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Antarctic Specially Protected Areas Antarctic Specially Protected Areas
The 1961 Antarctic treaty system, which governs the land and water south of 60 degrees latitude south, gives the environment an overall protection against human development. In addition, certain areas are specifically designated for protection, such as the Antarctic specially protected areas (ASPA), presented in this map.
28 Sep 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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The Antarctic convergence The Antarctic convergence
The Antarctic convergence represents an important climatic boundary between air and water masses, and is also an approximate boundary for the Southern Ocean, surrounding the Antarctic continent. The water around the land mass is cold and with a slightly lower salinity than north of the convergence zone. The area is also rich in nutrients, providing a key support for the ecosystems in the Southern Ocean.
28 Sep 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Tourism in the Antarctic Tourism in the Antarctic
the graph shows the number of tourist and ships going to the Antarctic from 1981 to 1996. It shows a steady increase of both tourists and ships going to antarctica. Studies have been done to estimate the effects the increased tourism has on the antarctic environment. A great number of tourists can cause disruption in wildlife breeding and reduce populations. Reports of ships hitting underwater rocks, casuing oil spills that greatly affect nearby ...
28 Sep 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Larsen ice shelf, Antarctic peninsula Larsen ice shelf, Antarctic peninsula
07 Oct 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Antarctica, overview Antarctica, overview
Antarctic is the fifth largest continent of the world at 14 million square kilometres and is covered in a permanent continental ice. The ice is distributed in two major ice sheets, the East Antarctic and the West Antarctic, and in addition there are shelf ice, extending over the sea water.
17 Mar 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Antarctica, showing rates of surface-elevation change derived from satellite radar-altimeter measurements Antarctica, showing rates of surface-elevation change derived from satellite radar-altimeter measurements
The figure shows rates at which the ice-sheet mass was estimated to be changing based on radar-altimeter data (black), mass-budget calculations (red), and satellite gravity measurements (blue). Rectangles depict the time periods of observations (horizontal) and the upper and lower estimates of mass balance (vertical). Measurements by satellite techniques based on gravity indicate mass loss at a rate of 138 ± 73 billion tonnes per year during 200...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Antarctica, topographic map Antarctica, topographic map
Antarctic is the fifth largest continent of the world at 14 million square kilometres and is covered by a permanent continental ice sheet. The ice is distributed in two major ice sheets, the East Antarctic and the West Antarctic, and in addition there are shelf ice, extending over the sea water. Antarctic inland ice ranges in thickness up to 5000 m, with an average thickness of about 2400 m, making Antarctica by far the highest of the continents....
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Ecoregions in Antarctica Ecoregions in Antarctica
Antarctica represents a very unique and special case on our planet. With the richness of the Southern Ocean, the coasts and the Southern islands have relatively high biodiversity and biomass in the form of numerous sea birds - such as penguins and mammals such as seals and sea lions - primarily around the Antarctic peninsula - in the Marielandia Arctic Tundra ecoregion. In contrast - the inland of the Antarctic continent are a cold, windy and inh...
31 Jul 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Major research stations in Antarctica Major research stations in Antarctica
Antarctica is interesting for many types of researchers. For example, glaciologists study the ice and snow, while oceanographers look at the oceans. The ice, snow and oceans affect the global climate and are presently changing as a result of global warming. The many other types of researchers who work here include geologists (who study rocks), astronomers (who study outer space), and meteorologists (who study the weather). How do researchers stud...
31 Jul 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Temperature increases in the Antarctic due to climate change, 2090 (NCAR-CCM3, SRES A2 experiment) Temperature increases in the Antarctic due to climate change, 2090 (NCAR-CCM3, SRES A2 experiment)
Climate change, due to increased concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, has not lead as clear changes in the Antarctic as in the Arctic. Some of the ice shelves of the Antarctic peninsula have split up and started moving more rapidly, but the analyses of the Antarctic ice sheet are inconclusive. The projected climate situation in 2090 are presented in this figure, the temperatures are annual values from the NCAR-CCM3 model, ensembl...
31 Jul 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Cold places on the Southern Continent Cold places on the Southern Continent
Antarctica is the coldest, driest and windiest continent on Earth. This graph shows the annual temperatures and seasonal variation at three locations in Antarctica - the research bases Bernardo O'Higgins (Chile - on the Antarctic Peninsula), Scott Base (New Zealand - Ross Island) and one of the coldest places on the planet - the Vostok station (Russia - at the center of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet). The surface temperatures are long term average...
31 Jul 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Fisheries in the Southern Ocean Fisheries in the Southern Ocean
Fisheries, together with tourism, represents a major economic activity around Antarctica. In the old days whales were hunted for oil - these days fish and krill are captured for fish meal and human consumption. The areas in the Southern Atlantic are vastly more productive, and this is where most of the fish is caught. The top fishing vessels hail from Japan, Ukraine and Poland. Worth mentioning is that these figures are still small compared to th...
31 Jul 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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