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Dominating air currents
The pollution from industrialized nations are affecting the environment in the Arctic region. The main areas of indutrial activity in the northern hemisphere are spreading to specific areas in the Arctic though air curre...
04 Oct 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Ocean currents and sea ice extent
Arctic Ocean circulate in a large clockwise rotational pattern moving from east to west around the polar ice cap. This rotating pattern, known as a gyre, occurs as a result of the clockwise winds that typically occur in ...
04 Oct 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Ecosystems in Northern Scandinavia and Finland
The map shows the range of nine different ecosystem types across Fennoscandia, the northern region of scandinavia and the western part of the Barents region. The Barents region is in the Arctic and covers the area of Wes...
04 Oct 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
SO2 air concentration
Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a colourless gas with a sharp,irritating odour. It is produced from the burning of fossil fuels (coal and oil) and the smelting of mineral ores that contain sulfur. There are several areas in the ...
04 Oct 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Forest damage due to air pollution
Air pollution has had an enormous impact of the forest in the Barents region. SPecifically there is alot of damage in Russia near the borders of Norway and Finland. The diagram shows areas of 'forest death' and the subse...
04 Oct 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Protected areas the Barents Region
There are pristine wilderness and unspoiled field and tundra landscapes, and the air and water in most parts of the Region is mainly clean. Several areas are protected for scientific research, park areas, and nature rese...
14 Sep 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Forests and ecozones in the Barents Region
The Barents region is in the Arctic and covers the area of Western Russia and the northern areas of Finland, Sweden and Norway. This shows all the main ecozones of the region and their geographical coverage.
04 Oct 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Population density in the Baltic Sea drainage basin
The density of people per square kilometers have been calculated from various statistical sources, and displays the situation at approximately 1990. Population, and specifically cities, act as driving forces in regards t...
04 Oct 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Arable land in the Baltic Sea region
Ratio of arable land out of total land use in the Baltic Sea drainage basin. Agriculture is one of the main contributors to the nutrient (in this case, primarily nitrogen) influx into the Baltic Sea, and thus a main driv...
04 Oct 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Pasture Land - Baltic Sea drainage basin
Ratio of pasture land total land use in the Baltic Sea drainage basin. Agriculture is one of the main contributors to the nutrient (in this case, primarily nitrogen) influx into the Baltic Sea, and thus a main driver for...
04 Oct 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Wetlands in the Baltic Sea drainage basin (BALANS)
Percentage of wetlands out of total land area for the Baltic Sea drainage basin. The ratios have been estimated from various sources, and resembles the situation at approximately 2000, and is calculated from the BALANS d...
04 Oct 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Human impact, year 2032 (policy first scenario)
The GLOBIO-2 model is based on settlements and modern infrastructure such as roads, powerlines and pipelines. This map presents the possible situation in 2032, using the GEO-3 policy first scenario. This scenario suggest...
04 Oct 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Human impact, year 1700 (approximately)
The GLOBIO-2 model is based on settlements and modern infrastructure such as roads, powerlines and pipelines. This map presents the situation as it could have been before the advent of industrialization, with very little...
04 Oct 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Human impact, year 2032 (sustainability first scenario)
The GLOBIO-2 model is based on settlements and modern infrastructure such as roads, powerlines and pipelines. This map presents the possible situation in 2032, using the GEO-3 security first scenario. This scenario sugge...
04 Oct 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Official Development Assistance in 2004
Official development assistance, or foreign aid, consists of loans, grants, technical assistance and other forms of cooperation extended by governments to developing countries. A significant proportion of official develo...
01 Nov 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal (based on a graphic by Philippe Rekacewicz)
Toilets needed to meet the MDG sanitation target by 2015
Ensure environmental sustainability goal (goal 7) among the Millennium Development Goals address sanitation, through the target: Halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water ...
20 Sep 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Forecast World 2015
What will the world situation, specifically related to development and environment, be in 2015? This graphic, in the form similar to a weather forecast, tries to paint out a likely future scenario, with both good and bad...
20 Sep 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Lack of access to safe water
Ensure environmental sustainability goal (goal 7) among the Millennium Development Goals address sanitation, through the target: Halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water ...
20 Sep 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Reference map for Tahoua, Niger
This map displays the location of the city of Tahoua in the Central African country of Niger. The map also displays the location of Niger, and the capital of Niger (Nimey). Tahoua is located in the southwestern part of t...
20 Sep 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Money grows on trees - direct values from community management in Tanzania
In an effort to bring back life to the degraded and over-used lands of the poor Shinyanga region of Tanzania, the government has brought back the traditional practice of Ngitili. Vegetation and trees are nurtured in encl...
20 Sep 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Urban population: status and trends
Since the dawn of civilization, people have been aggregating in towns and cities. This trend has reached an even higher rate with the dawn of industrialisation, and especially in developing countries, as seen in the grap...
20 Sep 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Rainwater partitioning in India
India is facing a food supply challenge with more than one billion inhabitants, and out of them 35% below the poverty line. This analysis of the rainwater partitioning show that there is room for India to use more water ...
20 Sep 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Gender equality and empowerment of women: education status
The Millennium Development Goal 3 address gender equality and empowerment of women. This map displays the status in 2001 of an indicator for target 4: 'Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education, prefe...
20 Sep 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Nairobi - Interesting neighbours (golfcourses and slums)
Trends in development and urbanization show that the gaps between the rich and the poor is generally increasing world wide. This satellite image over Nairobi, Kenya highlights the location of golf courses and informal se...
20 Sep 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Millennium Development Goals: 2005 Trends
The Millennium Development Goals, originally devised in 2001 together with the Millennium Declaration, outline a set of reachable and realistic goals and targets. There are eight goals, addressing various areas of develo...
20 Sep 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
World development: health and economy
By looking more closely at the regions we can see that the situation in the world is quite diverse. This chart portrays the status of development with two important parameters, health and economy. Regions, like Sub-Sahar...
20 Sep 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
World route map (World Summit 2005 and beyond)
This timeline, shaped as a subway map, takes a tongue-in-cheek look at international events in development and environment leading up to the Millennium Declaration, the 2005 World Summit and beyond, with a milestone set ...
20 Sep 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Reference map for the city of Malindi, Kenya
This map locates the city of Malindi (population approximatly 150 000 inhabitants) in Kenya. The city is located on the Kenyan coast, on the Indian Ocean. The map also displays a world map for further reference, as well ...
20 Sep 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Major cities in the Andean community
The urbanisation of the population has been happening since the first city, and is rapidly increasing in rate - especially since the dawn of industrialization. The Andean community consists out of five countries: Venezue...
20 Sep 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Temperature trends and projections
The global average surface temperature has increased over the 20th century by about 0.6 degrees Celsius. This increase in temperature is likely to have been the largest for any century in the last 1000 years. Evidence fr...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Variations of the Earth's surface temperature for the past 100 millions years
The global average surface temperature has increased over the 20th century by about 0.6 degrees Celsius. This increase in temperature is likely to have been the largest for any century in the last 1000 years.
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
CO2 emissions from industrial processes and land use changes
Shows the different levels of CO2 emissions from industrial processes and land use changes from different regions. The major greenhouse gases are included within six sectors: Energy; Industrial Processes; Solvent and Ot...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Modeled temperature compared to observed temperature for the last 150 years
As we can see from models of temperature changes caused by natural forcing, we should have observed a decrease in the global average temperature lately, but we have not. We have observed an increase. A climate model c...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Back to the future: The science of building scenarios
Diagram showing four scenarios for the future each with different influences between market orientation and environmental, and regional and global. Then predictive charts show the scenarios in terms of emissions, concent...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Kyoto protocol, cost of implementation
The Kyoto Protocol is only a first step towards combating climate change. Drastic reductions of greenhouse gas emissions are required to avoid the most threatening consequences of global warming. Concerns are raised that...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Global atmospheric concentration of CO2 (outtake)
Chart showing the increase in CO2 levels in the atmosphere from 1870 to 2004 and predicted levels to the year 2100. Historically the developed countries of the world have emitted most of the anthropogenic greenhouse gas...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Climate change: processes, characteristics and threats
Most people have heard about climate change, they might even express a real concern about it, but how many would actually consider it a threat? Because the changes can be slow and sometimes difficult to identify within t...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Mitigating climate change: cost in 2050 (out of GDP)
Global average GDP might be reduced by 1–4% if we reduce the emissions of CO2 so that we stabilize the concentration in the atmosphere at 450 ppmv. In 2003 the concentration was 375 ppmv. If we stabilise at higher concen...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Sensitivity, adaptability and vulnerability
Sensitivity is the degree to which a system is affected, either adversely or beneficially, by climate-related stimuli. Climate-related stimuli encompass all the elements of climate change, including mean climate characte...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Annual cycle of light in the Northern Arctic
The Arctic is often described as a place of utter darkness or white snow in winter and of midnight sun during the summertime. In fact, there are few places on Earth where the sun displays so much variation in colour due ...
17 May 2005 - by Beatrice Collignon, Sorbonne University
Major global bird migration routes to the Arctic
Bird species that migrate to the Arctic coasts and wetlands arrive from nearly every corner of the planet. During the summer, the sun never or nearly never sets, resulting in a short but intensive breeding season when m...
17 May 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Impact of Sea Level Rise in Banjul, Gambia
Climate change is expected to cause a rise in sea level. Sea level rise will have a significant impact on coastal areas, especially coastal megacities such as Banjul, the Gambia. This graphic shows the expected sea level...
17 May 2005 - by Delphine Digout, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Factors influencing the greenhouse effect
There are three main factors that directly influence the energy balance of the earth: the total energy influx, which depends on the earth's distance from the sun and on solar activity; the chemical composition of the atm...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
In the Grip of Malaria in Africa
There is increasing evidence that climate change has a significant role in causing malaria epidemics. As climatic conditions change, the locations of suitable breeding habitats for the mosquitoes that transmit malaria an...
17 May 2005 - by Delphine Digout, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Population and development in Africa
As population increases, so does the demand for natural resources. This graphic shows how the world's population distribution has changed since 1750 (in 50-year increments), with projections for 2050 and 2150. It also sh...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Delphine Digout, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Changing Biomes in South Africa
Predictions of the effects of climate change on natural ecosystems in South Africa, over the medium to long term, have included reduced spatial extent of the Grassland biome (Ellery et al. 1991) and an increase in the ex...
17 May 2005 - by Delphine Digout, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Melting snow on Kilimanjaro
At the February 2001 meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), researchers reported dramatic changes in the volume of ice capping the Kibo summit of Kilimanjaro.This graphic shows the est...
17 May 2005 - by Delphine Digout, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Freshwater resources
Access to water is perhaps one of the greatest challenges for sustainable development in Africa. This resource includes three graphics. The first shows the average annual freshwater withdrawal, in cubic metres per capita...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Malnutrition and Famine
Many countries in sub-Saharan Africa face chronic malnutrition, with frequent famine episodes. This graphic shows the locations of areas in Africa which face chronic malnutrition (less than 2300 calories per day and per ...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Food Production Index
Per capita food production is declining in Africa, but it is increasing steadily in the world as a whole. This graphic shows the net food production per capita (PIN base 1989-1991) for Africa and for the world for the ti...
17 May 2005 - by Digout, Delphine, based on a sketch by Philippe Rekacewicz; UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Impact of Temperature Rise on Tea in Kenya
Increasing temperatures will likely affect major crops such as tea in Kenya. Major impacts on food production will come from changes in temperature, moisture levels, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, CO2 levels, and pests and ...
17 May 2005 - by Otto Simonett, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Water availability in Africa
Water resources are inextricably linked with climate, so the prospect of global climate change has serious implications for water resources and regional development (Riebsame et al., 1995). This graphic shows water avail...
17 May 2005 - by Digout, Delphine, based on a sketch by Philippe Rekacewicz; UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Climate change in Zimbabwe: trends in temperature and rainfall
Zimbabwe is experiencing more hot days and fewer cold days, and the amount of precipitation it receives is deviating from the mean more frequently. This resource includes two graphics. The first shows the number of days ...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Aridity Zones
Forty percent of Africa's population lives in arid, semi-arid, and dry subhumid areas. Climate change may lead to an increase in arid zones that are susceptible to drought. This graphic shows the locations of humid, mois...
17 May 2005 - by Delphine Digout, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
People Affected by Natural Disasters During the Period 1971 to 2001
Natural disasters are increasing in number and frequency, and affect most countries in Africa. This graphic shows the amounts of people, in millions, who were affected by drought, by famine, by flood and by epidemics rel...
17 May 2005 - by Digout, Delphine, based on a sketch by Philippe Rekacewicz; UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Climate change vulnerability in Africa
Multiple stresses make most of Africa highly vulnerable to environmental changes, and climate change is likely to increase this vulnerability. This graphic shows which of the regions of Africa (North Africa, West Africa,...
17 May 2005 - by Delphine Digout, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Deforestation in West Africa: Case Cote-d'Ivoire
The average annual rate of change in total forest area from 1990 to 2000 for the whole of Africa was estimated to be -0.74 %, equivalent to losing more than 5 million ha of forest a year, an area roughly the size of Togo...
17 May 2005 - by Rekacewicz, Philippe, based on a sketch by Le Monde, Paris; UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Sea level rise: Costa Rica coastal communities under threat
Sea level rise is an important indicator of climate change. A rise in sea level may result in flooding, salinisation of fresh water, coastal erosion and in some cases loss of land to the ocean. As depicted, some coastal...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Energy consumption, economic development and CO2 emissions; selected Latin America countries
As a rule of thumb, economic growth is closely related to growth in energy consumption because the more energy is used, the higher the economic growth. However, it is possible to decouple energy consumption and economic...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Major N2O emitting countries in Latin America and Caribbean
Shows the levels of N2O emissions from major Latin American and Caribbean countries and the source of the emissions. Brazil is one of the world’s largest emitters of N2O. Most of the N2O emissions in the region are gene...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Dengue fever incidence; Trinidad and Tobago
Shows the increase in dengue fever as temperature rises in correlation with El Niño in Trinidad and Tobago. There is neither good prophylactic nor cure for dengue fever, a disease spread by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. The...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
CO2 emissions, energy use and economic development; Latin America and the Caribbean
Economic growth and increased energy demand are closely linked to increased emissions of CO2. If there is a shock in the economy, the response as reduced emissions of CO2, can be almost without inertia if the shock is l...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
ENSO Variability index
Variability in the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) index 1982-2004, and temperature variation for those years - plus or minus 3 degrees maximum in those years of the ENSO events in the Pacific Ocean and affected regi...
17 May 2005 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Rapid decline of the San Quintin glacier, North Patagonia
Glaciers grow and retreat at intervals depending on local climate changes, particularly variations in temperature and precipitation . Retreating and diminishing mountain glaciers all over the world, except in the Antarc...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
CH4 emissions in 2000; Latin America and selected countries
Since pre-industrial times, the atmospheric concentration of methane (CH4) has increased by 150%. Methane is a greenhouse gas that has a global warming potential that is 23 times stronger than CO2. (IPCC 2001) In 2000 t...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
CO2 emissions in 1990 and 2000 Latin America and selected countries
A comparison of the total level of CO2 emissions from Latin America compared to selected countries. Emissions from Latin America and Caribbean increased more than the world average between 1990 and 2000. The increase in...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Green Continent: Latin America and the Caribbean
Land cover distribution in classes, ratios
17 May 2005 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Sources of electricity in Latin America and the Caribbean
Shows the amount of power that is used in the three main regions from fossil fuels, hydropower and other sources. While Central America and the Caribbean have a very carbon intense electricity production, even more inte...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Annual deforestation in the Amazon and resulting CO2 emissions
According to the World Resources Institute,Brazil had the highest carbon dioxide equivalent emissions in the region in 2001, primarily due to changes in land use.) Most of the region’s forests are in South America, parti...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Ice thickness change vs elevation (Patagonia glaciers)
Thickness, in relation to elevation, for two different ice fields located in very Southern South America (Patagonian ice fields), with 1975-2000 averages and 1995-2000 average, which show dramatic decrease.
17 May 2005 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
CO2 emissions from transportation in 2000; selected countries of Latin America and the Caribbean
A comparison of transportation CO2 emissions from selected Latin American and Caribbean countries. Increased transport is one of the main reasons for increased CO2 emissions, both in developed and developing countries. ...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Rapid retreat of glaciers in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru
There is now ample evidence of a major retreat of most mountain glaciers during the last 100 years in response to widespread increases in temperature. In recent decades, the rate of glacial recession has increased tremen...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Increase in rainfall over Buenos Aires 1900-2000
There are indications of changes in precipitation patterns over Latin America and the Caribbean during the last decades. In Argentina, for example, precipitation increases have been observed over Buenos Aires over the l...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Trends in economy, Latin America and the Caribbean
In the period 1970-2002, Latin American economic development indicators were fluctuating significantly – from a decrease of 5.6 percent in 1971-1980 GDP growth to only 1.2 percent in 1981-1990, and an increase up to 3.3 ...
17 May 2005 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Change in precipitation for scenarios A2 and B2; Tropical America
When global surface temperatures increase, changes in precipitation and atmospheric moisture are very likely to increase: the hydrological cycle will be more active, and the atmosphere will increase its water holding cap...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Intense hurricanes in the Atlantic Basin
Global average temperature increased by 0.6 ° C over the last century, while sea levels rose by 9 to 20 cm. The IPCC projects increases in the global average surface temperature by between 1.4°C and 5.8°C and in sea leve...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Population growth
The population in Latin America and the Caribbean grew by 85 percent between 1970 and 2001, from 285 million to about 528 million. In the same time, the annual growth rates fell from 2.5 percent to 1.5 percent, which is ...
17 May 2005 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
CO2 emissions in the world and in Latin America and the Caribbean
A comparison between the amount of CO2 emissions of the world and latin America and the Caribbean. Since pre-industrial times, the atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases has grown significantly. The present level...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Quick retreat of the Santa Rosa glacier, Peru
Several mountain glaciers now disappear at a frightening rate as in the Santa Rosa glacier of Peru. A warmer climate often leads to increased precipitation. Much of the increased precipitation comes as rain instead of s...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Trends and projections in carbon dioxide emissions
Historic emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) for Latin America and the Caribbean 1970-2000 with projections up to 2030 using two different scenarios.
17 May 2005 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Regional differences in CO2 emissions Latin America and the Caribbean
Compares the total amounts of CO2 emissions from the three main regions within Latin America and the Caribbean. CO2 emissions in the region vary considerably. The highest emissions come from South America, while the low...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Top 10 CO2 emitting countries in 2000; Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil is the world’s second largest emitter of carbon dioxide (CO2) from land use change. Only Indonesia emits more. In 2000 CO2 emissions from land use change in Brazil represented 18% of the world’s total emissions. ...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Mass balance of the Antisana glacier (Ecuador) versus ENSO variability index
Time series 1995-200 with ENSO index vs glacier.
17 May 2005 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Tropical hydropower dams as greenhouse sources
Large tropical hydropower reservoirs in Latin America may have a potential adverse impact on the climatic system through releasing greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Submerging large areas of land and tropical vegetat...
17 May 2005 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Projected changes in maize crops, Venezuela
Agriculture is a key sector in the region’s economy and it employs an important proportion of the economically active population. Climate change could adversely affect Latin American agricultural regions, especially trop...
06 Nov 2005 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Retreat of the ice cap on the Volcano Nevado Santa Isabel (Colombia)
Shows the retreat of the glacier on the volcano Nevado Santa Isabel and the correlation of global warming. With spectacular mountain peak glaciers melting away, the area becomes less attractive to tourists. In addition,...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
CO2 emissions per person in Latin America and the Caribbean compared to the world and OECD average emissions
Emissions of greenhouse gases are on the increase around the world, contributing to man-made global warming and climate change. This graphic displays greenhouse gas emissions per capita in Latin America and the Caribbean...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Brazilian alcohol transport fleet and regional climate benefits
In Brazil there are noticeable benefits for using alcohol as a fuel over traditional gasoline. This graphic illustrates the reduction in use of fossil fuels (gasoline) in favor of ethanol/alcohol. This has lead to a redu...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Major CH4 emitting countries in Latin America and caribbean
Shows the main producers of CH4 from countries in Latin America and the Caribbean and the source of the emissions. Brazil, a leading cattle-ranching country, has the highest methane emission level in the region and is o...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Use of renewables and combustible waste for energy production in 2001; Latin America and the Caribbean
Approximately 12 % of the world’s energy supply comes from renewable energy sources (biomass, waste and other renewables, excluding hydropower). The average renewable share in Latin America is higher than the world aver...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
N2O emissions in 2000; Latin America and selected countries
Since pre-industrial times, the atmospheric concentration of nitrous oxide (N2O) has increased by 16%. Nitrous oxide is a greenhouse gas that has a global warming potential that is 296 times stronger than CO2. In 2000 t...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Sea level rise due to the melting of mountain and subpolar glaciers
Oceans change as a result of the impact of climatic variability on glaciers and ice caps that further contributes to fluctuation sin sea leve. Observational and modelling studies of glaciers and ice caps indicate an ave...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Cooling factors
The amount of aerosols in the air has direct effect on the amount of solar radiation hitting the Earth's surface. Aerosols may have significant local or regional impact on temperature. Water vapour is a greenhouse gas, b...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Global atmospheric concentration of CO2
Atmospheric CO2 has increased from a pre-industrial concentration of about 280 ppmv to about 367 ppmv at present (ppmv= parts per million by volume). CO2 concentration data from before 1958 are from ice core measurements...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Freshwater stress
Today, the great pressure on water resources is rising human populations, particularly growing concentrations in urban areas. This diagram shows the impact of expected population growth on water usage by 2025, based on t...
07 Nov 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Planets and atmospheres
A planet's climate is decided by its mass, its distance from the sun and the composition of its atmosphere. Mars is too small to keep a thick atmosphere. Its atmosphere consists mainly of carbon dioxide, but the atmosphe...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Potential dengue transmission in case of temperature rise
A warmer climate increases occasions of vector borne tropical diseases. This figure depicts weeks of potential dengue transmission under current temperature and 2°C and 4 °C warming. Presence of dengue virus, mosquito ve...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Forest composition case study in North America
Current and projected Ranges of Beech Trees in the US. A warmer climate may have significant effect on the forests. Decidous forests will probably move northwards and to higher altitudes, replacing coniferous forests in...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal