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Projected changes in permafrost (Northern Hemisphere) Projected changes in permafrost (Northern Hemisphere)
Modelled permafrost temperatures (mean annual temperature at the permafrost surface) for the Northern Hemisphere (Arctic), derived by applying climate conditions to a spatially distributed permafrost model. (a) Present-day: temperatures averaged over the years 1980– 1999. Present-day climatic conditions were based on the CRU2 data set with 0.5° x 0.5° latitude/longitude resolution. (b) Future: projected changes in temperatures in comparison with ...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Trends in spring temperatures and ice break-up dates in Canada Trends in spring temperatures and ice break-up dates in Canada
In Canada, recent evidence indicates a shortening of the freshwater-ice season over much of the country with the reduction being mainly attributable to earlier break ups. These trends match those in surface air temperature during the last 50 years. For example, similar spatial and temporal patterns have been found between trends (1966 to 1995) in autumn and spring 0°C isotherms (lines on a map showing location of 0°C air temperatures) and lake fr...
01 Oct 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Regional changes in Arctic and Antarctic sea ice Regional changes in Arctic and Antarctic sea ice
There are major regional differences for the Arctic sea ice, with the strongest decline in ice extent observed for the Greenland Sea (10.6 per cent per decade). The smallest decreases of annual mean sea ice extent were found in the Arctic Ocean, the Canadian Archipelago and the Gulf of St. Lawrence. In the marginal Arctic seas off Siberia (the Kara, Laptev, East Siberian and Chukchi Seas) a slight negative, but not significant, trend in ice exten...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Trends in permafrost temperatures during the last 23 to 28 years in northern Alaska Trends in permafrost temperatures during the last 23 to 28 years in northern Alaska
There has been a general increase in permafrost temperatures during the last several decades in Alaska, northwest Canada, Siberia, and northern Europe. Permafrost temperature records have been obtained uninterrupted for more than 20 years along the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme Alaskan transect, which spans the entire continuous permafrost zone in the Alaskan Arctic. Records from all locations along the transect show a substantial w...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Caucasus ice-rock avalanche in Russian Republic of North Ossetia Caucasus ice-rock avalanche in Russian Republic of North Ossetia
An ice-rock avalanche in the Kazbek region sheared off almost the entire Kolka Glacier and devastated the Genaldon valley. The satellite images show the region before (July 22, 2001) and after (October 6, 2002) the ice-rock avalanche of September 20, 2002.
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Average Recurrence Interval for sea-level events of a given height at Sydney, Australia6c_sidney_level Average Recurrence Interval for sea-level events of a given height at Sydney, Australia6c_sidney_level
For the second half of the 20th century (red line), the average recurrence interval for a sea-level height of a given value is less than half the value for the first half of the 20th century (blue line).
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Major mineral fuel resources in Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia Major mineral fuel resources in Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia
Mineral fuels for electricity and heat generation take primarily two forms: fossil fuels in the form of oil, natural gas and coal, and uranimum ore for nuclear power. Oil and gas are distributed in different belts, primarily in the North Sea, Caucasus and Northern Russia. Coal in different forms is still an important fuel resource and resources are distributed over the region. Uranium resources are primarily in Ukraine and Central Asia.
20 Jul 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Hydropower potential (theoretical possitibility for electricity generation) Hydropower potential (theoretical possitibility for electricity generation)
Hydropower, generating electricity through turbines, represents a clean and renewable energy source, but not without problems. Dams and reservoirs disrupt the natural flow, and may increase siltation and evaporation, in addition to severe impacts for wildlife, for instance migrating fish. The gross theoretical capability, presented in this map, represents a calculation based on the topography and precipitation in the countries, and is the amount ...
20 Jul 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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The expansion of the European Union, political map 1957, 1987, 1997 and 2007 The expansion of the European Union, political map 1957, 1987, 1997 and 2007
The political map and landscape in Europe has changed drastically in the period of 1957-2007. In the aftermath of the Second World War, the European Communities was formed in 1957 by the treaty of Rome, with six signatories. This was a time with considerable poltical tension between the Eastern Bloc (Warsaw pact, COMECON and associated countries) on one side, and NATO on the other. Through time, the communities expanded with the associated EFTA c...
20 Jul 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Landcover - Europe and Central Asia Landcover - Europe and Central Asia
The Western part of the Eurasian continent, has some of the most populated and fertile parts of the World. Central Europe is densely populated, with few remaining fragments of undisturbed habitat, except for the mountain ranges. In the north - Scandinavia and Northern Russia, there is the taiga belt, with vast expanses of confierous forest, and further north, there is tundra and glaciers. Central Asia and Caucasus is a diverse region, with desert...
20 Jul 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Projected changes in the Arctic climate, 2090 - with shipping routes Projected changes in the Arctic climate, 2090 - with shipping routes
The averages of the scenarios in the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA) are presented in this figure, for the year 2090, with the surface temperatures over land, the size of the polar ice cap, and the outer limits of permafrost. This map features shipping routes in addition - as the sea ice is decreasing, the potential for developing shipping in the Arctic increases.
20 Jul 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Solar insolation Solar insolation
Solar insolation, the quantification of energy per surface area on the ground, can be used as an indicator for the potential for solar energy. This map presents solar insolation in Europe and neighboring countries, calculated to annual averages from monthly averages 1983 - 1993.
20 Jul 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Renewable energy production in Europe and Central Asia 2004 (heat production and electricity generation) Renewable energy production in Europe and Central Asia 2004 (heat production and electricity generation)
Hydropower, generation of electricity from dams in rivers, represents the majority of the energy produced, so far, with waste incineration - both from municipal and industrial sources, as a distant second. Other energy sources, such as biomass, windpower and solar power represents a very little share of the renewable energy produced so far. Energy consumption has been increasing in the region, since the 1990s, and with it the emissions of greenho...
20 Jul 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Developing countries with environmental strategies Developing countries with environmental strategies
While many countries have shown indifference to environmental commitments made at Rio, the summit significantly helped legitimise environmental issues in political agendas worldwide: over 50 countries currently have national constitutions recognizing the rights of citizens to a healthy environment and many have national legislation to protect the environment.
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Water Availability Trends Water Availability Trends
Water availability in developing countries (with and without arid climates) has declined by about 65 percent since the 1960s and continues to do so. Forecast indicate that water will become very scarce by 2020.
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Severity of land degradation Severity of land degradation
The highest levels of land degradation is in Europe. Specifically degraded soils are found especially in semi-arid areas (Sub-Saharan Africa, Chile), areas with high population pressure (China, Mexico, India) and regions undergoing deforestation (Indonesia).
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Energy efficiency generally improves with economic growth...but greenhouse gases increase too Energy efficiency generally improves with economic growth...but greenhouse gases increase too
In 1992 76 million people living in urban areas were exposed to air pollutant concentrations exceeding WHO guidelines. In developing countries 1.9 million people die each year because of indoor air pollution exposure and 500,000 die as a result of outdoor pollutant levels.
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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People affected by natural disasters in Africa from 1971 to 2001 People affected by natural disasters in Africa from 1971 to 2001
Poor people all over Africa are vulnerable to droughts and floods since many depend on rainfed agriculture as their main means of subsistence and often live in degraded areas susceptible to rainfall variation (cleared of trees and vegetation).
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Sulphur emissions Sulphur emissions
Soil degradation is a key global environmental indicator. Trans-border pollution in Europe has become a serious international and environmental problem. Sulphur emissions from industry in Eastern Europe is one of the most environmentally damaging problem that faces countries today.
07 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Bad harvests in South Niger Bad harvests in South Niger
In Niger, one of the world's poorest countries, people are far more concerned about the availability of food than its quality. In some areas, particularly in August and September when one crop runs out and the next is not ready to harvest, people eat very little – some days nothing at all.
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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