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Ecosystem carbon payback time
The ‘carbon debt’ of biofuels is the number of years it can take to offset the carbon emissions generated by converting land for biofuels. It can take decades or centuries for some pathways to bounce back, depending on ...
01 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Key factors of the Brazilian biofuel sector
Brazil has gradually developed and established an ethanol industry and growing biodiesel sector, offering an example of how countries can develop ‘home-grown’ renewable energy sectors. This development has been facili...
01 Mar 2012 - by Nieves Lopez Izquierdo
Brazilian biofuels: infrastructure and crops
Brazil has gradually developed and established an ethanol industry and growing biodiesel sector, offering an example of how countries can develop ‘home-grown’ renewable energy sectors. This development has been facili...
01 Mar 2012 - by Nieves Lopez Izquierdo
From seed and soil to end use
As with every other energy source, biofuels entail some risks and should be assessed over their entire lifecycle. This graphic, From seed and soil to end use, tracks the lifecycle of liquid biofuels for use in the transp...
29 Feb 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Differentiation between crops, land-use and end-use efficiency
The energy gain from biofuels is often expressed as a ratio of biofuel energy output to fossil energy input. However, when considering which biofuels are the most efficient using this metric, allowance must also be m...
01 Mar 2012 - by Nieves Lopez Izquierdo
World biofuels production trends
Production trends indicate that the supply of both ethanol and biodiesel is steadily increasing, although the global ethanol market is more than four times larger than the global biodiesel market. Markets for both ar...
01 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Energy potential from one tonne input: organic matter and landfill material
Dierent biofuels pathways have dierent eciencies in the growth of feedstocks, conversion processes and end-uses. This chain of eciency pertaining to input and output needs to be considered in national planning pr...
01 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Global production of biofuels
Global production of biofuels. In 2009, liquid biofuels provided 2.7 percent of all global road transport fuels.
01 Mar 2012 - by Nieves Lopez Izquierdo
Global ethanol production
The snapshot of biofuel production in this figuere shows global ethanol production currently concentrated in two countries.
01 Mar 2012 - by Nieves Lopez Izquierdo
Global biodiesel production, 2009
Global biodiesel production in 2009.
01 Mar 2012 - by Nieves Lopez Izquierdo
Energy efficiency of fuels - how many kilometres can we drive ?
The picture shows energy efficiency of various fuels.
01 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Bioenergy, general concept
The development of biorefineries can greatly support efforts to increase resource efficiency. Biorefineries integrate biomass conversion processes and equipment to produce fuel, power, and chemicals from biomass. By p...
01 Mar 2012 - by Nieves Lopez Izquierdo
Wealth of nations and energy consumption
To date, energy use and economic growth have been closely linked. As figure shows, there is a linear relationship between energy consumption and wealth as measured in the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of nations.
01 Oct 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Green jobs
If properly planned and managed, biofuels can contribute to a number of policy objectives which support the development of the green economy. For example, because agriculture is labour-intensive, job opportunities c...
01 Mar 2012 - by Nieves Lopez Izquierdo
The enlarged biofuels family
Figure illustrates the various feedstocks, which can be converted to biofuels for transport. However, this represents only part of the larger bioenergy family, which covers liquid, solid and gaseous biofuels for differe...
01 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Savings in greenhouse gas emissions by fuel type
Biofuels, in the use phase, emit the carbon that has been previously absorbed during plant growth. Inputs during cultivation and conversion need to be accounted for. However, the bulk of GHG emissions are related to l...
01 Mar 2012 - by Nieves Lopez Izquierdo
Technical and sustainable biomass supply potentials and expected demand for biomass in 2050 (primary energy)
Technical and sustainable biomass supply potentials and expected demand for biomass in 2050 (primary energy).
01 Mar 2012 - by Nieves Lopez Izquierdo
Research budgets of CGIAR, Monsanto and NARS in South America
Agricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology (AKST) has the capacity to improve livelihoods, although effects have varied by region and social group. The ability to access and benefit from AKST is uneven, with industri...
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Public and private agriculture research and development spending by region, 2000
Investments in agricultural research and development (R&D) are still growing, but the growth rate declined during the 1990s. In addition, investment trends among countries have increasingly diverged. Investment in public...
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Fifty million climate refugees by 2010
Today we find a world of asymmetric development, unsustainable natural resource use, and continued rural and urban poverty. There is general agreement about the current global environmental and development crisis. It is ...
03 Jan 2008 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
Measures of Poverty: Hunger Density
Population Density of Children Age 0-5 Underweight (per square kilometer). Children are defined as underweight if their weight-for-age z-scores are more than two standard deviations (2 SD) below the median of the NCHS/CD...
03 Jan 2008 - by The Trustees of Columbia University in the City of New York
Measures of Poverty: Child Malnutrition - Latin America
Children are defined as underweight if their weight-for-age z-scores are more than two standard deviations (2 SD) below the median of the NCHS/CDC/WHO International Reference Population. There are serious problems of chi...
03 Jan 2008 - by Copyright 2005. The Trustees of Columbia University in the City of New York
Key relationships between future challenges and agricultural knowledge, science and technology (AKST) options for action
The general model has been to continuously innovate, reduce farm gate prices and externalize costs. This model drove the phenomenal achievements of AKST in industrial countries after WWII and the spread of the Green Revo...
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Measures of Poverty: Child Malnutrition - Asia
Children are defined as underweight if their weight-for-age z-scores are more than two standard deviations (2 SD) below the median of the NCHS/CDC/WHO International Reference Population. There is a high incidence of of m...
03 Jan 2008 - by The Trustees of Columbia University in the City of New York
Global soil degradation
In many parts of the world natural resources have been treated as though unlimited, and totally resilient to human exploitation. This perception has exacerbated the conflicting agricultural demands on natural capital, as...
03 Jan 2008 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
The percentage of agricultural work carried out by women compared with the percentage of female extension staff in selected African countries
Only 15% of the world’s agricultural public sector extension agents are women [Global 3]. Women's access to extension is limited by lack of access to membership in rural organizations which often channel or provide train...
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Global trends in cereal and meat production; total use of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers; increased use of irrigation; total global pesticides production
Production gains are attributed to improved crop varieties and livestock, soil management, improved access to resources (nutrients and water), infrastructure developments, policy initiatives, microfinance, education, bet...
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Global Ocean Acidification
As carbon concentrations in the atmosphere increase, so do concentrations in the ocean, with resultant acidification as a natural chemical process.
06 Oct 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Larimichthys polyactis Catch in early 2000s and predicted Catch Shift
(a) Current (early 2000s) and (b) climate-shifted distributions of the small yellow croaker Larimichthys polyactis (Sciaenidae). The climate-shifted distribution was predicted by a dynamic bioclimate envelope model descr...
06 Oct 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Seagrass
Distribution of the world's blue carbon sinks (seagrasses).
06 Oct 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Natural ecosystem conversion
It is clear that much land needs to be kept for agricultural use but it is also possible that the area required for food production will stabilize in the future.
03 Oct 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Human use and conversion of tropical forests
Tropical forests hold the largest terrestrial carbon store and are active carbon sinks. Reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation is a vital component of tackling dangerous climate change. In addition, tack...
27 May 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Jakobshavn Isbrae and ice fjord, showing locations of the calving ice front in years from 1851 to 2006, together with flow velocity observations
The glacier extends through the Illulisat Icefjord, surrounded by mountains. Icebergs calve off from the main glacier, pile up and block the fjord before being released into Qeqertarsuup Tunua (Disko) Bay and Davis Strai...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Maps of average sea ice extent in the Arctic summer (September) and winter (March), and in the Antarctic summer (February) and winter (September)
Passive microwave sensors on satellites have monitored the extent of the sea ice cover since 19782. This technique is widely used to investigate fluctuations in ice extent over the seasons, variability between years, and...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Estimates of people flooded in coastal areas in the 2080s as a result of sea-level rise and for given socio-economic scenarios and protection responses
The lines represent IPCC Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) based on different world views. The differences in impacts between the SRES scenarios for the same amount of sea-level rise and protection response re...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Climate feedbacks - the connectivity of the positive ice/snow albedo feedback, terrestrial snow and vegetation feedbacks and the negative cloud/radiation feedback
Feedback refers to the modification of a process by changes resulting from the process itself. Positive feedbacks accelerate the process, while negative feedbacks slow it down. Part of the uncertainty around future clima...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Ratio of wastewater treatment
The ratio of treated to untreated wastewater reaching water bodies for 10 regions. An estimated 90 per cent of all wastewa- ter in developing countries is discharged untreated directly into rivers, lakes or the oceans (U...
01 Mar 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal, Hugo Ahlenius
Keylinks
04 Oct 2007 - by
Radiation from Chernobyl
What do the Chernobyl disaster, the Three Gorges dam in China and the spread of the Sahel have in common? In each case natural and manmade influences have forced thousands, sometimes millions of people, to leave their la...
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Sanitation Opyions
About sanitationoptions [converted]
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Mauritania
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p04-05-statlog-onecol
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p04-05-aids
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brasiliwater
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p14-15-brazil
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p06-07-water-gulf
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p00-01-hazards
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inde-dummy
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roberts
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disastersmap
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burdendisease
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vulnerability-index
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indefinal
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Thermohaline Circulation
If the large-scale ocean circulation is disturbed by processes altering heat and salinity in the Arctic Ocean, the consequences may be felt worldwide. The mechanism involved is the world-encompassing meridional overturni...
27 Oct 2009 - by Laura Margueritte
Observed Distribution of Permafrost Types
No data
27 Oct 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Uptake of Carbon Dioxide from the Atmosphere
Arctic marine systems currently provide a substantial carbon sink but the continuation of this service depends critically on arctic climate change impacts on ice, freshwater inputs, and ocean acidification.
27 Oct 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Minimum arctic summer sea ice extent
Sea ice has decreased sharply in all seasons, with summer sea ice declining most dramatically — beyond the projections of IPCC 2007.
27 Oct 2009 - by Laura Margueritte
Antarctic Greenland
No data
27 Oct 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Anomalies in Northern Hemisphere Snow Cover
Snow cover extent has continued to decline and is projected to decline further, despite the projected increase in winter snowfall in some areas.
27 Oct 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Glacier Mass Balance
Glacier mass loss has been observed across the Arctic, consistent with the global trend.
27 Oct 2009 - by Laura Margueritte
РАЗРУШЕНИЕ ОЗОНОВОГО СЛОЯ И ИЗМЕНЕНИЕ КЛИМАТА
Разрушение озона и изменение климата две разные проблемы, но их нельзя брать по-отдельности, так как обе изменяют глобальные циклы. Полный масштаб взаимосвязи этих двух проблем пока не выяснен.
27 May 2010 - by GRID-Arendal
СТРУКТУРА МЕЖДУНАРОДНОГО
Национальные подразделения по озону в развивающихся странах
27 May 2010 - by GRID-Arendal
СРОКИ ОТКАЗА ОТ ПРОИЗВОДСТВА И ПОТРЕБЛЕНИЯ ОЗОНОРАЗРУШАЮЩИХ ВЕЩЕСТВ
определены положениями Монреальского протокола
27 May 2010 - by GRID-Arendal
ИСТОНЧЕНИЕ ОЗОНОВОГО СЛОЯ НАД АРКТИКОЙ И ТЕМПЕРАТУРА СТРАТОСФЕРЫ
Озон вертикальной общей Арктики Единиц Добсона
27 May 2010 - by GRID-Arendal
Кондиционирование воздуха на юге Китая
Кондиционеры на складе
27 May 2010 - by GRID-Arendal
ПРИМЕРЫ ОСНОВНЫХ ПУТЕЙ КОНТРАБАНДЫ ОРВ В АЗИИ
Срок полного отказа от ХФУ уже наступил, а сроки отказа по другим озоноразрушающим веществам стремительно приближаются. В то же время серьезную опасность для восстановления озонового слоя представляет контрабанда ОРВ. На...
27 May 2010 - by GRID-Arendal
Разрушающая способность веществ, истончающих озоновый слой
Эффективный эквивалент хлора в триллионных долях
27 May 2010 - by GRID-Arendal
Le protoxyde d’azote : un coupable de premier rang après 2010...СЕЛЬСКОХОЗЯЙСТВЕННЫЕ ВЫБОРОСЫ
«Мы рассчитали, что озоноразрущающая способность N2O будет на 50% выше, когда уровни хлора вернутся к показателям, зафиксированным до 1960 года».
27 May 2010 - by GRID-Arendal
Рост использования систем охлаждения
Холодильники
27 May 2010 - by GRID-Arendal
ГФУ И N2O: ДВЕ УГРОЗЫ КЛИМАТУ И ИХ ВЛИЯНИЕ НА ОЗОНОВЫЙ СЛОЙ
Выбросы некоторых парниковых газов
27 May 2010 - by GRID-Arendal
Химический процесс разрушения озона в озонавстрратаостфоесрфеере
Объемы озона Давление (в миллипаскалях)
27 May 2010 - by GRID-Arendal
Реципиенты и доноры Многостороннего фонда
Государства получают помощь в зависимости от потребностей для успешного осуществления Протокола. Иными словами, деньги выделяются на ликвидацию производства и потребления конкретного количества ОРВ. В результате, страны,...
27 May 2010 - by GRID-Arendal
Карта от цвета кожи (коренные)
Отклоненный из нескольких факторов окружающей среды
27 May 2010 - by GRID-Arendal
ПОСЛЕДСТВИЯ УСИЛЕНИЯ УФ-В ИЗЛУЧЕНИЯ НА УРОЖАЙ
Краткие выводы исследований по искусственной обработке растений.
27 May 2010 - by GRID-Arendal
ПОТЕНЦИАЛ СНИЖЕНИЯ ЗАПАСОВ ОРВ К 2015 ГОДУ
Если бы не было мер по снижению запасов ОРВ, то в 2009-2015 гг. выбросы находящихся на хранении ОРВ могли бы превысить сокращения, достигнутые за 4 года действия Киотского протокола (2008-2012 гг.)
27 May 2010 - by GRID-Arendal
Выбросы ГФУ в разбивке по выбранным индустриализованным странам
Примечание: Согласно Рамочной конвенции ООН об изменении климата, развитые страны, ратифицировавшие Киотский протокол, обязаны декларировать ежегодные выбросы ГФУ начиная с 1900 года. Сейчас в эту категорию входит 40 гос...
27 May 2010 - by GRID-Arendal
Озоновая дыра над Антарктикои
Содержание озона в вертикальном столбе атмосферы.С 21 по 30 сентября 2006 г. отмечалась самая большая со времени начала наблюдения область распространения озоновой дыры.
27 May 2010 - by GRID-Arendal
Производство основных газов ОРВ
Тысяча тонн озоноразрущающей способности (Тонна ОРС)
27 May 2010 - by GRID-Arendal
28 октября 2004 года
«Глобальный УФ-индекс — измерение уровня УФ-излучения на поверхности Земли. Целью разработки этого индекса стало информирование населения о возможных вредных последствиях для здоровья УФ-излучения и призыва к защите от ч...
27 May 2010 - by GRID-Arendal
УЯЗВИМОСТЬ
УФ-излучение и последствия для здоровья
27 May 2010 - by GRID-Arendal
ГХФУ: временной замены ХФУ в секторе холодильного оборудования
Потребление ГХФУ, отмеченные.
27 May 2010 - by GRID-Arendal
Общее заявленное производство ОРВ
Тысяча тонн озоноразрущающей способности
27 May 2010 - by GRID-Arendal
Назначение ХФУ в США в 1987 г
В процентах от обшего использования ХФУ
27 May 2010 - by GRID-Arendal
Тенденции бромистого метила
Производство и потребление сообщили.
27 May 2010 - by GRID-Arendal