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Heftingsdalen, Norway Heftingsdalen, Norway
The plant is designed to restrict waste movement and environmental damage. Strict safety regulations govern storage of hazardous waste (chemicals, asbestos, varnish, oil, etc.). Such waste is not moved until it is destroyed on the spot or redirected to specialist plants elsewhere. All the other waste is separated by the consumers themselves and dumped into skips.
15 Dec 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz
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Household Waste, Heftingsdalen Household Waste, Heftingsdalen
In 2005 household waste output was up by 10 000 tonnes on 2000, rising from 15 000 to 25 000 tonnes for almost the same population. Nor does this include 20 000 tonnes of business waste (construction, light industry and service sector). In all Heftingsdalen processes about 45 000 tonnes of waste, making an average of 720 kilograms per person per year.
15 Dec 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz
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Trafficking waste stories Trafficking waste stories
Despite international efforts to halt dumping of illegal waste outrageous incidents occur. Collating relevant data is difficult but there is no doubt about the damage. Toxic waste causes long-term poisoning of soil and water, affecting people’s health and living conditions, sometimes irreversibly. It mainly involves slow processes that must be monitored for years to be detected and proven (let alone remedied).
15 Dec 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
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Japanese household waste composition Japanese household waste composition
One person’s dustbin is not the same as another’s. Depending on which continent you live on, on your life style, financial resources, and so on, your trash will be different. This shows two cases from Japan.
15 Dec 2006 - by Claudia Heberlein, Emmanuelle Bournay
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Total bottled water consumption Total bottled water consumption
Why would any country import goods already produced at home or nearby? One explanation is straight forward: It may be cheaper to buy abroad than produce locally or the necessary know-how is not available locally. In some cases a famous brand or the country of origin is a guarantee of quality.
15 Dec 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
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Major waste exporters, Major waste receivers Major waste exporters, Major waste receivers
Some countries, for example the Netherlands and Belgium, seem to act as “waste dispatchers”. Their figures suggest that they are the top waste exporters, a fact that reflects neither the waste they produce (given their population) nor their internal processing capacity. Presumably large amounts of hazardous waste are simply passing through Antwerp, Rotterdam and other industrial ports on the North Sea.
15 Dec 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
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Global household expenditure Global household expenditure
Several trends characterise modern consumer goods. Our appetite for them continues to grow, with product ranges growing too. Meanwhile the average lifespan of many products is shortening. 80% of what we make is thrown away within six months of production. Each product contains more components and they are usually more difficult to biodegrade than before. All of which complicates the way products are processed once they become waste.
15 Dec 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
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About the difficulties of classifying waste (and counting it) About the difficulties of classifying waste (and counting it)
A multitude of approaches exists to classify the various categories of waste. Waste can be sorted either by its origin (what activity has created it?), by its composition (what is it made of?), by the level of danger it poses to humans and the environment, or by the way it is managed and treated. Each of these approaches will lead to a list of wastes, and often those definitions are overlapping – yet another fact that complicates the collection ...
15 Dec 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
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Curitiba, location Curitiba, location
Curitiba has become world-famous for its original approach to basic municipal problems thanks to a unique mixture of innovative town planning, determined political leadership and good public relations.
15 Dec 2006 - by Cécile Marin
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Mining waste generated from aluminium production Mining waste generated from aluminium production
The production of aluminium involves three main stages: mining bauxite ore, refining bauxite to alumina (Al2O3), and then smelting alumina to produce aluminium. Bauxite comes from open mines mainly located in tropical and subtropical regions. On average it takes 4 to 5 tonnes of bauxite to produce 2 tonnes of alumina, yielding 1 tonne of aluminium. The main solid by-product of the alumina extraction (Bayer process) is red mud and roughly 3 tonnes...
15 Dec 2006 - by Cécile Marin, Emmanuelle Bournay
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Curitiba city map Curitiba city map
Curitiba has become world-famous for its original approach to basic municipal problems thanks to a unique mixture of innovative town planning, determined political leadership and good public relations.
15 Dec 2006 - by Cécile Marin
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Share of packaging waste in total household waste (OECD) Share of packaging waste in total household waste (OECD)
Once a product is manufactured and ready to be sold, it must be distributed. To protect it from dirt and shocks, to make it easier to store, but also to make it look appealing, a whole science has developed to design the most suitable wrappings. The variety of products demands a huge diversity of packaging and a wide range of materials: cardboard boxes, glass jars, plastic bags, plastic film, aluminium wrappers and expanded polystyrene, to...
15 Dec 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
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Shipbreakers of Asia Shipbreakers of Asia
A few recent changes in national and international regulations provoked a massive drop in the tonnage of ships being broken up and major shifts in the shipbreaking market. Bangladeshi shipbreaking yards are, for example, gradually gaining ground on their Indian counterparts because Bangladesh does not enforce mandatory “gas-free for hot work” certification for oil tankers (Greenpeace).
15 Dec 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
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BedZED (Beddington Zero energy development), location BedZED (Beddington Zero energy development), location
At Beddington, south of London, a housing development known as BedZED (Beddington Zero energy development) was designed from the start to produce little waste of any sort. It was built on a depolluted plot of land, previously used by industry, and recycled materials were used in its construction.
15 Dec 2006 - by Cécile Marin
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Mobile phone subscribers Mobile phone subscribers
Mobile phones were launched in 1984 and the market has been booming ever since. In 20 years they have spread like wildfire. By September 2004 there were 344 million subscribers (out of a population of 380 million) in the 15 (old) members of the European Union. According to Nokia there will be 2 000 million cellphone users worldwide by 2008.
15 Dec 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
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Energy production waste in selected European countries Energy production waste in selected European countries
Waste is a major environmental concern for the energy sector. Depending on the type of energy, the production process itself will generate substantial quantities of waste. The energy sector generates specific types of waste: waste from mining and upgrading coal and lignite (tailing); waste from oil and gas refining; combustion waste from thermal power stations; waste from air-pollution abatement devices and fi nally the components of the power st...
01 Oct 2006 - by Diana Rizzolio
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Caspian Sea and the world: the stage and the actors Caspian Sea and the world: the stage and the actors
The Caspian Sea region presents a wealth of opportunities in various aspect, including bioresources, transport corridors, and not ecotourism. These new ventures may bring increased prosperity, but they also put pressure on traditional rural communities and the environment.
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Human Development Index (HDI) for the Caspian Sea countries Human Development Index (HDI) for the Caspian Sea countries
The characteristic feature in all four post-Soviet countries (Russia, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan) is a relatively high level of education in relation to national income and rather low life expectancy, indicating high levels of poverty and deficient healthcare. In contrast the level for all three indicators in Iran is fairly balanced.
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Markets for Caspian oil and gas Markets for Caspian oil and gas
The prospects for rapid oil wealth contrast with fast spreading poverty following the collapse of the Soviet economy. Although massive investment has suddenly been channelled into the area, its effect is still both geographically and socially very limited, with little widespread impact on society.
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Biodiversity in the Caspian Sea (Approximate numbers) Biodiversity in the Caspian Sea (Approximate numbers)
The region presents a wealth of opportunities in other areas, including bioresources, transport corridors, and not least ecotourism. These new ventures may bring increased prosperity, but they also put pressure on traditional rural communities and the environment. This graphic presents the number of species in the groups: phytoplankton, zooplankton, zoobenthos, fishes, marine and land mammals and birds.
22 Feb 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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