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Major industrial sectors emitting metals in the Mediterranean region Major industrial sectors emitting metals in the Mediterranean region
In the Mediterranean countries, according to the National Baseline Budget (NBB) inventory, atmospheric emissions of metals are mostly related to the cement industry (Hg, Cu), production of energy (As, Cd, Ni) and the metal industry (Pb, Zn). Water releases appear to be mostly related to the fertiliser industry (Hg, As, Pb), metal industry (Ni, Zn) and wastewater treatment plants (Cd, Cu), with important contributions also from the energy sec...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Coastal transport infrastructure in the Mediterranean Coastal transport infrastructure in the Mediterranean
With regards to the coastal zone the development of maritime transport is inherently linked to the development of coastal infrastructures such as ports and motorways and railways connecting inland areas to the ports. The development of large logistic coastal infrastructures brings, amongst others, fragmentation of coastal landscapes and habitats, changes in the land use and increased pollution loads
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Coastal erosion (EU) and fragile ecosystems in the Mediterranean Coastal erosion (EU) and fragile ecosystems in the Mediterranean
Among the many impacts erosion has on coastal ecosystems are the destruction of soil surface layers, leading to groundwater pollution and to reduction of water resources; degradation of dunes, leading to desertification; reduction of biological diversity; adverse effects on beach dynamics; reduction of sedimentary resources; and disappearance of the sandy littoral lanes that protect agricultural land from the intrusion of seawater, resulting in ...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Fish catch in the Mediterranean Sea sub-regions Fish catch in the Mediterranean Sea sub-regions
Fishing is an important issue for the Mediterranean. Although it puts only a relatively small quantity of produce on the market compared with the demand, it is a significant source of employment and an important component of the Mediterranean cultural identity. It accounts for 420.000 jobs, 280.000 of which are fishermen, and the average prices of landed produce are much higher than world prices.
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Non-renewable energy resources in the Mediterranean Non-renewable energy resources in the Mediterranean
The active trade and distribution of oil and gas in the Mediterranean Basin, both on land and at sea, involves an extensive network of crude oil pipelines and gas line systems, mainly in the countries of production, linking their oilfields to their refineries and port terminals or to other countries.
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Water stress in the Mediterranean basin Water stress in the Mediterranean basin
An overview of water stress in the Mediterranean basin, highlighting water exploitation as well as existing and planned desalination plants.
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Maritime transportation routes in the Mediterranean Maritime transportation routes in the Mediterranean
Another strong traditional economic sector in the Mediterranean is transport, specifically maritime transport. The Mediterranean Sea is among the world’s busiest waterways, accounting for 15 % of global shipping activity by number of calls and 10 % by vessel deadweight tonnes (dwt). More than 325.000 voyages occurred in the Mediterranean Sea in 2007, representing a capacity of 3.800 million tonnes. Almost two-thirds of the traffic was internal...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Tourism in the Mediterranean countries Tourism in the Mediterranean countries
The Mediterranean basin, if considered as a single area, is by far the largest global tourism destination, attracting almost a third of the world’s international tourists (306 million out of 980 million worldwide) and generating more than a quarter of international tourism receipts (190 out of 738 billion Euro worldwide). It is forecasted that the Mediterranean region will reach 500 million of international tourist arrivals by 2030 (UNWTO 2012).
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Industrial hazardous waste in the Mediterranean countries Industrial hazardous waste in the Mediterranean countries
Industry is frequently located along the region’s coasts in areas with high population density, sometimes within urban centres, and often in close proximity to other economic activities like agriculture and tourism. This means that pressures brought by industry to coastal and marine environments add to and interact with other types of pressures. The environmental pressures on the Mediterranean coastal marine environment generated by this ...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Agriculture and population in the Mediterranean basin Agriculture and population in the Mediterranean basin
Agriculture in the Mediterranean Basin, despite many different sub-climates, is mainly rain-fed. Cereals, vegetables, and citrus fruits account for over 85 % of the Mediterranean’s total agricultural production (UNEP/MAP/BP/RAC 2009). Cultivation of other products, such as olives for olive oil and grapes for wine, also occupies a significant amount of agricultural land (Leff et al. 2004).
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Human development and ecological footprint in Mediterranean countries Human development and ecological footprint in Mediterranean countries
The long history of the Mediterranean has led to a diversification of political and governance approaches, a broad range in economic development, and a diversity of social systems, all of which is reflected in the levels of development and the ecological footprints of the Mediterranean states. The ecological footprint is a measure of human demand on the Earth’s ecosystems and it represents the amount of biologically productive land and sea area n...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Urban population in the Mediterranean countries Urban population in the Mediterranean countries
Urban development in the Mediterranean has been very rapid. Of the 190 million people added to the population between 1970 and 2010, 163 million live in towns. Urban population (towns with more than 10.000 inhabitants) increased 1,9 % per year during that period, from 152 million to 315 million. The total could reach 385 million by 2025. More than 74 % of this growth took place in the south and east, where urban growth from 1970 to 2010 averaged...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Population density and urban centres in the Mediterranean basin Population density and urban centres in the Mediterranean basin
The total population of the Mediterranean countries grew from 276 million in 1970 to 412 million in 2000 (a 1,35 % increase per year) and to 466 million in 2010. The population is predicted to reach 529 million by 2025. Four countries account for about 60 % of the total population: Turkey (81 million), Egypt (72 million), France (62 million), and Italy (60 million) (Plan Bleu computations based on UNDESA 2011). Overall, more than half the popula...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Status of Ratification of the Barcelona Convention and its Protocols Status of Ratification of the Barcelona Convention and its Protocols
The main regulatory instrument aimed at the protection of the Mediterranean marine and coastal environment is the Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment and the Coastal Region of the Mediterranean (Barcelona Convention) which entered into force in 2004. The Barcelona Convention’s main objectives are "to prevent, abate, combat and to the fullest extent possible eliminate pollution of the Mediterranean Sea Area" and "to protect and...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Timeline of Barcelona Convention and its Protocols Timeline of Barcelona Convention and its Protocols
The Barcelona Convention now has a total of seven associated Protocols: • The Protocol for the Prevention of Pollution of the Mediterranean Sea by Dumping from Ships and Aircraft or Incineration at Sea (Dumping Protocol, adopted 1976, in force 1978, amended 1995), • The Protocol concerning Co-operation in Combating Pollution of the Mediterranean Sea by Oil and other Harmful Substances in Cases of Emergency (Emergency Protocol, adopted 1976, i...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Tourist pressure on Mediterranean coast Tourist pressure on Mediterranean coast
Tourism contributes CO2 emissions, mostly through increased use of air and road transportation. Beyond that, the major direct pressure from coastal tourism on the marine and coastal environment is the demand for space, both in the coastal zone, resulting mainly in urbanisation, and on the coastline itself, through construction of marinas and other infrastructure that leads to concretisation of the shores. The concentration of tourism within spec...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Chlorophyll-a concentration Chlorophyll-a concentration
Climatogical yearly mean of chlorophyll-a concentration.
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Surface circulation in the Mediterranean Sea Surface circulation in the Mediterranean Sea
The large-scale circulation of the Mediterranean Sea has been described as sub-basin-scale and mesoscale gyres interconnected and bounded by currents and jets with strong seasonal and inter-annual variability (Millot and Taupier-Letage 2005). This general circulation flow impinges on the coastal regions and strongly influences the local dynamics of currents. Shelf areas in the Mediterranean are comparatively small and are separated from the dee...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Mean surface salinity Mean surface salinity
Schematically, the Mediterranean Sea comprises three main water masses (EEA and UNEP 1999): • the Modified Atlantic Water (MAW), found in the surface layer, with a thickness of 50–200 m and characterised by a salinity of 36,2 psu (practical salinity units) near Gibraltar to 38,6 psu in the Levantine basin; • the Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW), formed in the Levantine basin, lying in depth between 200 and 800 m, and characterised by temp...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Mean surface temperature Mean surface temperature
A large thermohaline cell (affected by both temperature and salinity) characterises the general circulation in the Mediterranean Sea. Circulation is driven by the water balance deficit and by the heat fluxes between the sea and the atmosphere. The water deficit, caused by greater evaporation than precipitation and river run-off, is mainly compensated for by the inflow of Atlantic water through the Straits of Gibraltar and by the water contributio...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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