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Human activities leading to coastal degradation Human activities leading to coastal degradation
Physical alteration and destruction of habitats are now considered one of the most important threats to coastal [and marine] areas. This graphic shows the extent to which twelve different human activities cause environmental degradation in estuaries, inter-tidal wetlands and the open ocean. The activities include the drainage of coastal ecosystems; the construction of dykes, dams and seawalls and the mining of wetlands.
17 May 2005 - by Delphine Digout, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Calcium levels in major rivers Calcium levels in major rivers
This graphic shows the average calcium levels, in milligrams per litre, at major river mouths for the time periods 1976 to 1990 and 1991 to 2000. The graphic also shows the changes in average calcium levels between these two time periods.
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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carbon_cycle carbon_cycle
About carbon_cycle
17 May 2005 - by Not specified
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Threats to the World's coral reefs Threats to the World's coral reefs
Major observed threats to the world's coral reefs include tourism, poison fishing, overexploitation, sedimentation, coral harvesting, dynamite fishing and pollution. This graphic explains which activities or conditions are affecting various coral reefs throughout the world. The graphic 'Major Threats to Reefs' shows the percentage of reefs that are threatened by overexploitation, coastal development, inland pollution and marine pollution, and the...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Trends and forecasts in water use, by sector Trends and forecasts in water use, by sector
Throughout the 20th century, global water use has increased in the agricultural, domestic and industrial sectors. Evaporation from reservoirs has increased at a slower rate. Projections indicate that both global water use and evaporation will continue to increase. This graphic shows water consumption, withdrawal and waste, in cubic kilometres per year, for the agricultural, domestic and industrial sectors, and shows evaporation from reservoirs. T...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Shrinking of the Aral Sea: socio-economic impacts Shrinking of the Aral Sea: socio-economic impacts
Over the past 30 years, the Aral Sea in the former Soviet Union has shrunk to less than half of its original size. This graphic shows the Aral Sea as it was in 1960 and as it appeared in 2001. It shows that a former fishing zone is now a dry zone affected by salination. Areas that were previously food crops (partly irrigated) are now cotton and rice crops, widely irrigated. Other changes include the replacement of fish exports with fish imports, ...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Urban water supply and wastewater on a shallow aquifer Urban water supply and wastewater on a shallow aquifer
This graphic shows the changes in water supply and wastewater disposal that occur through four stages of growth of a settlement: early settlement; the town becomes a city; the city expands and the city expands further. The changes include increased groundwater pollution and changes in pluvial drainage, the water table and wellfields.
17 May 2005 - by Delphine Digout, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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DPSIR framework for State of Environment Reporting DPSIR framework for State of Environment Reporting
The DPSIR framework (Driving Forces-Pressures-State-Impacts-Responses) is used to assess and manage environmental problems. Driving forces are the socio-economic and socio-cultural forces driving human activities, which increase or mitigate pressures on the environment. Pressures are the stresses that human activities place on the environment. State, or state of the environment, is the condition of the environment. Impacts are the effects of envi...
17 May 2005 - by Delphine Digout, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Global freshwater withdrawal: agricultural, industrial and domestic Use Global freshwater withdrawal: agricultural, industrial and domestic Use
This graphic makes it possible to compare water use by the agricultural, industrial and domestic sectors at the national level. The graphic indicates which sectors are the dominant and significant users of water in each country.
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Major river basins of the world Major river basins of the world
Rivers form a hydrological mosaic, with an estimated 263 international river basins covering 45.3% of the land surface area of the earth, excluding Antarctica. This graphic shows the locations of 26 of the world's major river basins. A basin is defined as the land area (watershed) where all surface water drains to a certain river.
01 Oct 2005 - by Delphine Digout, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Total global saltwater and freshwater estimates Total global saltwater and freshwater estimates
Estimates of global water resources based on several different calculation methods have produced varied estimates. This graphic illustrates the proportions of saltwater and freshwater that make up the earth's water resources. It also shows what percentage of the world's freshwater is located in lakes and river storage; in groundwater, including soil moisture, swamp water and permafrost, and in glaciers and permanent snow cover.
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Barents Region, topography and bathymetry Barents Region, topography and bathymetry
The Barents Region is in the Arctic and covers the area of Western Russia and the northern areas of Finland, Sweden and Norway. The Barents Sea has anaverage depth 230 m, bordered by the shelf edge towards the Norwegian Sea in the west, the island of Svalbard (Norway) in the northwest, and the islands of Franz Josef Land and Novaya Zemlya (Russia) in the northeast and east.
01 Jul 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Fiji, topographic map Fiji, topographic map
The Republic of Fiji is a small island country in the South Pacific Ocean. The country has a population of 850 000 people spread out over an archipelago of islands. The largest ones, Viti Levu and Vanua Leva houses the majority of the inhabitants.
04 Oct 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Barents Region, topography and bathmetry Barents Region, topography and bathmetry
The Barents region is in the Arctic and covers the area of Western Russia and the northern areas of Finland, Sweden and Norway. The Barents Sea has an average depth 230 m, bordered by the shelf edge towards the Norwegian Sea in the west, the island of Svalbard (Norway) in the northwest, and the islands of Franz Josef Land and Novaya Zemlya (Russia) in the northeast and east. (Please note that the The Barents Euro-Arctic Council has expanded the m...
04 Oct 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Tajikistan, topographic map Tajikistan, topographic map
Tajikistan is located in Central Asia, west of China, comprising of 143,100 sq km. It has a population of 7,163,506 (2005). Major environmental concerns are: inadequate sanitation facilities; increasing levels of soil salinity; industrial pollution; excessive pesticides.
04 Oct 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Arctic, topography and bathymetry (topographic map) Arctic, topography and bathymetry (topographic map)
The Arctic is extremely diverse in terms of landscapes, varying from pack and drift ice to rugged shores, flat coastal plains, rolling hills and mountains surpassing 6000 metres above sea level (Denali, 6,194 m asl, in sub-arctic and boreal Alaska). The region has rivers and lakes, tundra and the largest forests in the world (the Russian Taiga).
04 Oct 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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World ocean bathymetric map World ocean bathymetric map
The continental shelves, ridges and sea mounts are the most productive areas in terms of biodiversity, and is of highest importance for economic activities. It is also here that natural resources extraction - such as oil and gas - takes place. The largest expanses of ocean are vast plains of depths between 1500-5000 meters. The deepest areas are the trenches where the continental plates meet, such as the Marian Trench of the Pacific.
01 Feb 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Tanzania case study, locator map Tanzania case study, locator map
Tanzania case study, locator map
04 Oct 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Russian Federation, topographic map Russian Federation, topographic map
Russian Federation is located in Northern Asia (that part west of the Urals is included with Europe), bordering the Arctic Ocean, between Europe and the North Pacific Ocean, comprising of 17,075,200 sq km. It has a population of 143,420,309 (2005). Major environmental concerns are: air pollution from heavy industry, emissions of coal-fired electric plants, and transportation in major cities; industrial, municipal, and agricultural pollution of in...
14 Sep 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Arctic, topography and bathymetry (topographic map) Arctic, topography and bathymetry (topographic map)
The Arctic represents the northermost area of the World, the Arctic Ocean and the land areas that surrounds it. The region is characterized but cold temperatures, and ice and snow. The summers are short, but with long periods of daylight (midnight sun). The winters are long and cold and with periods with no sun (polar night). The Arctic Ocean is one basin that is mostly covered by sea ice, and is connected to the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. The ...
01 Oct 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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