestic use in Port Harcourt
The main source of water in Port Harcourt is boreholes, which account to about 50 per cent of the water sources for domestic use. Many of these boreholes are shallow, making them prone to pollution, and increasing the risk of water-borne diseases.
18 Mar 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Slum population in urban Africa Slum population in urban Africa
One of the major challenges of urbanisation in Africa is the rapid expansion of areas of informal settlements. These slum areas tend to lack infrastructure such as pipe-borne water and sewerage, and services such as garbage collection and waste management are often non-existent.
18 Mar 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Access to sanitation in urban Africa Access to sanitation in urban Africa
The number of people in Africa with access to improved sanitation, defined as “one that hygienically separates human excreta from human contact” (WHO/UNICEF 2010), has increased over the last two decades. Still, because of the rapid urbanisation, the proportion of the urban population with access to improved sanitation is on the decrease.
18 Mar 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Urban growth rate in Africa Urban growth rate in Africa
Africa’s urban centres are currently growing at an annual rate that is the fastest compared to other regions. The urban expansion is expected to continue, with cities like Abuja and Ouagadougou expecting very high growth in the next decade, while Cairo, Africa’s largest city, is projected to see a comparatively lower growth rate.
27 Feb 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Population distribution in Africa Population distribution in Africa
In 1990 there were only 24 cities in Africa with more than one million inhabitants. Today this number has increased to 48 cities, of which Cairo and Lagos are the largest with more than ten million inhabitants each.
18 Mar 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Water supply and demand in Nairobi Water supply and demand in Nairobi
The bulk of water supply for Nairobi comes from Thika, Sasumua and Ruiru Dams, as well as the Kikuyu Springs. Over time water supply for the city has failed to meet demand. The current estimated water demand for Nairobi is 650 000 m3/day compared to the production of 482 940 m3/day (WRMA 2010). The difference between production and demand has been widening over time due to population growth, inadequacy of the carrying capacity of the distributio...
18 Mar 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Access to water in urban Africa Access to water in urban Africa
Improved water sources, defined as “one that is protected from outside contamination” (WHO/UNICEF 2010), is essential for ensuring the health of Africa’s urban dwellers. Although an increasing number of people have access to improved water, rapid urban population growth in the African region has equally increased the number of people without proper access.
18 Mar 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Urban population trends, Kenya and Nairobi Urban population trends, Kenya and Nairobi
As the total urban population of Kenya continues to grow, the capital of Nairobi still harbours the largest share of the country’s urban population. Between 1948 and 2009, Nairobi’s share of the country’s urban population increased from 5.2 per cent to 32.4 per cent and in 2009 the city had an estimated 3.1 million inhabitants.
18 Mar 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Access to sanitation in Yaoundè Access to sanitation in Yaoundè
Proper disposal of sewage is essential for urban water quality, and in Yaoundè the treatment of wastewater, excreta, and sewage can be classified into two categories – individual wastewater systems (septic tanks and latrines) and collective wastewater systems (sewer and treatment plants). About half of the residents of Yaoundè are connected to the sewer system, while the rest depend on either septic tanks, latrines, or a combination of the two.
18 Mar 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Historical population trend, Grahamstown 1840-1980 Historical population trend, Grahamstown 1840-1980
While the white population were the majority in the early period of Grahamstown, South Africa, they were outnumbered around 1920. Historically, the non-white population did not pay for water and sanitation services, and this became a problem when this demographic group became the clear majority.
18 Mar 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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