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Formation environment for manganese nodules Formation environment for manganese nodules
This process takes place in water depths of 4 000 to 6 500 metres.
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
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The road from exploration to exploitation The road from exploration to exploitation
Permitting process - note these requirements are used as an example of the permitting process. Manganese nodule exploration and exploitation would require a different permitting process, which could also be multi leveled.
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
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Participating Pacific Island States Participating Pacific Island States
The Pacific ACP States (i.e., Africa-Caribbean-Pacific Group of States) participating in the European-Union-funded SPC Deep Sea Minerals Project.
03 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
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Location of Pual Ridge and SuSu Knolls as well as SMS deposits in the eastern Manus Basin Location of Pual Ridge and SuSu Knolls as well as SMS deposits in the eastern Manus Basin
Inset shows location of the eastern Manus Basin in relation to major plate tectonic structures.
03 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
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Basics of a hydrothermal vent - a Black Smoker Basics of a hydrothermal vent - a Black Smoker
Seawater percolates through the sea floor and is modified by chemical exchange with the surrounding rocks and rising magmatic fluid. The altered seawater is released back into the ocean at the vent site and forms a hydrothermal plume. The rising plume mixes rapidly with ambient seawater, lowering the temperature and diluting the particle concentration. The plume will continue to rise through seawater as long as it is less dense than the surroundi...
03 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
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Global distribution of hydrothermal vent fields Global distribution of hydrothermal vent fields
Confirmed vents are those where hydrothermal activity has been observed at the sea floor. The unconfirmed sites are inferred to be active based on plume surveys.
03 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
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Distribution of known SMS occurrences Distribution of known SMS occurrences
Distribution of known sea-floor massive sulphide occurrences in different environments.
03 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
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Geochemistry of massive sulphides in various tectonic settings Geochemistry of massive sulphides in various tectonic settings
Concentrations of copper, zinc, and lead in sea-floor massive sulphides formed in different geological settings.
03 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
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Chemoautotrophic symbiotic relationships Chemoautotrophic symbiotic relationships
These relationships are similar to the symbiosis between shallow-water reef corals and their photosynthesizing algae. Like some species of corals, which must be exposed to sunlight to reap the benefits of their algal partners, vent animals must live exposed to hydrothermal vent fluids in order to benefit from their bacterial symbionts.
03 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
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The road from exploration to exploitation The road from exploration to exploitation
Environmental impact assessment and environmental permitting process considerations – an example of a permitting process for a proposed SMS project.
03 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
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Deep sea mining Deep sea mining
Example of a sea-floor massive sulphide mining system and related sources of potential environmental impact.
03 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
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Environmental investigation Environmental investigation
List of potential studies that may be required to define the environment prior to development. Note that this is not an exhaustive list.
03 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
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Examples of exploration tools Examples of exploration tools
03 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
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Sources of marine litter Sources of marine litter
Marine litter is “any persistent, manufactured or processed solid material discarded, disposed of or abandoned in the marine and coastal environment” (Galgani et al. 2010). It reaches the marine environment through deliberate disposal or unintentional discharge, either at sea or from land by way of rivers, drainage systems and wind.
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Mediterranean cumulative impact model Mediterranean cumulative impact model
None of the factors affecting the Mediterranean Sea and its coasts, along with its inhabitants, exist in isolation. Different pressures act over time and in unison to affect the resilience of ecosystems and their ability to deliver ecosystem services. Increasing and multiple uses of ocean space increase the chances that certain threats will cause more impact when occurring simultaneously than the additive effect of individual pressures.
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Sources of environmental impact on the Mediterranean Sea Sources of environmental impact on the Mediterranean Sea
The National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS) has undertaken modelling to perform comprehensive spatial analysis and mapping of human pressures throughout the Mediterranean Basin. This work builds on a previous global analysis of cumulative human impacts (Halpern et al. 2008), including additional information to better reflect the specific pressures and ecosystems of the Mediterranean Sea and coasts. A total of 22 spatial da...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Number of species in IUCN Red List categories from Mediterranean countries Number of species in IUCN Red List categories from Mediterranean countries
Mediterranean species and habitats face a number of pressures from human activities, including over-exploitation; degradation of critical habitats; invasive alien species; pollution, including excess nutrients, toxic pollutants, and litter; and the use of non-selective fishery gear (e.g., drift nets and purse seine nets) (UNEP/ MAP/MED POL 2005). While there is no evidence of species loss in the Mediterranean, the status of a number of speci...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Seabed habitats in Western Mediterranean Seabed habitats in Western Mediterranean
The Mediterranean Basin has a wide array of habitats that include sea grass beds, intact rocky shorelines, persistent frontal systems, estuaries, underwater canyons, deepwater coral assemblages and sea mounts (UNEP/MAP 2012).
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Biodiversity in the Mediterranean Biodiversity in the Mediterranean
Species diversity in the Mediterranean Basin tends to increase from east to west with 43 % of known species occurring in the Eastern Mediterranean, 49 % in the Adriatic, and 87 % in the Western Mediterranean (UNEP/MAP 2012). The Western Mediterranean also has more endemic species than other regions of the sea. In addition, its proximity to the Atlantic Ocean and its seasonal frontal and upwelling systems provide nutrients. The Western Basin ...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Composition of benthic communities Composition of benthic communities
Benthic communities are among the first to disappear under conditions of heavy stress. Benthic organisms play an important ecological role by reworking the sediments, which affects the flux of nutrients across the sediment-water interface. Thus their loss is a liability to the ecosystem as a whole. In undisturbed areas in the eastern Mediterranean, benthic communities have a high diversity of species, consisting of polychaetes (50–65%),molluscs...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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