HomeAboutActivitiesMapsPhotosPublicationsNews
 
Home >> Recent

Recent

Mean annual temperature Mean annual temperature
Climatically, the Mediterranean is characterised by warm temperatures, winter-dominated rainfall, dry summers, and a profusion of microclimates (UNEP/MAP/MED POL 2003). Mean annual temperature follows a marked north-to-south gradient, with local variations superimposed by geography.
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
3
River discharge of freshwater into the Mediterranean River discharge of freshwater into the Mediterranean
The estimated mean annual river discharge into the Mediterranean for recent years is about 10.000 m3/s, with a dry season in midsummer and a peak flow in early spring (Struglia et al. 2004). Ranked according to annual discharge, the ten largest rivers contributing to the Mediterranean Sea are the Rhone, Po, Drin-Bojana, Nile, Neretva, Ebro, Tiber, Adige, Seyhan, and Ceyhan. These rivers account for half of the mean annual discharge, with the ...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
2
Geography, physiography and landscapes Geography, physiography and landscapes
A general overview of the Mediterranean region’s physical geography reveals an irregular, deeply indented coastline, especially in the north, where the Iberian, Italian, and Balkan peninsulas jut southward from the main body of Europe. Numerous islands correspond to isolated tectonic blocks, the summits of submarine ridges, or the tips of undersea volcanoes. The largest islands are Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, Cyprus, and Crete, and the major islan...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
3
Items not regulated Items not regulated
The Technical Regulation of the Customs Union establishes common principles and rules for Belarus, Kazakhstan and the Russian Federation. The category ‘On the safety of toys’ contains a list of items not regarded as toys and therefore not regulated. This list is comprised of sports equipment including that used for underwater activities, firearm replicas, imitation jewellery for children, swimming equipment (e.g. inflatable arm floats) and prote...
25 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
5
Concentrations of heavy metals in children's toys Concentrations of heavy metals in children's toys
The study found that of the 569 products tested, 104 (18 per cent) exceeded the limit for lead, 18 (3 per cent) exceeded the limit for mercury, 45 (8 per cent) exceeded the limit for arsenic and 75 products (13 per cent) exceeded the limit for antimony. Seventy-five (13 per cent) of these products contained two or more toxic metals, thereby increasing the likelihood of harmful impacts.
25 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
4
Impact of toxic metals Impact of toxic metals
The toxic substances found in toys in the study can cause a variety of harmful consequences. Lead is a neurotoxin with no safe level of exposure. Even small amounts in children can give rise to learning difficulties, attention deficit disorder, trouble with coordination, anemia, as well as visual, spatial and speech problems. Mercury damages the kidneys and can inflict damage on the nervous, cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, hematolo...
25 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
5
Movement of the toys Movement of the toys
Of the 164 products containing a toxic metal, six originated in the EU, contrary to labeling data. The presence of such substances raises questions over the integrity of EU standards and regulations for children’s products. A large proportion of products containing toxic metals also contained the Russian conformity mark which supposedly confirms compliance with existing national safety requirements. This raises concerns among safety advocates i...
25 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
4
Percentage of analysed toys that exceeded the Russian regulatory limit for toxic metal content in soil Percentage of analysed toys that exceeded the Russian regulatory limit for toxic metal content in soil
The study found that of the 569 products tested, 104 (18 per cent) exceeded the limit for lead, 18 (3 per cent) exceeded the limit for mercury, 45 (8 per cent) exceeded the limit for arsenic and 75 products (13 per cent) exceeded the limit for antimony. Seventy-five (13 per cent) of these products contained two or more toxic metals, thereby increasing the likelihood of harmful impacts.
25 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
3
Metal contamination in analysed toys Metal contamination in analysed toys
The study found that of the 569 products tested, 104 (18 per cent) exceeded the limit for lead, 18 (3 per cent) exceeded the limit for mercury, 45 (8 per cent) exceeded the limit for arsenic and 75 products (13 per cent) exceeded the limit for antimony. Seventy-five (13 per cent) of these products contained two or more toxic metals, thereby increasing the likelihood of harmful impacts.
25 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
4
Origin of the toys Origin of the toys
Of the 164 products containing a toxic metal, six originated in the EU, contrary to labeling data. The presence of such substances raises questions over the integrity of EU standards and regulations for children’s products. A large proportion of products containing toxic metals also contained the Russian conformity mark which supposedly confirms compliance with existing national safety requirements. This raises concerns among safety advocates in...
25 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
3
World Toys Market and Population and GDP in 2010 World Toys Market and Population and GDP in 2010
Toys are a big business. Between 2007 and 2010 the global toys market grew by nearly 5 per cent in value terms – from US$78.1 billion to US$83.3 billion. The majority of the toys on the market – many millions of them – are manufactured in China, often under licenses from large Western and Japanese conglomerates. In this study, we also found toys made in Armenia, Belarus, Russia, Ukraine and the European Union (EU).
25 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
4
Protected areas share of total land area in Tanzania Protected areas share of total land area in Tanzania
Tanzania has the second highest proportion of national protected areas among the Basin states, after Zambia, with 28 per cent of the country set aside for national parks, conservation areas, game reserves, and controlled and protected areas. Tanzania has been working hard to meet world limits of 20 per cent protected coastal areas by 2012. Famous marine parks in Tanzania include Mafia Island Marine Park and Mnazi Bay Conservation Area.
21 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
3
Existing and potential hydropower projects on the Zambezi River Existing and potential hydropower projects on the Zambezi River
Proposed Dams and Hydropower Projects Water has many critical roles in the realization of socio-economic development in southern Africa. One such role is to provide hydropower to help the region to meet its ever-growing demand for energy. SADC Member States, through the Southern African Power Pool (SAPP), have thus planned to commission a number of hydropower projects in the Zambezi River Basin. The Basin is considered to have enormous capacity ...
21 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
3
Proportion of urban dwellers living in slum conditions in Zimbabwe Proportion of urban dwellers living in slum conditions in Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe has the lowest proportional slum population among the Zambezi Basin states at just 3.4 per cent, down from 4 per cent in 1990. The portion of national population living in urban areas was 36.4 per cent in 2006, about four million people, with a projected urban annual growth rate of 2.8 per cent to 2015.
21 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
2
Proportion of urban dwellers living in slum conditions in Zambia Proportion of urban dwellers living in slum conditions in Zambia
Africa is the fastest urbanizing region in the world and Zambia was the third most highly urbanized country in southern Africa in 1990 after South Africa and Botswana (UN-HABITAT 2010). Zambia has continued to experience high levels of rural to urban migration, as citizens seek to benefit from urban-based employment opportunities and infrastructure, thus putting pressure on urban amenities and expanding unplanned settlements. Almost three-quarte...
21 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
3
Proportion of urban dwellers living in slum conditions in Tanzania Proportion of urban dwellers living in slum conditions in Tanzania
The population living in unplanned peri-urban settlements has been decreasing as a proportion of total urban population, while the urban population has also been increasing. Therefore the numbers have been increasing while the proportion has gone down. Both impact on the extent of slum areas. About 70 per cent of urban residents in most cities in Tanzania live in unplanned settlements, slums or squatter areas. A special programme to upgrade t...
21 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
3
Proportion of urban dwellers living in slum conditions Proportion of urban dwellers living in slum conditions
One-third of the urban population of Namibia lives in slum conditions, a situation that has remained almost static since 1990, reducing by less than one per cent.
21 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
3
Sanitation trends in Zimbabwe Sanitation trends in Zimbabwe
Progress in achieving water and sanitation targets is off track. Urban water and sanitation systems are in urgent need of renewal, and have faced serious problems that led to localized outbreaks of cholera and typhoid. The country has to raise safe water coverage in rural areas from 61 per cent to 85 per cent and to raise access to improved sanitation from 30.5 per cent to 71 per cent (Government of Zimbabwe 2010).
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
3
Access to safe water in rural and urban areas in Zimbabwe Access to safe water in rural and urban areas in Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe’s total annual renewable freshwater resources amount to 20 cubic km per year, and although the country experiences quality and dry season problems at present, continued pressure on the resource will lead to water stress by 2025 (Hirji et al. 2002). Poor infrastructure hampers access to water in most urban areas, and in the capital, Harare, and the second main city, Bulawayo, residents have gone without piped water for as long as two we...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
3
Threatened species in Zimbabwe Threatened species in Zimbabwe
Through the intensified conservation programmes, including the Communal Areas Management Programme for Indigenous Resources (CAMPFIRE), the number of threatened species was reduced from 38 in 2000 to 32 in 2004. CAMPFIRE is a community-based natural resource management programme in which Rural District Councils, on behalf of communities on communal land, are granted the authority to market wildlife in their district to safari operators who then s...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
3