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Threat of bad bugs Threat of bad bugs
Locust invasions are a major threat to the agriculture, pasture, food security and social stability of rural populations occupying a very large area from Western Africa to Northern India. Large amounts of chemicals are being used to check this plague, at considerable risk to the environment and public health. As a hazard locusts depend on the wind and rain to travel.
03 Oct 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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In the Grip of Malaria in Africa In the Grip of Malaria in Africa
There is increasing evidence that climate change has a significant role in causing malaria epidemics. As climatic conditions change, the locations of suitable breeding habitats for the mosquitoes that transmit malaria and other diseases will change. This graphic shows the locations of malaria-free areas, malaria transmission areas and the areas in which malaria has largely been eliminated in Africa, as of 2002.
17 May 2005 - by Delphine Digout, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Malnutrition and Famine Malnutrition and Famine
Many countries in sub-Saharan Africa face chronic malnutrition, with frequent famine episodes. This graphic shows the locations of areas in Africa which face chronic malnutrition (less than 2300 calories per day and per capita, 1995-1997), areas which are affected by food shortages, the main areas that have experienced famines during the last thirty years (approximately 1966 to 1996) and the locations of the main conflicts that occurred in Africa...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Water availability in Africa Water availability in Africa
Water resources are inextricably linked with climate, so the prospect of global climate change has serious implications for water resources and regional development (Riebsame et al., 1995). This graphic shows water availability per capita in cubic metres for selected countries in Africa in 1990, with projected data for 2025. It also shows which countries were affected by water stress, water scarcity and water vulnerability in 1990, with projected...
17 May 2005 - by Digout, Delphine, based on a sketch by Philippe Rekacewicz; UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Aridity Zones Aridity Zones
Forty percent of Africa's population lives in arid, semi-arid, and dry subhumid areas. Climate change may lead to an increase in arid zones that are susceptible to drought. This graphic shows the locations of humid, moist subhumid, dry subhumid, semi-arid, arid and hyper-arid areas in Africa.
17 May 2005 - by Delphine Digout, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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People Affected by Natural Disasters During the Period 1971 to 2001 People Affected by Natural Disasters During the Period 1971 to 2001
Natural disasters are increasing in number and frequency, and affect most countries in Africa. This graphic shows the amounts of people, in millions, who were affected by drought, by famine, by flood and by epidemics related to [natural] disasters in Africa for the period 1971 to 2001.
17 May 2005 - by Digout, Delphine, based on a sketch by Philippe Rekacewicz; UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Climate change vulnerability in Africa Climate change vulnerability in Africa
Multiple stresses make most of Africa highly vulnerable to environmental changes, and climate change is likely to increase this vulnerability. This graphic shows which of the regions of Africa (North Africa, West Africa, Central Africa, East Africa, Southern Africa and the Western Indian Ocean Islands) are most vulnerable to specific impacts of climate change. These impacts include desertification, sea level rise, reduced freshwater availability,...
17 May 2005 - by Delphine Digout, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Freshwater stress and scarcity in africa by 2025 Freshwater stress and scarcity in africa by 2025
According to Population Action International, based upon the UN medium population projections of 1998, more than 2.8 billion people in 48 countries will face water stress or water scarcity conditions by 2025. An area is experiencing water stress when annual water supplies drop below 1700 m3 per person. Water scarcity means that the annual water supply is below 1000 m3 per person. This graphic shows which African nations are expected to be experie...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Major river basins of Africa Major river basins of Africa
This map shows the locations of 13 major river basins in Africa: the Senegal, Volta, Niger, Lake Chad, Nile, Lake Turkana, Juba Shibeli, Ogooue, Congo, Zambezi, Okavango, Limpopo and Orange river basins.
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Delphine Digout, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Relationship between biodiversity and poverty in Africa Relationship between biodiversity and poverty in Africa
This map may be used to show areas in which biodiversity is threatened in relation to poverty on a continental scale. Areas where high percentage of underweight children - used as a proxy for poverty - coincide with a high occurrence of amphibian species and endemic bird areas - a proxy for biodiversity - may indicate areas in which poor people likely have no other choice than the unsustainable extraction of resources, in turn threatening biodive...
01 Nov 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Woodfuel and energy consumption Woodfuel and energy consumption
Biomass, primarily woodfuel, is the major source of energy in Sub-Saharan Africa, with the exception of South Africa. Over 90% of the total energy consumption is biomass in Ethiopia, DPR Congo and Tanzania. Projections estimate that this will further increase, together with population increase and higher energy needs. In total energy consumption, populous countries, such as Nigeria, South Africa and Egypt have the highest totals.
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Current and potential arable land use in Africa Current and potential arable land use in Africa
Out of the total land area in Africa, only a fraction is used for arable land. Using soil, land cover and climatic characteristics a FAO study has estimated the potential land area for rainfed crops, excluding built up areas and forests – neither of which would be available for agriculture. According to the study, the potential – if realised – would mean an increase ranging from 150 – 700% percent per region, with a total potential for the whole ...
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Agriculture in Africa, value added out of GDP Agriculture in Africa, value added out of GDP
For the future of Africa, agriculture remains one of the most important issues. A majority of the population, especially outside urban areas, are involved in agriculture, and food security is one of the most important issues to solve in the short term in some parts of the region. The current financial importance varies, as presented in this map, with agriculture representing up to 50-60% of the total economy in some countries (Guinea-Bissau, Cent...
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Gender equality and empowerment of women: eliminate differences in education Gender equality and empowerment of women: eliminate differences in education
In increasing living standards, sustainability and livelihoods and eliminating poverty, gender equality and education are seen as some of the main means. This is further recognized in the Millennium Development Goals, as goal 3: 'Promote gender equality and empower women'. This map illustrates one of the indicators for indicator 9 (target 4) under this goal, and the Millennium Project assesses the current progress in reaching the goal as good for...
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Africa: Stockholm convention on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) Africa: Stockholm convention on persistent organic pollutants (POPs)
The process initiated by UNEP in 1995, materialised as the Stockholm convention in May 2001. The convention bans chemicals such as chlordane, DDT and PCB and other organic pesticides and industrial chemicals, as well as establishing precautionary approaches for the future. Most African countries are using agents, such as DDT, for control of disease vectors and pests under exemptions.
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Loss of Great Ape habitat 2002-2032 (Africa) Loss of Great Ape habitat 2002-2032 (Africa)
Based on population pressures the GLOBIO2 model has assessed the current and future human impacts on Great Ape habitat in Africa (Chimpanzee, Bonobo and Gorilla). The analysis shows a vast reduction of some of the world's remaining wilderness areas. (this poster prepared for the UNESCO GRASP meeting in November 2003)
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Population and growth, projections and historic data Population and growth, projections and historic data
The population has rapidly increased in Africa, to reach approximately 905 million inhabitants by 2005. The rate of the annual growth is levelling out after seeing a peak around 1990. Out of the sub-regions, the population is fairly evenly distributed, as indicated in the pie-chart, with Central Africa trailing behind the others, and the Western Indian Ocean islands with the smallest share out of the total population.
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Africa: policy on genetically modified organisms (GMO) and genetically engineered (GE) foods Africa: policy on genetically modified organisms (GMO) and genetically engineered (GE) foods
The Cartagena protocol on biosafety, a supplement to the convention on biological diversity, has strong support in Africa, with a majority of the countries as signatories. In addition, several countries have, in the past, rejected aid (especially unmilled grains) in food imports with concerns for national biosafety. South Africa is so far the only country that is seeing wide-spread use of genetically modified crops.
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Emissions of carbon dioxide, in Africa and selected OECD countries Emissions of carbon dioxide, in Africa and selected OECD countries
Africa represents only a small fraction, 3.6%, out of the total carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per year, yet 14% of the population of the world lives here. The emissions per inhabitant in Libya, the Seychelles and South Africa are on the level of the lowest among OECD countries with the other African countries trailing lower behind them. Regionally, emissions (both per capita and in total) are at their highest in North Africa and in the country o...
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Pesticides stockpiles in Africa Pesticides stockpiles in Africa
Mountains of obsolete pesticides are stockpiled in Africa. Problems with labelling, storage, and the supply of unsuitable products, means that they sit around unused, some for as long as 40 years. They include poisons long ago banned (e.g. DDT, aldrin, dieldrin, chlordane, heptachlor, and others). In some cases the pesticides have leaked from damaged containers. Unable to dispose of them safely the likelihood is that the piles will continue to gr...
02 Nov 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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