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Contrast between contemporary and pre-disturbance transports of total nitrogen through inland aquatic systems resulting from anthropogenic acceleration of this nutrient cycle
While the peculiarities of individual pollutants, rivers, and governance define the specific character of water pollution, the general patterns observed for nitrogen are representative of anthropogenic changes to the tra...
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Biodiversity in the Caspian Sea
With the opening of the Volga-Don canal in 1952 navigation between the oceans and the Caspian became possible. Contact between the previously secluded Caspian marine ecosystem and the outside world was consequently i...
07 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
Total sturgeon catch in the Caspian
The Caspian area is the world’s main producer of wild caviar (83% in 2003) and supplies the four largest markets, the European Union, United States, Switzerland and Japan. The construction of several hydroelectric po...
07 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
Mean sea surface temperature
Mean sea surface temperature in winter and summer
07 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
Historical decline of the Caspian seal (Pusa caspica)
The Caspian seal (Pusa caspica) population has declined by more than 90 per cent since the start of the 20th century, falling from more than 1 million individuals in 1900 to around 100 000 today (CEP, 2007). However,...
07 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
Collapse of Tulka in the Caspian
The comb jelly is well adapted to the habitat (salinity, temperature, and food range) and reproduces faster than endemic species. As it eats the same food as them, it has had a drastic effect on their numbers, upsetti...
07 Mar 2012 - by GRID-Arendal
Ice cover on the North Caspian
Ice cover changes in 70 years period on the North Caspian.
07 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)"
Overview of legal international caviar trade, 1998-2006
The Caspian area is the world’s main producer of wild caviar (83% in 2003) and supplies the four largest markets, the European Union, United States, Switzerland and Japan. Graph shows an overview of legal internati...
07 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)"
Illegal caviar trade in the EU
Illegal caviar trade in the EU in period 2000-2007 The Caspian area is the world’s main producer of wild caviar (83% in 2003) and supplies the four largest markets, the European Union, United States, Switzerland an...
07 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
Total trade in sturgeon caviar
The Caspian area is the world’s main producer of wild caviar (83% in 2003) and supplies the four largest markets, the European Union, United States, Switzerland and Japan. The construction of several hydroelectric po...
07 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
Trade in sturgeon caviar Huso huso
The Caspian area is the world’s main producer of wild caviar (83% in 2003) and supplies the four largest markets, the European Union, United States, Switzerland and Japan. The construction of several hydroelectric po...
07 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
Caviar imports as reported by three main consumer markets (Japan, European Union and United States)
Caviar imports as reported by three main consumer markets (Japan, European Union and United States)
07 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
Comb jelly (Mnemiopsis leidyi) is spreading in the European seas
North American comb jelly (Mnemiopsis leidyi) was brought accidentally to the Caspian in the ballast water of oil tankers. A voracious feeder on zooplankton and fish larvae, it first arrived in the Black Sea in the early...
01 Oct 2012 - by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique)
Origin and destination of selected species
North American comb jelly (Mnemiopsis leidyi) was brought accidentally to the Caspian in the ballast water of oil tankers. A voracious feeder on zooplankton and fish larvae, it first arrived in the Black Sea in the e...
07 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
Total population per region, district or oblast
Apart from two large urban areas – Baku- Sumgait and Makhachkala-Kaspisk – and the Iranian coast on the southern shore, a very densely populated coastal strip where one agglomeration leads into the next, most of the pop...
07 Mar 2012 - by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) and Cecile Marine
Infant mortality per region, district or oblast
Public health policies during the Soviet period eliminated several traditional diseases. But for lack of adequate investment in medical equipment and drugs in the 1970s and 1980s they failed to effectively halt a wor...
07 Mar 2012 - by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) and Cecile Marine
Infant mortality in Eastern Azerbaijan, 2008
Public health policies during the Soviet period eliminated several traditional diseases. But for lack of adequate investment in medical equipment and drugs in the 1970s and 1980s they failed to effectively halt a wor...
07 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
Total expenditure on health
Total expenditure on health in Russia, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan, Iran and Kazakhstan
07 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
Population density and urban centres
Apart from two large urban areas – Baku- Sumgait and Makhachkala-Kaspisk – and the Iranian coast on the southern shore, a very densely populated coastal strip where one agglomeration leads into the next, most of the pop...
07 Mar 2012 - by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) and Cecile Marine
Hazards in and around the Caspian
Many opportunities are offered by the Caspian Sea region. It is important that they are handled with care in order to maintain the rich biological and mineral resources over a long time. The natural wealth of the regi...
07 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
Pesticides and heavy metals in sediments
Often, once the oil extraction activity stops, waste remains and constitutes a hazard. In Kazakhstan there are 19 oilfields with 1485 oil wells in the coastal zone of the Caspian Sea, including 148 in the flooded zone...
07 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
Pesticides and heavy metals in sediments
Often, once the oil extraction activity stops, waste remains and constitutes a hazard. In Kazakhstan there are 19 oilfields with 1485 oil wells in the coastal zone of the Caspian Sea, including 148 in the flooded zone...
07 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
Discharge of selected pollutants
Waste accumulated in Caspian Region due to offshore and coastal industrial activities.
07 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
Discharge of selected pollutants
Discharge of selected pollutants around Caspian sea. Air quality has generally improved in recent years, mainly because industrial production has dropped drastically since the collapse of the Soviet economic system....
07 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
Mine and Industrial complex at Koshkar-Ata, Kazakhstan
Before industrial operations started in the 1960s, the Koshkar-Ata hollow was a periodic lake rich in natural salt, making it unsuitable for farming. The discovery of vast uranium deposits in the deserts of western Ka...
07 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
Oil production, consumption and export
Oil production, consumption and export in Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan for period 1999-2009.
07 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
Oil production
Oil production in Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan. The region has significantly expended its oil and gas production, and it is set to grow. The increases in outputs so far have been associated with, and encoura...
07 Mar 2012 - by cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
Environmental impacts of oil production in Azerbaijan
Land degradation, water issues, and po0llution due to oil production and industrial activities in Azerbaijan. About 30 000 hectares of soil on Azerbaijan’s Absheron peninsula is polluted by oil products and various f...
07 Mar 2012 - by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique)
Oil exports via The Black and Mediterranean Seas
Future projection in volume of oil exportation via Black and Mediterranean Seas.
07 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
When the Kara Bogaz Gol vanished and reappeared
Comparing a series of satellite images from different periods a Californian hydrologist discovered in 1983 that a huge white spot had taken the place of the vast Kara Bogaz Gol gulf (literally “dark gullet” in Turkmen) i...
01 Oct 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
When the Kara Bogaz Gol vanished
Comparing a series of satellite images from different periods a Californian hydrologist discovered in 1983 that a huge white spot had taken the place of the vast Kara Bogaz Gol gulf (literally “dark gullet” in Turkmen) i...
01 Oct 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
A moment in the life of Kara Bogaz Gol
Comparing a series of satellite images from different periods a Californian hydrologist discovered in 1983 that a huge white spot had taken the place of the vast Kara Bogaz Gol gulf (literally “dark gullet” in Turkmen) i...
01 Oct 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
Sea surface salinity
Caspian sea surface salinity levels in winter and summer
07 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
The inlet to the Kara Bogaz Gol before and after construction of the dam
The scientists were unable to agree on the reasons for the drop in sea level that was roughly equivalent to a 10 per cent reduction in its surface area between 1930 and 1977. It was decided to close the passage. Work ...
10 Oct 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
A century of outflow into Kara Bogaz Gol, km3/ year
Comparing a series of satellite images from different periods a Californian hydrologist discovered in 1983 that a huge white spot had taken the place of the vast Kara Bogaz Gol gulf (literally “dark gullet” in Turkmen...
06 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
Fragmentation of the Volga river over the last 60 years
The factors behind the changes in the level of the Caspian Sea are still the focus of debate. Scientists have not ruled out the involvement of tectonic (movement of the Earth’s crust below the sea) or geomorphologic caus...
06 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
Temperature and precipitation in the Caspian Sea Region
The Caspian Sea region is climatically diverse encompassing the basins of the Volga and Ural rivers in the North, the vast semi-arid and hot arid plains of northern Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan in the east, and the hu...
07 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
Changing Caspian
The Caspian Sea has been endoreic – inwardly draining – since the Pliocene era (about 5 million years ago), prompting some specialists to treat it as the world’s largest lake. Studies of its geomorphology and hydrolog...
05 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
Annual discharge into the Caspian Sea
Most of the water flowing into the sea comes from coastal rivers – currently supplying 300 to 310 km3 a year. The Volga alone accounts for 80% of inflow. But it has dropped substantially during the 20th century, declini...
06 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
Caspian coastline vulnerable to flooding
Uncertainty regarding future variations in the sea level is holding back the development of many coastal zones suitable for holiday amenities or the construction of ports. But stretches of the Caspian coast are alread...
07 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
Regional land degradation
Climate change has increased the frequency and intensity of weather-related events and natural disasters such as floods, droughts, landslides, avalanches, debris flows and mud flows. For example, in the last 30 years ...
07 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
Selected impacts of climate change in the Caspian basin
Several severe droughts have affected various parts of the region in recent years. They seem to confirm scientific models, which, in addition to higher mean temperatures, generally predict more extreme weather events....
07 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Transportation projects converging on the Caspian
The oil boom has changed the way the Caspian Sea is used as a transport route. In the absence of an agreement on the use of the seabed, including the laying of pipelines, crude oil is transported in tanker wagons roll...
07 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
The Caspian Sea: neighbours and players
The surge in the exploitation of hydrocarbons in the Caspian region has changed the rules for development and engagement in many sectors, in particular oil, land and sea transport, and services. National interests mul...
05 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
Markets competing for Caspian oil and gas
For many years, coastal navigation has connected republics in the former Soviet Union. It used the only outlet from the Caspian, the Volga-Don canal, which connects the Black Sea and the Russian canal system to the B...
07 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
Human Development Index (HDI) composition for the Caspian countries compared with Norway (ranked first in 2007)
The characteristic feature in all four post-Soviet countries is a relatively high level of education in relation to national income and rather low life expectancy, indicating high levels of poverty and deficient healthc...
05 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
Gross National Income (GNI) in Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) per capita
Purchasing power parity (PPP) measures how much a currency can buy in terms of an international benchmark (usually dollars), since the cost of goods and services differs between countries. PPP is below the value of a US ...
01 Oct 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
Share of food in total household expenses
In the 1990s following the collapse of the Soviet regime and massive market deregulation, the breakdown of total household expenditure radically changed. Its focus shifted towards basic human needs, such as food, for whi...
05 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
Caspian basin
The Caspian Sea runs north and south, extending over 1 200 kilometres, with an average width of 320 kilometres, with 7 000 km coastline. It covers approximately 400 000 square kilometres (an area slightly larger than Ge...
05 Mar 2012 - by IEVA RUCEVSKA AND PHILIPPE REKACEWICZ
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01 Mar 2012 - by GRID-Arendal
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01 Mar 2012 - by GRID-Arendal
North Caspian giant oilfields
The giant Kashagan offshore field was discovered in July 2000, 80 kilometres south of Atyrau. It is the largest Caspian offshore field and one of the largest fields discovered anywhere in the world in the past 30 year...
07 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
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01 Mar 2012 - by GRID-Arendal
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01 Mar 2012 - by GRID-Arendal
Coastal vulnerability and climate-related impacts
No data.
01 Feb 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Population growth in Sub-Saharan and Central Africa and Population density projection in Congo Basin
As populations are rapidly rising in the Greater Congo Basin, so is the pressure on great ape habitat, and even more, the numbers killed relative to the gorilla populations to supply bushmeat.
01 Feb 2010 - by GRID-Arendal
Loss of biodiversity with continued agricultural expansion, pollution, climate change and infrastructure development
Figure 27: Loss of biodiversity with continued agricultural expansion, pollution, climate change and infrastructure development. (Source: GLOBIO; Alkemade et al., 2009).
01 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Protected areas and transboundary cooperation in Congo Basin countries
Trans-boundary collaboration in parks in the greater Congo Basin.
01 Feb 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Small scale bioenergy applications - impacts on livelihood
Energy access is a primer for any type economic development. Nowhere is energy access a greater challenge than in areas and regions where the population lives in poverty. As illustrated, bioenergy can deliver considerabl...
29 Feb 2012 - by Nieves Lopez Izquierdo
World bioenergy technical potential in 2050
Studies indicate that global bioenergy use is approximately 10 percent of the global energy mix, with a growth rate of 1.3 percent per year. Future projections for the supply of bioenergy are shown in the figure. The ana...
01 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Energy costs in Bot Trang village, Cambodia
Over the past few years a small energy revolution has taken place in the village of Bot Trang in northwest Cambodia. Bot Trang is not on Cambodia’s national grid: in the old days Mr. Tham Bun Hak, a local farmer, would s...
29 Feb 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Biofuels production and forest area variation in selected countries
Gains and losses in forest area vary globally, and the impact divers greatly between the various crops used for biofuels. Forest-cover is enhanced through aorestation or by natural expansion, and reduced either by defor...
01 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Additional people at risk of hunger in 2020
Biofuels have been criticised for causing food insecurity, but many other factors often play a far more significant role than biofuels. But rapid, largescale growth in biofuel production without sufficient safeguards doe...
01 Mar 2012 - by Nieves Lopez Izquierdo
Impacts of first-generation biofuels on agricultural prices
This figure outlines possible scenarios for the impact of biofuels on agricultural prices and food security. Although there are several factors that affect agricultural prices, including seasonal variation, market spe...
29 Feb 2012 - by Nieves Lopez Izquierdo
Land required to drive 100 kilometres
The graphic compares different liquid biofuels and alternative drive systems such as an electric vehicle running on electricity produced from wind power.
29 Feb 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Potential risks of energy crop expansion on land access
Poor land tenure security due to lack of appropriate rules and processes, and biofuels production encroaching on land used by pastoralists or for cultural purposes affect local livelihoods and access to land, particu...
29 Feb 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Pressures on Ugandan forests
Recently Uganda has outlined its national strategy for bioenergy to contribute to increasing the renewable energy mix from 4 to 16 percent by 2017. Alongside the energy challenge, the country faces a number of other diff...
01 Oct 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Suitability by crop type in Uganda
Recently Uganda has outlined its national strategy for bioenergy to contribute to increasing the renewable energy mix from 4 to 16 percent by 2017. Several biofuel crops have been identified, including sugarcane, m...
01 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Potential biofuels output in Uganda
Recently Uganda has outlined its national strategy for bioenergy to contribute to increasing the renewable energy mix from 4 to 16 percent by 2017. Several biofuel crops have been identified, including sugarcane, m...
29 Feb 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Indirect land-use change induced by increased biofuels production
This figure indicates land requirements for biofuels production in response to current biofuels mandates. Depending on projected biofuels demand and available arable land, additional land requirements may exceed a natio...
29 Feb 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Potential biofuels production on abandoned agricultural land
Land-use planning is one strategy to manage competition for land and, at the same time, reduce environmental and social impacts. Assessment of land suitability and availability can identify both high-risk areas where...
29 Feb 2012 - by Nieves Lopez Izquierdo
Estimated feedstock efficiency and environmental impacts
The negative consequences of iLUC have been hotly debated. Recent debate has focused increasingly on a pragmatic approach to reducing the need for land, thereby reducing risks from direct and indirect changes in land...
29 Feb 2012 - by Nieves Lopez Izquierdo
Land required for biofuels by feedstock
When assessing the sustainability of biofuels within the context of conservation, comparison questions are important. What else can the land be used for? One option might be conservation, whereas another might be for...
29 Feb 2012 - by Nieves Lopez Izquierdo
Forest Carbon Sequestration
Converting land for biofuel production can cause biodiversity impacts in the short-term, but such conversion also aects the future resilience of natural ecosystems. In an extreme case, complete deforestation reduces...
01 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Impact of land conversion on biodiversity
The impacts of land conversion on biodiversity may be significant. The degree of impact relates to many factors, including where and how the bioenergy product is cultivated. This figure represent the short-term impact...
01 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Biodiversity in forests and oil palm plantations, South East Asia
01 Oct 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Biofuels crops and biodiversity
Biofuels pose several environmental and social risks. Therefore, to be truly a part of the green economy, biofuels need to comply with a set of safeguards along the entire production chain. Any bioenergy development ...
08 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Bioenergy from agriculture: factors related to biodiversity
The use of Genetically Engineered Crops (GECs) carries both potential benefits and risks. While it is recognised that they can help to introduce useful traits and increase productivity, there are also concerns about ...
29 Feb 2012 - by Nieves Lopez Izquierdo
Biofuels in China: crop production and water scarcity
In 2009 China produced 2 billion litres of biofuels, ranking the country third behind Brazil and the USA. The Chinese government has set ambitious targets seeing biofuels as not only contributing to the country’s rap...
29 Feb 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Nitrogen runo
Fertiliser and pesticides used to cultivate feedstocks, as well as contaminated effuents discharged from conversion plants, can cause increasing levels of pollution to waterways. This may constrain the growth of biofue...
01 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Agriculture in the Mississippi River Basin
Fertiliser and pesticides used to cultivate feedstocks, as well as contaminated effuents discharged from conversion plants, can cause increasing levels of pollution to waterways. This may constrain the growth of biofue...
01 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Agrochemical use in US agriculture
01 Oct 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Average water requirement for biofuels
The figure shows average water requirement for biofuels. Underlying data need to be interpreted in context. For example, rainfed jatropha is produced in Mali as a biofuel, which means that it receives less water than in ...
01 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Variation in blue water footprints for selected energy crops
Figure compares the water necessary to produce, transport, and convert a given crop into a fuel in two different regions. This shows important variations, and points to the need for careful matching of energy crops a...
01 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Estimated costs and benefits of restoration projects in different biomes
Biodiversity is the basis for any development; it is the natural capital, the stock of natural ecosystems, which provide services for any human activity. As pointed out above, the main immediate threat to biodiversity...
01 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Value of ecosystem services
Biodiversity is the basis for any development; it is the natural capital, the stock of natural ecosystems, which provide services for any human activity. As pointed out above, the main immediate threat to biodiversity fr...
01 Oct 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
CO2 emissions from land conversion for energy crops
The conversion of high carbon-storage ecosystems, such as tropical forest, savannah and peatland into biofuel plants, can neutralise any GHG emission reductions achieved by replacing fossil fuels with biofuels, and ev...
01 Mar 2012 - by Nieves Lopez Izquierdo
Ecosystem carbon payback time
The ‘carbon debt’ of biofuels is the number of years it can take to offset the carbon emissions generated by converting land for biofuels. It can take decades or centuries for some pathways to bounce back, depending on ...
01 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Key factors of the Brazilian biofuel sector
Brazil has gradually developed and established an ethanol industry and growing biodiesel sector, offering an example of how countries can develop ‘home-grown’ renewable energy sectors. This development has been facili...
01 Mar 2012 - by Nieves Lopez Izquierdo
Brazilian biofuels: infrastructure and crops
Brazil has gradually developed and established an ethanol industry and growing biodiesel sector, offering an example of how countries can develop ‘home-grown’ renewable energy sectors. This development has been facili...
01 Mar 2012 - by Nieves Lopez Izquierdo
From seed and soil to end use
As with every other energy source, biofuels entail some risks and should be assessed over their entire lifecycle. This graphic, From seed and soil to end use, tracks the lifecycle of liquid biofuels for use in the transp...
29 Feb 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Differentiation between crops, land-use and end-use efficiency
The energy gain from biofuels is often expressed as a ratio of biofuel energy output to fossil energy input. However, when considering which biofuels are the most efficient using this metric, allowance must also be m...
01 Mar 2012 - by Nieves Lopez Izquierdo
World biofuels production trends
Production trends indicate that the supply of both ethanol and biodiesel is steadily increasing, although the global ethanol market is more than four times larger than the global biodiesel market. Markets for both ar...
01 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Energy potential from one tonne input: organic matter and landfill material
Dierent biofuels pathways have dierent eciencies in the growth of feedstocks, conversion processes and end-uses. This chain of eciency pertaining to input and output needs to be considered in national planning pr...
01 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Global production of biofuels
Global production of biofuels. In 2009, liquid biofuels provided 2.7 percent of all global road transport fuels.
01 Mar 2012 - by Nieves Lopez Izquierdo
Global ethanol production
The snapshot of biofuel production in this figuere shows global ethanol production currently concentrated in two countries.
01 Mar 2012 - by Nieves Lopez Izquierdo
Global biodiesel production, 2009
Global biodiesel production in 2009.
01 Mar 2012 - by Nieves Lopez Izquierdo
Energy efficiency of fuels - how many kilometres can we drive ?
The picture shows energy efficiency of various fuels.
01 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal