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Semi-domesticated reindeer across Eurasia
Pastoralism, or extensive grazing on rangelands for livestock production, is a key production system of the world’s dryland areas. It provides a livelihood for between 100 and 200 million people (CBD Secretariat 2010), ...
24 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Mongolia
Mongolia geopolitical map
24 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Reindeer herding camps in the East Taiga A snapshot from 2011
Guided tours to the reindeer herders are an established tourist attraction promoted by national and international tourism companies. In the West Taiga, tourists stay in tourist camps established beside the Shishged ...
24 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Biomes and vegetation of Hovsgol aimag
Mongolia’s taiga is located at the southern edge of the biome in Eurasia. It is also the most southerly location of reindeer husbandry in the world. Mongolian reindeer husbandry occurs within the Shishged River wate...
23 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Survival probability in Odzala-Kokoua National Park
Ebola is a major threat particularly to the gorillas, with severe casualties following outbreaks. As these come in addition to deaths from poachers and habitat loss, the outbreaks can become detrimental.
09 Mar 2010 - by GRID-Arendal
Ratio of outer continental shelf over emerged land area
09 Mar 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Trends in Food prices
FAO Food Price Index
09 Mar 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius/GRID-Arendal
Water footprint
In the past decade the Asia-Pacific region has become the largest consumer of natural resources in the world. This includes water, raw materials and energy resources. Water resources are unevenly distributed in the r...
08 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Moving towards a low carbon green growth
Energy e ciency in Asia selected countries
09 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Industry water withdrawal
Water withdrawal by Industry sector in selected Asian countries
09 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Water supply and wastewater treatment
Average water consumption and water treatment facilities in selected Asian cities
09 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Recent flood events in the Hindu Kush-Himalaya region
Extreme vulnerability to natural hazards among countries in South Asia is cyclical and repeatedly causes major setbacks in the socioeconomic and equitable development of the region. According to UN estimates major d...
09 Mar 2012 - by GRID-Arendal
Millennium Development Goals Access to sanitation in Asia
Proportion of population using an improved sanitation facility in Asia
09 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Watering Green Growth in Asia
Ecological water footprint of Asian countries
09 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Protected areas and transboundary cooperation
Trans-boundary collaboration in parks in the greater Congo Basin.
08 Mar 2010 - by GRID-Arendal
Degree of protection of terrestrial ecoregions and large marine ecosystems
Degree of protection of terrestrial ecoregions and large marine ecosystems (per cent)
08 Mar 2009 - by Bounford.com and UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Bushmeat trade in Tshuapa-Lomami-Lualaba Region
Hunting inside protected areas to supply bush- meat is extensive in many regions, and much is transported by bicycle to i.e. larger towns like Kindu. The great apes, sometimes smoked, constitute up to several percent of ...
08 Mar 2010 - by GRID-Arendal
Re-infestation by 'Aedes aegypti'
Climate change affect the health of the population, not only through heat waves and waterborne diseases, but also as a result of the expansion of geographical areas conducive to the transmission of vector-borne diseases ...
08 Mar 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Ebola - A Central Africa decennal course, 1994-2003
Ebola epidemic outbreaks across the Congo Basin are a significant threat to gorillas, and also impact the few remaining populations less exposed to poaching and habitat loss.
08 Mar 2010 - by GRID-Arendal
Urban sprawl, Las Vegas
08 Mar 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Cheleken Peninsula pollution sources
Khazar (formerly Cheleken) is a town of 10 000 people (once 16 000), located on the Cheleken peninsula on the Caspian shore. Iron bromide (FeBr2) production started at the Cheleken plant in 1940, followed by iodine p...
08 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Urban development in Baku
The Azerbaijan capital Baku is the largest and fastest growing city with a population of over 2 million. The population has doubled in the last decade and may reach approximately 3.3 million by the year 2030 (UNPD 2005)...
07 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Ethnolinguistic groups in the Caspian basin
The Caspian region has plenty to choose from when exploring past and present civilizations and cultures, historical monuments and the beauty of its natural resources. With unspoilt beaches in the east and west, lush ...
07 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Sea level rise in Anzali Lagoon, Iran
Fluctuating water levels will affect the population of the coastline and can cause substantial economic damage if appropriate measurements are not taken. A rise in sea level of 1.2 metres would flood Anzali, an Irani...
07 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Human population growth rates, 1990–2000, and per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and biological productivity in 2000 in ecological systems
Millennium Assessment systems with the lowest net primary productivity and lowest GDP tended to have the highest population growth rates between 1990 and 2000. Urban, inland water, and marine systems are not included due...
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Net national savings in 2001 adjusted for investments in human capital, natural resource depletion, and damage caused by pollution compared with standard net national savings measurements
Positive values for national savings (expressed as a percent of gross national income) reflect a gain in wealth for a nation. Standard measures do not incorporate investments in human capital (in standard national accoun...
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Locations reported by various studies as undergoing high rates of land cover change in the past few decades
In the case of forest cover change, the studies refer to the period 1980–2000 and are based on national statistics, remote sensing, and to a limited degree expert opinion. In the case of land cover change resulting from ...
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Contrast between contemporary and pre-disturbance transports of total nitrogen through inland aquatic systems resulting from anthropogenic acceleration of this nutrient cycle
While the peculiarities of individual pollutants, rivers, and governance define the specific character of water pollution, the general patterns observed for nitrogen are representative of anthropogenic changes to the tra...
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Biodiversity in the Caspian Sea
With the opening of the Volga-Don canal in 1952 navigation between the oceans and the Caspian became possible. Contact between the previously secluded Caspian marine ecosystem and the outside world was consequently i...
07 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
Total sturgeon catch in the Caspian
The Caspian area is the world’s main producer of wild caviar (83% in 2003) and supplies the four largest markets, the European Union, United States, Switzerland and Japan. The construction of several hydroelectric po...
07 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
Mean sea surface temperature
Mean sea surface temperature in winter and summer
07 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
Historical decline of the Caspian seal (Pusa caspica)
The Caspian seal (Pusa caspica) population has declined by more than 90 per cent since the start of the 20th century, falling from more than 1 million individuals in 1900 to around 100 000 today (CEP, 2007). However,...
07 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
Collapse of Tulka in the Caspian
The comb jelly is well adapted to the habitat (salinity, temperature, and food range) and reproduces faster than endemic species. As it eats the same food as them, it has had a drastic effect on their numbers, upsetti...
07 Mar 2012 - by GRID-Arendal
Ice cover on the North Caspian
Ice cover changes in 70 years period on the North Caspian.
07 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)"
Overview of legal international caviar trade, 1998-2006
The Caspian area is the world’s main producer of wild caviar (83% in 2003) and supplies the four largest markets, the European Union, United States, Switzerland and Japan. Graph shows an overview of legal internati...
07 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)"
Illegal caviar trade in the EU
Illegal caviar trade in the EU in period 2000-2007 The Caspian area is the world’s main producer of wild caviar (83% in 2003) and supplies the four largest markets, the European Union, United States, Switzerland an...
07 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
Total trade in sturgeon caviar
The Caspian area is the world’s main producer of wild caviar (83% in 2003) and supplies the four largest markets, the European Union, United States, Switzerland and Japan. The construction of several hydroelectric po...
07 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
Trade in sturgeon caviar Huso huso
The Caspian area is the world’s main producer of wild caviar (83% in 2003) and supplies the four largest markets, the European Union, United States, Switzerland and Japan. The construction of several hydroelectric po...
07 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
Caviar imports as reported by three main consumer markets (Japan, European Union and United States)
Caviar imports as reported by three main consumer markets (Japan, European Union and United States)
07 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
Comb jelly (Mnemiopsis leidyi) is spreading in the European seas
North American comb jelly (Mnemiopsis leidyi) was brought accidentally to the Caspian in the ballast water of oil tankers. A voracious feeder on zooplankton and fish larvae, it first arrived in the Black Sea in the early...
01 Oct 2012 - by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique)
Origin and destination of selected species
North American comb jelly (Mnemiopsis leidyi) was brought accidentally to the Caspian in the ballast water of oil tankers. A voracious feeder on zooplankton and fish larvae, it first arrived in the Black Sea in the e...
07 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
Total population per region, district or oblast
Apart from two large urban areas – Baku- Sumgait and Makhachkala-Kaspisk – and the Iranian coast on the southern shore, a very densely populated coastal strip where one agglomeration leads into the next, most of the pop...
07 Mar 2012 - by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) and Cecile Marine
Infant mortality per region, district or oblast
Public health policies during the Soviet period eliminated several traditional diseases. But for lack of adequate investment in medical equipment and drugs in the 1970s and 1980s they failed to effectively halt a wor...
07 Mar 2012 - by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) and Cecile Marine
Infant mortality in Eastern Azerbaijan, 2008
Public health policies during the Soviet period eliminated several traditional diseases. But for lack of adequate investment in medical equipment and drugs in the 1970s and 1980s they failed to effectively halt a wor...
07 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
Total expenditure on health
Total expenditure on health in Russia, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan, Iran and Kazakhstan
07 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
Population density and urban centres
Apart from two large urban areas – Baku- Sumgait and Makhachkala-Kaspisk – and the Iranian coast on the southern shore, a very densely populated coastal strip where one agglomeration leads into the next, most of the pop...
07 Mar 2012 - by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) and Cecile Marine
Hazards in and around the Caspian
Many opportunities are offered by the Caspian Sea region. It is important that they are handled with care in order to maintain the rich biological and mineral resources over a long time. The natural wealth of the regi...
07 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
Pesticides and heavy metals in sediments
Often, once the oil extraction activity stops, waste remains and constitutes a hazard. In Kazakhstan there are 19 oilfields with 1485 oil wells in the coastal zone of the Caspian Sea, including 148 in the flooded zone...
07 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
Pesticides and heavy metals in sediments
Often, once the oil extraction activity stops, waste remains and constitutes a hazard. In Kazakhstan there are 19 oilfields with 1485 oil wells in the coastal zone of the Caspian Sea, including 148 in the flooded zone...
07 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
Discharge of selected pollutants
Waste accumulated in Caspian Region due to offshore and coastal industrial activities.
07 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
Discharge of selected pollutants
Discharge of selected pollutants around Caspian sea. Air quality has generally improved in recent years, mainly because industrial production has dropped drastically since the collapse of the Soviet economic system....
07 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
Mine and Industrial complex at Koshkar-Ata, Kazakhstan
Before industrial operations started in the 1960s, the Koshkar-Ata hollow was a periodic lake rich in natural salt, making it unsuitable for farming. The discovery of vast uranium deposits in the deserts of western Ka...
07 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
Oil production, consumption and export
Oil production, consumption and export in Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan for period 1999-2009.
07 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
Oil production
Oil production in Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan. The region has significantly expended its oil and gas production, and it is set to grow. The increases in outputs so far have been associated with, and encoura...
07 Mar 2012 - by cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
Environmental impacts of oil production in Azerbaijan
Land degradation, water issues, and po0llution due to oil production and industrial activities in Azerbaijan. About 30 000 hectares of soil on Azerbaijan’s Absheron peninsula is polluted by oil products and various f...
07 Mar 2012 - by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique)
Oil exports via The Black and Mediterranean Seas
Future projection in volume of oil exportation via Black and Mediterranean Seas.
07 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
When the Kara Bogaz Gol vanished and reappeared
Comparing a series of satellite images from different periods a Californian hydrologist discovered in 1983 that a huge white spot had taken the place of the vast Kara Bogaz Gol gulf (literally “dark gullet” in Turkmen) i...
01 Oct 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
When the Kara Bogaz Gol vanished
Comparing a series of satellite images from different periods a Californian hydrologist discovered in 1983 that a huge white spot had taken the place of the vast Kara Bogaz Gol gulf (literally “dark gullet” in Turkmen) i...
01 Oct 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
A moment in the life of Kara Bogaz Gol
Comparing a series of satellite images from different periods a Californian hydrologist discovered in 1983 that a huge white spot had taken the place of the vast Kara Bogaz Gol gulf (literally “dark gullet” in Turkmen) i...
01 Oct 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
Sea surface salinity
Caspian sea surface salinity levels in winter and summer
07 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
The inlet to the Kara Bogaz Gol before and after construction of the dam
The scientists were unable to agree on the reasons for the drop in sea level that was roughly equivalent to a 10 per cent reduction in its surface area between 1930 and 1977. It was decided to close the passage. Work ...
10 Oct 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
A century of outflow into Kara Bogaz Gol, km3/ year
Comparing a series of satellite images from different periods a Californian hydrologist discovered in 1983 that a huge white spot had taken the place of the vast Kara Bogaz Gol gulf (literally “dark gullet” in Turkmen...
06 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
Fragmentation of the Volga river over the last 60 years
The factors behind the changes in the level of the Caspian Sea are still the focus of debate. Scientists have not ruled out the involvement of tectonic (movement of the Earth’s crust below the sea) or geomorphologic caus...
06 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
Temperature and precipitation in the Caspian Sea Region
The Caspian Sea region is climatically diverse encompassing the basins of the Volga and Ural rivers in the North, the vast semi-arid and hot arid plains of northern Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan in the east, and the hu...
07 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
Changing Caspian
The Caspian Sea has been endoreic – inwardly draining – since the Pliocene era (about 5 million years ago), prompting some specialists to treat it as the world’s largest lake. Studies of its geomorphology and hydrolog...
05 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
Annual discharge into the Caspian Sea
Most of the water flowing into the sea comes from coastal rivers – currently supplying 300 to 310 km3 a year. The Volga alone accounts for 80% of inflow. But it has dropped substantially during the 20th century, declini...
06 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
Caspian coastline vulnerable to flooding
Uncertainty regarding future variations in the sea level is holding back the development of many coastal zones suitable for holiday amenities or the construction of ports. But stretches of the Caspian coast are alread...
07 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
Regional land degradation
Climate change has increased the frequency and intensity of weather-related events and natural disasters such as floods, droughts, landslides, avalanches, debris flows and mud flows. For example, in the last 30 years ...
07 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
Selected impacts of climate change in the Caspian basin
Several severe droughts have affected various parts of the region in recent years. They seem to confirm scientific models, which, in addition to higher mean temperatures, generally predict more extreme weather events....
07 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Transportation projects converging on the Caspian
The oil boom has changed the way the Caspian Sea is used as a transport route. In the absence of an agreement on the use of the seabed, including the laying of pipelines, crude oil is transported in tanker wagons roll...
07 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
The Caspian Sea: neighbours and players
The surge in the exploitation of hydrocarbons in the Caspian region has changed the rules for development and engagement in many sectors, in particular oil, land and sea transport, and services. National interests mul...
05 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
Markets competing for Caspian oil and gas
For many years, coastal navigation has connected republics in the former Soviet Union. It used the only outlet from the Caspian, the Volga-Don canal, which connects the Black Sea and the Russian canal system to the B...
07 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
Human Development Index (HDI) composition for the Caspian countries compared with Norway (ranked first in 2007)
The characteristic feature in all four post-Soviet countries is a relatively high level of education in relation to national income and rather low life expectancy, indicating high levels of poverty and deficient healthc...
05 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
Gross National Income (GNI) in Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) per capita
Purchasing power parity (PPP) measures how much a currency can buy in terms of an international benchmark (usually dollars), since the cost of goods and services differs between countries. PPP is below the value of a US ...
01 Oct 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
Share of food in total household expenses
In the 1990s following the collapse of the Soviet regime and massive market deregulation, the breakdown of total household expenditure radically changed. Its focus shifted towards basic human needs, such as food, for whi...
05 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
Caspian basin
The Caspian Sea runs north and south, extending over 1 200 kilometres, with an average width of 320 kilometres, with 7 000 km coastline. It covers approximately 400 000 square kilometres (an area slightly larger than Ge...
05 Mar 2012 - by IEVA RUCEVSKA AND PHILIPPE REKACEWICZ
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01 Mar 2012 - by GRID-Arendal
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01 Mar 2012 - by GRID-Arendal
North Caspian giant oilfields
The giant Kashagan offshore field was discovered in July 2000, 80 kilometres south of Atyrau. It is the largest Caspian offshore field and one of the largest fields discovered anywhere in the world in the past 30 year...
07 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
00-illegal-sturgeon-new
01 Mar 2012 - by GRID-Arendal
00-endangered-species
01 Mar 2012 - by GRID-Arendal
Coastal vulnerability and climate-related impacts
No data.
01 Feb 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Population growth in Sub-Saharan and Central Africa and Population density projection in Congo Basin
As populations are rapidly rising in the Greater Congo Basin, so is the pressure on great ape habitat, and even more, the numbers killed relative to the gorilla populations to supply bushmeat.
01 Feb 2010 - by GRID-Arendal
Loss of biodiversity with continued agricultural expansion, pollution, climate change and infrastructure development
Figure 27: Loss of biodiversity with continued agricultural expansion, pollution, climate change and infrastructure development. (Source: GLOBIO; Alkemade et al., 2009).
01 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Protected areas and transboundary cooperation in Congo Basin countries
Trans-boundary collaboration in parks in the greater Congo Basin.
01 Feb 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Small scale bioenergy applications - impacts on livelihood
Energy access is a primer for any type economic development. Nowhere is energy access a greater challenge than in areas and regions where the population lives in poverty. As illustrated, bioenergy can deliver considerabl...
29 Feb 2012 - by Nieves Lopez Izquierdo
World bioenergy technical potential in 2050
Studies indicate that global bioenergy use is approximately 10 percent of the global energy mix, with a growth rate of 1.3 percent per year. Future projections for the supply of bioenergy are shown in the figure. The ana...
01 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Energy costs in Bot Trang village, Cambodia
Over the past few years a small energy revolution has taken place in the village of Bot Trang in northwest Cambodia. Bot Trang is not on Cambodia’s national grid: in the old days Mr. Tham Bun Hak, a local farmer, would s...
29 Feb 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Biofuels production and forest area variation in selected countries
Gains and losses in forest area vary globally, and the impact divers greatly between the various crops used for biofuels. Forest-cover is enhanced through aorestation or by natural expansion, and reduced either by defor...
01 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Additional people at risk of hunger in 2020
Biofuels have been criticised for causing food insecurity, but many other factors often play a far more significant role than biofuels. But rapid, largescale growth in biofuel production without sufficient safeguards doe...
01 Mar 2012 - by Nieves Lopez Izquierdo
Impacts of first-generation biofuels on agricultural prices
This figure outlines possible scenarios for the impact of biofuels on agricultural prices and food security. Although there are several factors that affect agricultural prices, including seasonal variation, market spe...
29 Feb 2012 - by Nieves Lopez Izquierdo
Land required to drive 100 kilometres
The graphic compares different liquid biofuels and alternative drive systems such as an electric vehicle running on electricity produced from wind power.
29 Feb 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Potential risks of energy crop expansion on land access
Poor land tenure security due to lack of appropriate rules and processes, and biofuels production encroaching on land used by pastoralists or for cultural purposes affect local livelihoods and access to land, particu...
29 Feb 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Pressures on Ugandan forests
Recently Uganda has outlined its national strategy for bioenergy to contribute to increasing the renewable energy mix from 4 to 16 percent by 2017. Alongside the energy challenge, the country faces a number of other diff...
01 Oct 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Suitability by crop type in Uganda
Recently Uganda has outlined its national strategy for bioenergy to contribute to increasing the renewable energy mix from 4 to 16 percent by 2017. Several biofuel crops have been identified, including sugarcane, m...
01 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Potential biofuels output in Uganda
Recently Uganda has outlined its national strategy for bioenergy to contribute to increasing the renewable energy mix from 4 to 16 percent by 2017. Several biofuel crops have been identified, including sugarcane, m...
29 Feb 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Indirect land-use change induced by increased biofuels production
This figure indicates land requirements for biofuels production in response to current biofuels mandates. Depending on projected biofuels demand and available arable land, additional land requirements may exceed a natio...
29 Feb 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Potential biofuels production on abandoned agricultural land
Land-use planning is one strategy to manage competition for land and, at the same time, reduce environmental and social impacts. Assessment of land suitability and availability can identify both high-risk areas where...
29 Feb 2012 - by Nieves Lopez Izquierdo