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Coastal vulnerability and climate-related impacts
No data.
01 Feb 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Population growth in Sub-Saharan and Central Africa and Population density projection in Congo Basin
As populations are rapidly rising in the Greater Congo Basin, so is the pressure on great ape habitat, and even more, the numbers killed relative to the gorilla populations to supply bushmeat.
01 Feb 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Loss of biodiversity with continued agricultural expansion, pollution, climate change and infrastructure development
Figure 27: Loss of biodiversity with continued agricultural expansion, pollution, climate change and infrastructure development. (Source: GLOBIO; Alkemade et al., 2009).
01 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Protected areas and transboundary cooperation in Congo Basin countries
Trans-boundary collaboration in parks in the greater Congo Basin.
01 Feb 2009 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Small scale bioenergy applications - impacts on livelihood
Energy access is a primer for any type economic development. Nowhere is energy access a greater challenge than in areas and regions where the population lives in poverty. As illustrated, bioenergy can deliver considerabl...
29 Feb 2012 - by Nieves Lopez Izquierdo
World bioenergy technical potential in 2050
Studies indicate that global bioenergy use is approximately 10 percent of the global energy mix, with a growth rate of 1.3 percent per year. Future projections for the supply of bioenergy are shown in the figure. The ana...
01 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Energy costs in Bot Trang village, Cambodia
Over the past few years a small energy revolution has taken place in the village of Bot Trang in northwest Cambodia. Bot Trang is not on Cambodia’s national grid: in the old days Mr. Tham Bun Hak, a local farmer, would s...
29 Feb 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Biofuels production and forest area variation in selected countries
Gains and losses in forest area vary globally, and the impact divers greatly between the various crops used for biofuels. Forest-cover is enhanced through aorestation or by natural expansion, and reduced either by defor...
01 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Additional people at risk of hunger in 2020
Biofuels have been criticised for causing food insecurity, but many other factors often play a far more significant role than biofuels. But rapid, largescale growth in biofuel production without sufficient safeguards doe...
01 Mar 2012 - by Nieves Lopez Izquierdo
Impacts of first-generation biofuels on agricultural prices
This figure outlines possible scenarios for the impact of biofuels on agricultural prices and food security. Although there are several factors that affect agricultural prices, including seasonal variation, market spe...
29 Feb 2012 - by Nieves Lopez Izquierdo
Land required to drive 100 kilometres
The graphic compares different liquid biofuels and alternative drive systems such as an electric vehicle running on electricity produced from wind power.
29 Feb 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Potential risks of energy crop expansion on land access
Poor land tenure security due to lack of appropriate rules and processes, and biofuels production encroaching on land used by pastoralists or for cultural purposes affect local livelihoods and access to land, particu...
29 Feb 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Pressures on Ugandan forests
Recently Uganda has outlined its national strategy for bioenergy to contribute to increasing the renewable energy mix from 4 to 16 percent by 2017. Alongside the energy challenge, the country faces a number of other diff...
01 Oct 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Suitability by crop type in Uganda
Recently Uganda has outlined its national strategy for bioenergy to contribute to increasing the renewable energy mix from 4 to 16 percent by 2017. Several biofuel crops have been identified, including sugarcane, m...
01 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Potential biofuels output in Uganda
Recently Uganda has outlined its national strategy for bioenergy to contribute to increasing the renewable energy mix from 4 to 16 percent by 2017. Several biofuel crops have been identified, including sugarcane, m...
29 Feb 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Indirect land-use change induced by increased biofuels production
This figure indicates land requirements for biofuels production in response to current biofuels mandates. Depending on projected biofuels demand and available arable land, additional land requirements may exceed a natio...
29 Feb 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Potential biofuels production on abandoned agricultural land
Land-use planning is one strategy to manage competition for land and, at the same time, reduce environmental and social impacts. Assessment of land suitability and availability can identify both high-risk areas where...
29 Feb 2012 - by Nieves Lopez Izquierdo
Estimated feedstock efficiency and environmental impacts
The negative consequences of iLUC have been hotly debated. Recent debate has focused increasingly on a pragmatic approach to reducing the need for land, thereby reducing risks from direct and indirect changes in land...
29 Feb 2012 - by Nieves Lopez Izquierdo
Land required for biofuels by feedstock
When assessing the sustainability of biofuels within the context of conservation, comparison questions are important. What else can the land be used for? One option might be conservation, whereas another might be for...
29 Feb 2012 - by Nieves Lopez Izquierdo
Forest Carbon Sequestration
Converting land for biofuel production can cause biodiversity impacts in the short-term, but such conversion also aects the future resilience of natural ecosystems. In an extreme case, complete deforestation reduces...
01 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Impact of land conversion on biodiversity
The impacts of land conversion on biodiversity may be significant. The degree of impact relates to many factors, including where and how the bioenergy product is cultivated. This figure represent the short-term impact...
01 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Biodiversity in forests and oil palm plantations, South East Asia
01 Oct 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Biofuels crops and biodiversity
Biofuels pose several environmental and social risks. Therefore, to be truly a part of the green economy, biofuels need to comply with a set of safeguards along the entire production chain. Any bioenergy development ...
08 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Bioenergy from agriculture: factors related to biodiversity
The use of Genetically Engineered Crops (GECs) carries both potential benefits and risks. While it is recognised that they can help to introduce useful traits and increase productivity, there are also concerns about ...
29 Feb 2012 - by Nieves Lopez Izquierdo
Biofuels in China: crop production and water scarcity
In 2009 China produced 2 billion litres of biofuels, ranking the country third behind Brazil and the USA. The Chinese government has set ambitious targets seeing biofuels as not only contributing to the country’s rap...
29 Feb 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Nitrogen runo
Fertiliser and pesticides used to cultivate feedstocks, as well as contaminated effuents discharged from conversion plants, can cause increasing levels of pollution to waterways. This may constrain the growth of biofue...
01 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Agriculture in the Mississippi River Basin
Fertiliser and pesticides used to cultivate feedstocks, as well as contaminated effuents discharged from conversion plants, can cause increasing levels of pollution to waterways. This may constrain the growth of biofue...
01 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Agrochemical use in US agriculture
01 Oct 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Average water requirement for biofuels
The figure shows average water requirement for biofuels. Underlying data need to be interpreted in context. For example, rainfed jatropha is produced in Mali as a biofuel, which means that it receives less water than in ...
01 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Variation in blue water footprints for selected energy crops
Figure compares the water necessary to produce, transport, and convert a given crop into a fuel in two different regions. This shows important variations, and points to the need for careful matching of energy crops a...
01 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Estimated costs and benefits of restoration projects in different biomes
Biodiversity is the basis for any development; it is the natural capital, the stock of natural ecosystems, which provide services for any human activity. As pointed out above, the main immediate threat to biodiversity...
01 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Value of ecosystem services
Biodiversity is the basis for any development; it is the natural capital, the stock of natural ecosystems, which provide services for any human activity. As pointed out above, the main immediate threat to biodiversity fr...
01 Oct 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
CO2 emissions from land conversion for energy crops
The conversion of high carbon-storage ecosystems, such as tropical forest, savannah and peatland into biofuel plants, can neutralise any GHG emission reductions achieved by replacing fossil fuels with biofuels, and ev...
01 Mar 2012 - by Nieves Lopez Izquierdo
Ecosystem carbon payback time
The ‘carbon debt’ of biofuels is the number of years it can take to offset the carbon emissions generated by converting land for biofuels. It can take decades or centuries for some pathways to bounce back, depending on ...
01 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Key factors of the Brazilian biofuel sector
Brazil has gradually developed and established an ethanol industry and growing biodiesel sector, offering an example of how countries can develop ‘home-grown’ renewable energy sectors. This development has been facili...
01 Mar 2012 - by Nieves Lopez Izquierdo
Brazilian biofuels: infrastructure and crops
Brazil has gradually developed and established an ethanol industry and growing biodiesel sector, offering an example of how countries can develop ‘home-grown’ renewable energy sectors. This development has been facili...
01 Mar 2012 - by Nieves Lopez Izquierdo
From seed and soil to end use
As with every other energy source, biofuels entail some risks and should be assessed over their entire lifecycle. This graphic, From seed and soil to end use, tracks the lifecycle of liquid biofuels for use in the transp...
29 Feb 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Differentiation between crops, land-use and end-use efficiency
The energy gain from biofuels is often expressed as a ratio of biofuel energy output to fossil energy input. However, when considering which biofuels are the most efficient using this metric, allowance must also be m...
01 Mar 2012 - by Nieves Lopez Izquierdo
World biofuels production trends
Production trends indicate that the supply of both ethanol and biodiesel is steadily increasing, although the global ethanol market is more than four times larger than the global biodiesel market. Markets for both ar...
01 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Energy potential from one tonne input: organic matter and landfill material
Dierent biofuels pathways have dierent eciencies in the growth of feedstocks, conversion processes and end-uses. This chain of eciency pertaining to input and output needs to be considered in national planning pr...
01 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Global production of biofuels
Global production of biofuels. In 2009, liquid biofuels provided 2.7 percent of all global road transport fuels.
01 Mar 2012 - by Nieves Lopez Izquierdo
Global ethanol production
The snapshot of biofuel production in this figuere shows global ethanol production currently concentrated in two countries.
01 Mar 2012 - by Nieves Lopez Izquierdo
Global biodiesel production, 2009
Global biodiesel production in 2009.
01 Mar 2012 - by Nieves Lopez Izquierdo
Energy efficiency of fuels - how many kilometres can we drive ?
The picture shows energy efficiency of various fuels.
01 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Bioenergy, general concept
The development of biorefineries can greatly support efforts to increase resource efficiency. Biorefineries integrate biomass conversion processes and equipment to produce fuel, power, and chemicals from biomass. By p...
01 Mar 2012 - by Nieves Lopez Izquierdo
Wealth of nations and energy consumption
To date, energy use and economic growth have been closely linked. As figure shows, there is a linear relationship between energy consumption and wealth as measured in the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of nations.
01 Oct 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Green jobs
If properly planned and managed, biofuels can contribute to a number of policy objectives which support the development of the green economy. For example, because agriculture is labour-intensive, job opportunities c...
01 Mar 2012 - by Nieves Lopez Izquierdo
The enlarged biofuels family
Figure illustrates the various feedstocks, which can be converted to biofuels for transport. However, this represents only part of the larger bioenergy family, which covers liquid, solid and gaseous biofuels for differe...
01 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Savings in greenhouse gas emissions by fuel type
Biofuels, in the use phase, emit the carbon that has been previously absorbed during plant growth. Inputs during cultivation and conversion need to be accounted for. However, the bulk of GHG emissions are related to l...
01 Mar 2012 - by Nieves Lopez Izquierdo
Technical and sustainable biomass supply potentials and expected demand for biomass in 2050 (primary energy)
Technical and sustainable biomass supply potentials and expected demand for biomass in 2050 (primary energy).
01 Mar 2012 - by Nieves Lopez Izquierdo
Research budgets of CGIAR, Monsanto and NARS in South America
Agricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology (AKST) has the capacity to improve livelihoods, although effects have varied by region and social group. The ability to access and benefit from AKST is uneven, with industri...
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Public and private agriculture research and development spending by region, 2000
Investments in agricultural research and development (R&D) are still growing, but the growth rate declined during the 1990s. In addition, investment trends among countries have increasingly diverged. Investment in public...
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Fifty million climate refugees by 2010
Today we find a world of asymmetric development, unsustainable natural resource use, and continued rural and urban poverty. There is general agreement about the current global environmental and development crisis. It is ...
03 Jan 2008 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
Measures of Poverty: Hunger Density
Population Density of Children Age 0-5 Underweight (per square kilometer). Children are defined as underweight if their weight-for-age z-scores are more than two standard deviations (2 SD) below the median of the NCHS/CD...
03 Jan 2008 - by The Trustees of Columbia University in the City of New York
Measures of Poverty: Child Malnutrition - Latin America
Children are defined as underweight if their weight-for-age z-scores are more than two standard deviations (2 SD) below the median of the NCHS/CDC/WHO International Reference Population. There are serious problems of chi...
03 Jan 2008 - by Copyright 2005. The Trustees of Columbia University in the City of New York
Key relationships between future challenges and agricultural knowledge, science and technology (AKST) options for action
The general model has been to continuously innovate, reduce farm gate prices and externalize costs. This model drove the phenomenal achievements of AKST in industrial countries after WWII and the spread of the Green Revo...
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Measures of Poverty: Child Malnutrition - Asia
Children are defined as underweight if their weight-for-age z-scores are more than two standard deviations (2 SD) below the median of the NCHS/CDC/WHO International Reference Population. There is a high incidence of of m...
03 Jan 2008 - by The Trustees of Columbia University in the City of New York
Global soil degradation
In many parts of the world natural resources have been treated as though unlimited, and totally resilient to human exploitation. This perception has exacerbated the conflicting agricultural demands on natural capital, as...
03 Jan 2008 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
The percentage of agricultural work carried out by women compared with the percentage of female extension staff in selected African countries
Only 15% of the world’s agricultural public sector extension agents are women [Global 3]. Women's access to extension is limited by lack of access to membership in rural organizations which often channel or provide train...
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Global trends in cereal and meat production; total use of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers; increased use of irrigation; total global pesticides production
Production gains are attributed to improved crop varieties and livestock, soil management, improved access to resources (nutrients and water), infrastructure developments, policy initiatives, microfinance, education, bet...
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Global Ocean Acidification
As carbon concentrations in the atmosphere increase, so do concentrations in the ocean, with resultant acidification as a natural chemical process.
06 Oct 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Larimichthys polyactis Catch in early 2000s and predicted Catch Shift
(a) Current (early 2000s) and (b) climate-shifted distributions of the small yellow croaker Larimichthys polyactis (Sciaenidae). The climate-shifted distribution was predicted by a dynamic bioclimate envelope model descr...
06 Oct 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Seagrass
Distribution of the world's blue carbon sinks (seagrasses).
06 Oct 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Natural ecosystem conversion
It is clear that much land needs to be kept for agricultural use but it is also possible that the area required for food production will stabilize in the future.
03 Oct 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Human use and conversion of tropical forests
Tropical forests hold the largest terrestrial carbon store and are active carbon sinks. Reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation is a vital component of tackling dangerous climate change. In addition, tack...
27 May 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Jakobshavn Isbrae and ice fjord, showing locations of the calving ice front in years from 1851 to 2006, together with flow velocity observations
The glacier extends through the Illulisat Icefjord, surrounded by mountains. Icebergs calve off from the main glacier, pile up and block the fjord before being released into Qeqertarsuup Tunua (Disko) Bay and Davis Strai...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Maps of average sea ice extent in the Arctic summer (September) and winter (March), and in the Antarctic summer (February) and winter (September)
Passive microwave sensors on satellites have monitored the extent of the sea ice cover since 19782. This technique is widely used to investigate fluctuations in ice extent over the seasons, variability between years, and...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Estimates of people flooded in coastal areas in the 2080s as a result of sea-level rise and for given socio-economic scenarios and protection responses
The lines represent IPCC Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) based on different world views. The differences in impacts between the SRES scenarios for the same amount of sea-level rise and protection response re...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Climate feedbacks - the connectivity of the positive ice/snow albedo feedback, terrestrial snow and vegetation feedbacks and the negative cloud/radiation feedback
Feedback refers to the modification of a process by changes resulting from the process itself. Positive feedbacks accelerate the process, while negative feedbacks slow it down. Part of the uncertainty around future clima...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Ratio of wastewater treatment
The ratio of treated to untreated wastewater reaching water bodies for 10 regions. An estimated 90 per cent of all wastewa- ter in developing countries is discharged untreated directly into rivers, lakes or the oceans (U...
01 Mar 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal, Hugo Ahlenius
Keylinks
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Radiation from Chernobyl
What do the Chernobyl disaster, the Three Gorges dam in China and the spread of the Sahel have in common? In each case natural and manmade influences have forced thousands, sometimes millions of people, to leave their la...
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Sanitation Opyions
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Thermohaline Circulation
If the large-scale ocean circulation is disturbed by processes altering heat and salinity in the Arctic Ocean, the consequences may be felt worldwide. The mechanism involved is the world-encompassing meridional overturni...
27 Oct 2009 - by Laura Margueritte
Observed Distribution of Permafrost Types
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27 Oct 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal