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Compact fluorescent lamps (CLFs)
Mercury is widely used in compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) and the demand for them is increasing in the quest for energy efficiency. According to the EU Directive 2002/95/EC on the restriction of hazardous substances in ...
11 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
The industry's self-commitment to phase out mercury use in the chlor-alkali industry
Efforts to confront the threat posed by mercury to human health and the environment have grown over the last decades. There are a number of initiatives aiming, for example, to reduce the use of mercury in products, to re...
11 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM)
Mercury residues from mining and industrial processing, as well as mercury in waste, have resulted in a large number of contaminated sites all over the world. Polluted soil can contain as much as 400 grammes of mercury p...
11 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Long-range mercury transport
Coal burning for electric power generation and for industrial purposes continues to increase, especially in Asia (UNEP, 2013). Assessing the global spread and fate of mercury is a challenging task, as there are few studi...
11 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Emissions to air
Emissions of mercury from ASGM reported for 2010 are more than twice those reported for 2005. While the higher price of gold and increased rural poverty may indeed have caused more activity in this sector, the increased ...
11 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Regional mercury emissions in 2010
Global emissions of mercury to the air in 2010 from human activities were estimated at 1,960 tonnes. Although it is difficult to compare emissions estimates for individual years, total anthropogenic emissions of mercury ...
11 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Mercury and human health
Mercury can enter the food chain either from agricultural prod- ucts or from seafood. It was widely used in agriculture, and at least 459 people are known to have died in Iraq after grain treated with a fungicide contain...
11 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
How mercury can enter our environment
While some pollutants are restricted in their range and in the size and number of the population they affect, mercury is not one of them. Wherever it is mined, used or discarded, it is liable – in the absence of effectiv...
11 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Industrial processes: input and output of mercury
Socio-economic conditions are often barriers to the adoption of better practices (UNEP, 2012). This figure shows the inputs and outputs of mercury by industries.
11 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Global mercury supply
Artisanal and small-scale Gold Mining (ASGM) is the largest sector of demand for mercury, using it to separate the metal from the ore. Though mercury mining and by-products were very high in the eighties, since then, min...
11 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Global mercury demand in 2011
In 2011, the largest demands in mercury were artisanal & small-scale gold mining as well as vinyl chloride monomers.
11 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Global mercury consumption in 2005
Most of the world’s estimated 600,000 tonnes of mercury de- posits are found in a handful of countries, including China, Kyrgyzstan, Mexico, Peru, Russia, Slovenia, Spain and Ukraine (USGS, 2012). Primary mining (where m...
11 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Mercury in food and products
Even now, mercury is commonplace in daily life. Electrical and electronic devices, switches (including thermostats) and relays, measuring and control equipment, energy- efficient fluorescent light bulbs, batteries, masca...
11 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Global annual mercury mining production
Global annual mercury production was at its peak in 1971 and has since significantly decreased. In 2005, UNEP estimated global annual mercury demand at be- tween 3,000 and 3,900 tonnes (UNEP, 2006). Demand has fallen sig...
11 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Global cases of mercury poisoning incidents
Mercury poisoning incidents. As elemental mercury is eligible for long distance transport, it can also accumulate in various forms. This figure illustrates its global distribution as well as the number of affected people...
11 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Minamata mercury events timeline
The events which lead to the government's decision on the revitalization and development of local communities.
11 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Minamata mercury events timeline
The events which lead to the government's decision on the revitalization and development of local communities.
11 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Trees for Global Benefits, Uganda
In Mitooma-Bushenyi in Uganda, the environmental conservation organisation Ecotrust has agreed with local landowners that in exchange for planting native species they will receive payments based on the amount of carbon t...
17 Sep 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
GDP of the Poor: estimates for ecosystem-service dependence
Poverty often occurs when links between ecosystem services and human well-being have been damaged or broken. Healthy ecosystems are ‘the wealth of the poor’. It has been estimated that ecosystem services and other non- m...
17 Sep 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Tmatboey - Cambodia
Cambodia’s deciduous forests are some of the most important conservation areas in southeast Asia, home to many mammals and water birds. Deforestation, hunting and the advance of settlers into forest areas have endangered...
17 Sep 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Market bundled
For the most part PES schemes have tended to focus on a single ecosystem service, whether it is connected with the conservation of a watershed, the restoration of a forest or the preservation of a wildlife area for biodi...
17 Sep 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Simanjiro Conservation Easement, Tanzania
Terrat is a village of some 3 500 people involved mainly in pastoral activities in northern Tanzania. In 2004, a group of five tourism operators entered into a PES type agreement with the community, with villagers helpin...
17 Sep 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Market Landscape
Landscape beauty services are dependent on the preservation of nature and the beauty of intact and uninterrupted landscapes. Preserving nature’s bounty is not only important for traditional livelihoods but also to safegu...
17 Sep 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Ecuador Ishpingo-Tambococha-Tiputini Yasaní
The Yasuní National Park in Ecuador is generally considered to be one of the richest biodiversity ‘hot spots’ in the world. It is also rich in natural resources, including oil. In 2007 Ecuador proposed a plan for a form ...
17 Sep 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Catskill-Delaware watershed: champagne drinking water for New York City
In the 1980s New York City was in need of new legislation on water management as water quality showed signs of deterioration. Rather than investing in new filtration plants, officials adopted a more progressive approach ...
17 Sep 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Watershed Market
A watershed is an area of land which feeds water into a river or a lake. A variety of ecosystems can make up a watershed, including various bodies of water, wetlands, grasslands, forests and cultivated areas. Watersheds...
17 Sep 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Scolel Té: growing up with trees
The Scolel Té Plan Vivo project involves over 2,500 families and nearly 50 communities in the central and northern Chiapas and northeast Oaxaca areas of southern Mexico. It is a model for community-based, sustainable lan...
17 Sep 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
23 Ecosystem services
The concepts within ecosystem services are clustered in four main categories: provisioning services, regulatory services, cultural services, and supporting services. In addition to this, ecosystem services can also be ca...
17 Sep 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
The 3 Capital fluxes
Within the topic of payment for ecosystem services, it is important to consider the complexity of interactions between the three main capitals (natural capital, economic capital and social capital). Services and needs th...
17 Sep 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Ivory transaction index
Overall, using weight and transaction indices derived from the ETIS data, illegal ivory trade activity remained at or slightly above 1998 levels up to 2006. Subsequently, a gradual increase in illegal ivory trade acti...
28 Nov 2013 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Percentage of elephants illegally killed in Africa
Since 2010, the percentage of elephants being killed illegally at MIKE sites across Africa has been higher than their natural reproduction rate.
28 Nov 2013 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Trend in proportion of illegally killed elephants (PIKE) in Africa
The PIKE trend across Africa show a clear increase in the proportion of illegally killed elephants from 2006 and up to 2012.
28 Nov 2013 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Asian elephant population estimates
Asian elephants occur in isolated populations in 13 range States, with an approximate total range area of almost 880,000 square kilometres equivalent to only one-tenth of the historical range as defined by the IUCN. Tod...
28 Nov 2013 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Large scale ivory seizures
Large-scale ivory shipments originating from Africa have almost exclusively been seized in containers at major ports in Asia, where there is an established customs inspection systems. Shipments have mainly originated fro...
28 Nov 2013 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
African elephant population by country
The overall sub-regional distribution of the African elephant indicates that approximately half of the total elephant population is found in Southern Africa, while less than 30 per cent are found in Eastern Africa. West...
28 Nov 2013 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
African elephant range and population distribution
Elephant population distribution and approximate core ranges of elephants in Africa. Individuals and minor groups of elephants can be found outside these ranges.
28 Nov 2013 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
African elephant range and population density
While poaching is an immediate and direct threat to the African elephant, range and habitat loss are the most significant longterm threat to the species’ survival. There is good reason to believe that the total eleph...
28 Nov 2013 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
African elephant population: a different count
The latest estimates of the total number of African elephants range between 419,000 and 650,000. Overall data reliability at the continental level has declined as many important populations have not been surveyed for ove...
28 Nov 2013 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Estimates of illegally killed elephants in 2011
In 2011, approximately 7.4 per cent of the total elephant populations in African MIKE sites were killed illegally. This is a significant increase from 2010, when the average number of elephants killed was estimated to be...
28 Nov 2013 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Percentage of illegally killed elephants per sub-region
Central Africa has shown worrying poaching trends for some time, and has consistently displayed the highest levels of poaching in any sub-region since MIKE monitoring began. In 2006, PIKE levels were at 0.5, meaning that...
28 Nov 2013 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
African elephants threatened by conflict
The African continent has struggled with political instability and conflict in recent history. Such instability encourages criminal activity including wildlife trafficking, poaching and other environmental crimes (Bouch...
28 Nov 2013 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Illegal ivory trafficking routes
Primary and secondary ivory smuggling routes in Africa based on a wide range of sources including both ETIS seizures and criminal intelligence.
28 Nov 2013 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Main international routes for the illegal trafficking of great apes
In principle, wildlife smuggling is done in the following ways: • Transport over land by foot, horse, donkey, motorbike and other vehicles; • Transport by river by boats; • Transport by sea by vessels; • Transport b...
07 Oct 2013 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Great ape illegal trafficking “tariffs”
Prices for live great apes vary greatly according to where they are sold, initial cost to the seller, risk factors and bribes in shipping, the estimated economic status of the buyer and demand factors.
11 Mar 2013 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Orangutan range and population estimates
The orangutan is the only great ape found in Asia, and historically is thought to have once ranged across Indochina. Today, two distinct species are found on the islands of Borneo and Sumatra, respectively. The Bornean o...
11 Mar 2013 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Great apes range in Africa
There are two populations of Mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei beringei): one in the Bwindi Impenetrable Forest National Park in Uganda (extending into the Sarambwe Forest in DR Congo), and the second in the Virunga Vo...
11 Mar 2013 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Great apes population estimates
All great ape species have experienced considerable declines in population size and range over the past few decades. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species lists all of t...
11 Mar 2013 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Wood exports from Congo Basin
China is probably the largest importer of wood products of illegal origin. Other primary importers of illegal logs or wood products are Japan, the EU, and the US.
27 Sep 2012 - by GRID-Arendal
Soy Expansion in the Brazilian Amazon frontier
Often, small-scale farmers settle the areas along logging roads in order to burn secondary or cleared forest for crop production. These farmers are eventually pushed or bought-out by large-scale cattle ranchers or soy p...
27 Sep 2012 - by GRID-Arendal
Annual Value of Illegal Logging
The official value of the global wood trade has been estimated at around US $327 billion dollars (FAO, 2007; UNEP 2009). If illegal logging consists of as much as 10-30 per cent of the total logging worldwide, with some ...
27 Sep 2012 - by GRID-Arendal
Plantation in Indonesia: a new frontier in black wood laundering?
Much of the logging in Indonesia, takes place in association with the establishment of palm oil or other plantations. As the forest is cleared for plantations, it is common practic to cut beyond the plantation area, or t...
27 Sep 2012 - by GRID-Arendal
Illegal Timber from the Congo
Political economic networks often provide forceful drivers for small-scale illegal logging and timber trade. Many of these networks bring together not only powerful actors from the private sector but als government offic...
27 Sep 2012 - by GRID-Arendal
Illegal Logging and Log Laundering
A key element in illegal logging schemes is the laundering of the illegal timber and other wood products. This is the primary way that illegal logs are transported, processed and exported or manufactured, thereby bypassi...
27 Sep 2012 - by GRID-Arendal
By-passing flow of investment to illegal logging
The Norwegian sovereign wealth fund is an example of a governance mechanism employed in an attempt to limit investment in companies involved in illegal logging.
27 Sep 2012 - by GRID-Arendal
Black wood dependency
China is probably the largest importer of wood products with illegal origin. Other primary importers of illegal logs or wood products are Japan, the EU and the US.
27 Sep 2012 - by GRID-Arendal
Ten ways to conduct illegal logging
Illegal logging takes place in many forms, from illegal logging in protected areas or large-scale illegal logging without permits in remote areas, conflict zones and border areas, to adavanced laundering operations mixin...
04 Oct 2012 - by GRID-Arendal
Causes of illegal logging
There are many different causes of illegal logging. This model illustrates the causes of illegal logging in Indonesia.
27 Sep 2012 - by GRID-Arendal
Illegal Logging and the Congo Conflict
Illegal logging directly fuels many conflicts as timber is a resource available for conflict profiteers or to finance arms sales. Without public order, militants, guerillas or military units impose taxes on logging compa...
27 Sep 2012 - by GRID-Arendal
Illegal charcoal trade
Many protected areas are home to an abundance of rare wood species in high demand for panels, floors and furniture. They may also hold some of the last remaining concentrations of high density wood for charcoal.
27 Sep 2012 - by GRID-Arendal
The health of our forests
The importance of the world's forests to global efforts to reduce carbon emissions cannot be underestimated. While living forests are vital to reducing carbon levels in our atmosphere, deforestation accounts for an estim...
27 Sep 2012 - by GRID-Arendal
Illegal logging bottlenecks
Illegal timber has to be aggregated and funnelled by road or river transport to a limited number of destinations domestically or for export, which creates a bottleneck in the illegal trade.
27 Sep 2012 - by GRID-Arendal
Population density in the Hindu Kush Himalaya region (inhabitants per square kilometre)
The Hindu Kush Himalaya (HKH) region extends 3500 km over all or part of eight countries, ranging from Afghanistan in the west to Myanmar in the east. The total estimated population of the region is 210 million. The 10 r...
04 Jan 2012 - by Hugo Ahlenius, Nordpil
Multidimensional poverty index (MPI) for the countries in the Hindu Kush Himalaya region
The MPI is an index of acute multidimensional poverty. It shows the number of people who are multi-dimensionally poor. It reflects deprivations in very rudimentary services and core human functioning for people across 10...
02 Jul 2012 - by Hugo Ahlenius, Nordpil
Human development index (HDI) for the countries in the Hindu Kush Himalaya region, ordered by country ranking
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic used to rank countries by level of "human development" according to three dimensions: health, education, and living standards. It provides a frame of reference f...
02 Jul 2012 - by Hugo Ahlenius, Nordpil
Human development index (HDI) for the countries in the Hindu Kush Himalaya region
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic used to rank countries by level of "human development" according to three dimensions: health, education, and living standards. It provides a frame of reference f...
02 Jul 2012 - by Hugo Ahlenius, Nordpil
Cities in the Hindu Kush Himalaya region
The largest cities in the Hindu Kush Himalaya region number in the millions of inhabitants. The most populous cities include Khabul (Afghanistan), Kathmandu (Nepal), Srinagar (India), Peshawar (Pakistan), Quetta (Pakista...
02 Jul 2012 - by Hugo Ahlenius, Nordpil
Observed and predicted seasonal temperatures in northwest Mongolia
Herders note that autumn seems colder and longer. The winters are generally colder and have more snow, though 2011 had little snow compared to other years. Herders were not concerned about dzuds, or extreme winter weath...
24 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Climate change in Mongolia
Herders from both the East and the West Taiga are concerned about the environmental changes that are taking place in their homeland. They report that snow seems to take longer to melt during springtime. Summers see...
24 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Protected areas of Hovsgol aimag
Mongolia has made a number of international commitments to protect its biodiversity, including ratifying all major international biodiversity conventions. As of 2009, protected areas covered 14% of Mongolia, and the...
23 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Reindeer husbandry and political changes in Mongolia - A short history
Despite the changing political landscape of Mongolia over the last hundred years, the traditional reindeer herding system has been maintained. Nevertheless, recent political and economic transitions and upheavals hav...
23 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Semi-domesticated reindeer across Eurasia
Pastoralism, or extensive grazing on rangelands for livestock production, is a key production system of the world’s dryland areas. It provides a livelihood for between 100 and 200 million people (CBD Secretariat 2010), ...
24 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Mongolia
Mongolia geopolitical map
24 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Reindeer herding camps in the East Taiga A snapshot from 2011
Guided tours to the reindeer herders are an established tourist attraction promoted by national and international tourism companies. In the West Taiga, tourists stay in tourist camps established beside the Shishged ...
24 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Biomes and vegetation of Hovsgol aimag
Mongolia’s taiga is located at the southern edge of the biome in Eurasia. It is also the most southerly location of reindeer husbandry in the world. Mongolian reindeer husbandry occurs within the Shishged River wate...
23 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Survival probability in Odzala-Kokoua National Park
Ebola is a major threat particularly to the gorillas, with severe casualties following outbreaks. As these come in addition to deaths from poachers and habitat loss, the outbreaks can become detrimental.
09 Mar 2010 - by GRID-Arendal
Ratio of outer continental shelf over emerged land area
09 Mar 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Trends in Food prices
FAO Food Price Index
09 Mar 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius/GRID-Arendal
Water footprint
In the past decade the Asia-Pacific region has become the largest consumer of natural resources in the world. This includes water, raw materials and energy resources. Water resources are unevenly distributed in the r...
08 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Moving towards a low carbon green growth
Energy e ciency in Asia selected countries
09 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Industry water withdrawal
Water withdrawal by Industry sector in selected Asian countries
09 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Water supply and wastewater treatment
Average water consumption and water treatment facilities in selected Asian cities
09 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Recent flood events in the Hindu Kush-Himalaya region
Extreme vulnerability to natural hazards among countries in South Asia is cyclical and repeatedly causes major setbacks in the socioeconomic and equitable development of the region. According to UN estimates major d...
09 Mar 2012 - by GRID-Arendal
Millennium Development Goals Access to sanitation in Asia
Proportion of population using an improved sanitation facility in Asia
09 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Watering Green Growth in Asia
Ecological water footprint of Asian countries
09 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Protected areas and transboundary cooperation
Trans-boundary collaboration in parks in the greater Congo Basin.
08 Mar 2010 - by GRID-Arendal
Degree of protection of terrestrial ecoregions and large marine ecosystems
Degree of protection of terrestrial ecoregions and large marine ecosystems (per cent)
08 Mar 2009 - by Bounford.com and UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Bushmeat trade in Tshuapa-Lomami-Lualaba Region
Hunting inside protected areas to supply bush- meat is extensive in many regions, and much is transported by bicycle to i.e. larger towns like Kindu. The great apes, sometimes smoked, constitute up to several percent of ...
08 Mar 2010 - by GRID-Arendal
Re-infestation by 'Aedes aegypti'
Climate change affect the health of the population, not only through heat waves and waterborne diseases, but also as a result of the expansion of geographical areas conducive to the transmission of vector-borne diseases ...
08 Mar 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Ebola - A Central Africa decennal course, 1994-2003
Ebola epidemic outbreaks across the Congo Basin are a significant threat to gorillas, and also impact the few remaining populations less exposed to poaching and habitat loss.
08 Mar 2010 - by GRID-Arendal
Urban sprawl, Las Vegas
08 Mar 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Cheleken Peninsula pollution sources
Khazar (formerly Cheleken) is a town of 10 000 people (once 16 000), located on the Cheleken peninsula on the Caspian shore. Iron bromide (FeBr2) production started at the Cheleken plant in 1940, followed by iodine p...
08 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Urban development in Baku
The Azerbaijan capital Baku is the largest and fastest growing city with a population of over 2 million. The population has doubled in the last decade and may reach approximately 3.3 million by the year 2030 (UNPD 2005)...
07 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Ethnolinguistic groups in the Caspian basin
The Caspian region has plenty to choose from when exploring past and present civilizations and cultures, historical monuments and the beauty of its natural resources. With unspoilt beaches in the east and west, lush ...
07 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Sea level rise in Anzali Lagoon, Iran
Fluctuating water levels will affect the population of the coastline and can cause substantial economic damage if appropriate measurements are not taken. A rise in sea level of 1.2 metres would flood Anzali, an Irani...
07 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Human population growth rates, 1990–2000, and per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and biological productivity in 2000 in ecological systems
Millennium Assessment systems with the lowest net primary productivity and lowest GDP tended to have the highest population growth rates between 1990 and 2000. Urban, inland water, and marine systems are not included due...
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Net national savings in 2001 adjusted for investments in human capital, natural resource depletion, and damage caused by pollution compared with standard net national savings measurements
Positive values for national savings (expressed as a percent of gross national income) reflect a gain in wealth for a nation. Standard measures do not incorporate investments in human capital (in standard national accoun...
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Locations reported by various studies as undergoing high rates of land cover change in the past few decades
In the case of forest cover change, the studies refer to the period 1980–2000 and are based on national statistics, remote sensing, and to a limited degree expert opinion. In the case of land cover change resulting from ...
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal