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Uptake of Carbon Dioxide from the Atmosphere
Arctic marine systems currently provide a substantial carbon sink but the continuation of this service depends critically on arctic climate change impacts on ice, freshwater inputs, and ocean acidification.
27 Oct 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Minimum arctic summer sea ice extent
Sea ice has decreased sharply in all seasons, with summer sea ice declining most dramatically — beyond the projections of IPCC 2007.
27 Oct 2009 - by Laura Margueritte
Antarctic Greenland
No data
27 Oct 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Anomalies in Northern Hemisphere Snow Cover
Snow cover extent has continued to decline and is projected to decline further, despite the projected increase in winter snowfall in some areas.
27 Oct 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Glacier Mass Balance
Glacier mass loss has been observed across the Arctic, consistent with the global trend.
27 Oct 2009 - by Laura Margueritte
РАЗРУШЕНИЕ ОЗОНОВОГО СЛОЯ И ИЗМЕНЕНИЕ КЛИМАТА
Разрушение озона и изменение климата две разные проблемы, но их нельзя брать по-отдельности, так как обе изменяют глобальные циклы. Полный масштаб взаимосвязи этих двух проблем пока не выяснен.
27 May 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
СТРУКТУРА МЕЖДУНАРОДНОГО
Национальные подразделения по озону в развивающихся странах
27 May 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
СРОКИ ОТКАЗА ОТ ПРОИЗВОДСТВА И ПОТРЕБЛЕНИЯ ОЗОНОРАЗРУШАЮЩИХ ВЕЩЕСТВ
определены положениями Монреальского протокола
27 May 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
ИСТОНЧЕНИЕ ОЗОНОВОГО СЛОЯ НАД АРКТИКОЙ И ТЕМПЕРАТУРА СТРАТОСФЕРЫ
Озон вертикальной общей Арктики Единиц Добсона
27 May 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Кондиционирование воздуха на юге Китая
Кондиционеры на складе
27 May 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
ПРИМЕРЫ ОСНОВНЫХ ПУТЕЙ КОНТРАБАНДЫ ОРВ В АЗИИ
Срок полного отказа от ХФУ уже наступил, а сроки отказа по другим озоноразрушающим веществам стремительно приближаются. В то же время серьезную опасность для восстановления озонового слоя представляет контрабанда ОРВ. На...
27 May 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Разрушающая способность веществ, истончающих озоновый слой
Эффективный эквивалент хлора в триллионных долях
27 May 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Le protoxyde d’azote : un coupable de premier rang après 2010...СЕЛЬСКОХОЗЯЙСТВЕННЫЕ ВЫБОРОСЫ
«Мы рассчитали, что озоноразрущающая способность N2O будет на 50% выше, когда уровни хлора вернутся к показателям, зафиксированным до 1960 года».
27 May 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Рост использования систем охлаждения
Холодильники
27 May 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
ГФУ И N2O: ДВЕ УГРОЗЫ КЛИМАТУ И ИХ ВЛИЯНИЕ НА ОЗОНОВЫЙ СЛОЙ
Выбросы некоторых парниковых газов
27 May 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Химический процесс разрушения озона в озонавстрратаостфоесрфеере
Объемы озона Давление (в миллипаскалях)
27 May 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Реципиенты и доноры Многостороннего фонда
Государства получают помощь в зависимости от потребностей для успешного осуществления Протокола. Иными словами, деньги выделяются на ликвидацию производства и потребления конкретного количества ОРВ. В результате, страны,...
27 May 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Карта от цвета кожи (коренные)
Отклоненный из нескольких факторов окружающей среды
27 May 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
ПОСЛЕДСТВИЯ УСИЛЕНИЯ УФ-В ИЗЛУЧЕНИЯ НА УРОЖАЙ
Краткие выводы исследований по искусственной обработке растений.
27 May 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
ПОТЕНЦИАЛ СНИЖЕНИЯ ЗАПАСОВ ОРВ К 2015 ГОДУ
Если бы не было мер по снижению запасов ОРВ, то в 2009-2015 гг. выбросы находящихся на хранении ОРВ могли бы превысить сокращения, достигнутые за 4 года действия Киотского протокола (2008-2012 гг.)
27 May 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Выбросы ГФУ в разбивке по выбранным индустриализованным странам
Примечание: Согласно Рамочной конвенции ООН об изменении климата, развитые страны, ратифицировавшие Киотский протокол, обязаны декларировать ежегодные выбросы ГФУ начиная с 1900 года. Сейчас в эту категорию входит 40 гос...
27 May 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Озоновая дыра над Антарктикои
Содержание озона в вертикальном столбе атмосферы.С 21 по 30 сентября 2006 г. отмечалась самая большая со времени начала наблюдения область распространения озоновой дыры.
27 May 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Производство основных газов ОРВ
Тысяча тонн озоноразрущающей способности (Тонна ОРС)
27 May 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
28 октября 2004 года
«Глобальный УФ-индекс — измерение уровня УФ-излучения на поверхности Земли. Целью разработки этого индекса стало информирование населения о возможных вредных последствиях для здоровья УФ-излучения и призыва к защите от ч...
27 May 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
УЯЗВИМОСТЬ
УФ-излучение и последствия для здоровья
27 May 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
ГХФУ: временной замены ХФУ в секторе холодильного оборудования
Потребление ГХФУ, отмеченные.
27 May 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Общее заявленное производство ОРВ
Тысяча тонн озоноразрущающей способности
27 May 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Назначение ХФУ в США в 1987 г
В процентах от обшего использования ХФУ
27 May 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Тенденции бромистого метила
Производство и потребление сообщили.
27 May 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Производство озоноразрушающих веществ и Потребление озоноразрушающих веществ
включая 27 500 тонн ОРС в ГХФУ и Круги, выделенные пунктиром, обозначают долю ГХФУ.
27 May 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Озоновая дыра над Антарктикои
Содержание озона вертикальном столбе 220 Единицы Добсона (ЕД) атмосферы. С 21 по 30 сентября 2006 г. отмечалась самая большая со времени начала наблюдения область распространения озоновой дыры.
27 May 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Le trou au-dessus de l’Antarctique
La zone couverte par le trou de la couche d’ozone du 21 au 30 septembre 2006 est la plus grande jamais observée.
26 May 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Production des principaux gaz SAO
Milliers de tonnes potentielles en substances appauvrissant la couche d’ozone (tonnes SAO)*
26 May 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Fin de l’utilisation des Fin de l’utilisation CFC aux Etats-Unis en des CFC aux 1987
En pourcentage de l’usage total de CFC
26 May 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Les HFC et le N2O : deux ennemis du climat liés à la couche d’ozone
Emissions de quelques gaz à effet de serre choisis. Les HFC ne s’attaquent pas à la couche d’ozone mais ils constituent les principaux produits de substitution aux HCFC dans le secteur de la réfrigération.
26 May 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Le paysage de la protection de l’ozone
Bureaux nationaux ozone dans les pays en voie de développement
26 May 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Les effets du renforcement du rayonnement UV-B sur les cultures
No data
26 May 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
La prise de conscience internationale sur l’ozone
Chronologie
26 May 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Emissions de HFC pour quelques pays industrialisés
Note : Sous le régime de la Convention-cadre de l’ONU sur les changements climatiques, les pays industrialisés qui ont ratifié le protocole de Kyoto s’obligent à déclarer annuellement leurs émissions de HFC depuis 1990. ...
26 May 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Les climatiseurs en Chine du sud
No data
26 May 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Les effets des amendements au Protocole de Montréal et de leurs calendrier d’élimination progressive
Le chlore et le brome sont les molécules responsables de l’appauvrissement de l’ozone. Le « chlore effectif » est l’expression employée pour mesurer le potentiel d’appauvrissement de l’ozone de tous les gaz SAO émis ...
26 May 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Moyenne annuelle
L’intensité de l’appauvrissement de l’ozone dans une période donnée dépend d’interactions complexes entre des facteurs chimiques et climatiques comme la température et le vent. Le niveau d’appauvrissement inhabituellemen...
26 May 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Le potentiel de réduction des réservoirs de SAO à l’horizon 2015
Si aucune mesure de réduction n’était prise, les émissions de réservoirs de SAO entre 2009 et 2015 pourraient dépasser toutes les réductions accomplies en 4 ans sous le protocole de Kyoto (2008-2012).
26 May 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Potentiel de destruction des substances appauvrissant l’ozone
Equivalent chlore* effectif en parties par billion
26 May 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Vulnérabilite
No data
26 May 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Le «trou » : résultat de conditions météo particulières au-dessus du pôle, répétées chaque printemps
« Le continent antarctique est entouré de forts vents dans la stratosphère qui soufflent autour de l’Antarctique et isolent l’air qui se trouvent au-dessus de l’Antarctique de l’air qui se trouve aux latitudes moyennes. ...
26 May 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
La destruction des réservoirs de SAO : un moyen bon marché pour atténuer les changements climatiques
Coût moyen de la destruction (estimation « petit effort »)
26 May 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Carte des couleurs de peau (peuples indigènes)
Décliné à partir de facteurs environnementaux multiples
26 May 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Les réservoirs de SAO dans le monde, par secteur
Les « réservoirs » correspondent à la quantité totale de substances contenues dans les équipements industriels, les stocks de produits chimiques, les mousses et d’autres produits, qui n’ont pas encore été émis dans...
26 May 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Production de substances appauvrissant la couche d’ozone et Consommation de substances appauvrissant l’ozone
Les cercles en pointillé représentent la proportion de HCFC
26 May 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Croissance du secteur de la réfrigération
No data
26 May 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
L’appauvrissement de l’ozone arctique et les températures stratosphériques
Températures et quantité totale d’ozone au-dessus de l’Arctique depuis 1979
26 May 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
L’appauvrissement de l’ozone et les changements climatiques
L’appauvrissement de l’ozone et les changements climatiques sont deux problèmes distincts mais ils ont tous deux un effet sur les cycles terrestres, il n’est pas possible de les séparer totalement. Il reste encore de n...
26 May 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Production déclarée totale de substances appauvrissant l’ozone
Veuillez noter qu’au fur et à mesure que de nouveaux pays ratifient le Protocole de Montréal, les chiffres de la production déclarée totale augmentent. De ce fait, la production ne correspond pas au même nombre de pays e...
26 May 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Délais pour la production et la consommation de substances appauvrissant l’ozone
Définies dans les phases d’élimination progressive du Protocole de Montréal
26 May 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Tendances du bromure de méthyle
Production et consommation dèclarèes.
26 May 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Pays donateurs et pays bénéficiaires du Fonds multilatéral
Les pays reçoivent des fonds en fonction de leurs besoins pour se conformer au Protocole. C’est-à-dire qu’ils reçoivent des fonds correspondant à l’élimination de quantités spécifiques de SAO en production et en consomma...
26 May 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Des responsabilités différentes
Production de CFC déclarée
26 May 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Major mineral fuel resources in Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia
Mineral fuels for electricity and heat generation take primarily two forms: fossil fuels in the form of oil, natural gas and coal, and uranimum ore for nuclear power. Oil and gas are distributed in different belts, prima...
20 Jul 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Solar insolation
Solar insolation, the quantification of energy per surface area on the ground, can be used as an indicator for the potential for solar energy. This graphic presents solar insolation, calculated to annual averages from mo...
20 Jul 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Hydropower potential (theoretical possitibility for electricity generation)
xHydropower, generating electricity through turbines, represents a clean and renewable energy source, but not without problems. Dams and reservoirs disrupt the natural flow, and may increase siltation and evaporation, in...
20 Jul 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
tourismstats_see
About tourismstats_see
20 Jul 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
political_see
About political_see
20 Jul 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
The expansion of the European Union, political map 1957, 1987, 1997 and 2007
The political map and landscape in Europe has changed drastically in the period of 1957-2007. In the aftermath of the Second World War, the European Communities was formed in 1957 by the treaty of Rome, with six signator...
20 Jul 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Trends in permafrost temperatures in the central and northern Mackenzie Valley, 1984-2006
Temperature monitoring in Canada indicates a warming of shallow permafrost over the last two to three decades. Since the mid-1980s, shallow permafrost (upper 20-30 m) has generally warmed in the Mackenzie Valley. The gre...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
World ocean thermohaline circulation (alternative version)
The global conveyor belt thermohaline circulation is driven primarily by the formation and sinking of deep water (from around 1500m to the Antarctic bottom water overlying the bottom of the ocean) in the Norwegian Sea. W...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Historical trends in carbon dioxide concentrations and temperature, on a geological and recent time scale
The most recent geological history, in the last hundred thousand years, has been characterised by cycles of glaciations, or ice ages. The historic temperatures, through these times, have been low, and continental ice she...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Major glacier hazard locations
Major glacier hazard locations
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Arctic sea ice minimum extent in September 1982, 2005 and 2007
The red line indicates the median minimum extent of the ice cover for the period 1979–2000. This figure compares the Arctic sea ice extent in September for the years 1982 (the record maximum since 1979), 2005 and 2007 (t...
18 Apr 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Increases in annual temperatures for a recent five-year period, relative to 1951-1980
Warming is widespread, generally greater over land than over oceans, and the largest gains in temperatures for the planet are over the North American Arctic, north central Siberia, and on the Antarctic Peninsula. These r...
18 Apr 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Ringed seal pupping lair, with the pup in the lair and the female approaching the haul-out hole from the water
Ringed seals are the 'classic' Arctic seal in many regards, being found as far north as the Pole because of their ability to keep breathing holes open in ice that can reach 2 metres in depth. This species is certainly on...
01 Nov 2007 - by Robert Barnes, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Greenland, showing rates of surface-elevation change between the late 1990s and 2003
Mass-balance estimates for Greenland show thickening at high elevations since the early 1990s at rates that increased to about 4 cm per year after 2000, consistent with expectations of increasing snowfall in a warming cl...
18 Apr 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Solid waste management cost for selected cities
As garbage piles up, however much space we set aside for landfill, we are beginning to realise that producing waste at this rate is no longer viable. It is time for the three “Rs”: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle and integrated w...
15 Dec 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
Barents Sea ecoregion conservation priority areas
The Barents Sea ecoregion - the part of the World Ocean north of the Nordic countries and Northwest Russia, has a unique environment with major sea bird colonies, rich benthic and plankton fauna and many major sea mammal...
06 Dec 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Catches in the Mauritania Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) 1950-2002
Marine fisheries represent a significant, but finite, natural resource for coastal countries. For some countries like Mauritania, the majority of the catches belong to international fleets. This represents a significant ...
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Number of borrowers in the micro-credit scheme
Number of borrowers in the MACH micro-credit scheme, Bangladesh
11 Jul 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Deforestation in the MAB, Guatemala case study
Deforestation in the MAB, Guatemala case study
11 Jul 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Water management in Central Asia: state and impact
The withdrawal of water for irrigated agriculture has caused a social and environmental crisis in the Aral Sea Basin. Drying up of the sea has been accompanied by a wide range of other environmental, economic and social ...
16 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Consumption of Nitrogen fertilizers in EU 15
The graph shows Consumption of Nitrogen fertilizers in EU 15 from 1970 to 1992. The main source of nitrogen in soils is from organic matter. Nitrogen also comes from sources such as factories. A common concern with these...
14 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Trends in life expectancy in Europe, 1980 and 1990
Life expectancy has increased in all countries surveyed in this graphic, from both Western and Eastern Europe. In the Western European countries, life expectancy at the end of the eighties is higher than 72 years old, wi...
07 Nov 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Water resources in Europe
The amount of natural water resorces available per inhabitant in Europe, in cubic meter per year. Water resources are at the highest in the Nordic countries and Central an Easter Europe, while scarce in Western/Central E...
14 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Consumption of pesticides (active ingredients)
The graphic shows consumption of pesticide (active ingredients) from 1980 to 2010. Pesticides are natural chemicals or altered versions of natural chemicals used in agriculture to control various sorts of pests such as d...
14 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Renewable water resources in Europe
Water resources are a major political issure with most European countries a large portion of their fresh water supply orginating from other countries. Hungary has over 90 percent of its fresh water coming from river flow...
14 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Water resources in Europe
On the continental scale, Europe appears to have abundant water resources. However, these resources are unevenly distributed, both between and within countries. Once population density is taken into account, the disequit...
14 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Renewable water resources
Renewable water represents the main water resource available to society. This is the water that is continously recharged in the hydrological cycle. This graphic shows renewable resources in cubic meter per capita in East...
14 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Development of organic matter, phosphorus and nitrate in EU 15 rivers
The graphic shows the development of organic matter, phosphorus and nitrate in EU 15 rivers. Water resources in Europe have been profoundly influenced over the past century by human activities, including the construction...
14 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Trends in groundwater nitrate concentrations
The graph shows the development of Nitrate concentration in groundwater from 1980 to 1995 in France, Britain and Denmark combined. Nitrate is a naturally occurring compound and is normal in small amounts, but excess amou...
14 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Transport SO2 emissions
Graphics from the year 2000 Baltic 21 biannual indicator-based status report on sustainable development in the Baltic Sea Region (Baltic 21 Series No 1/2000). This graphic shows transport SO2 emissions from 1990 to 1998 ...
10 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
GDP: BSR and lowest versus highest
Graphics from the year 2000 Baltic 21 biannual indicator-based status report on sustainable development in the Baltic Sea Region (Baltic 21 Series No 1/2000). The graphic shows the economic wealth of countries in the Bal...
10 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Consumption of ozone depleting substances
Graphics from the year 2000 Baltic 21 biannual indicator-based status report on sustainable development in the Baltic Sea Region (Baltic 21 Series No 1/2000). This graphic shows the consumption of the ozone depleting sub...
10 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
baltic21_ba-trans-accid3 x
Graphics from the year 2000 Baltic 21 biannual indicator-based status report on sustainable development in the Baltic Sea Region (Baltic 21 Series No 1/2000 )
10 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal