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Fertilizer use and nitrogen release in the Mediterranean region Fertilizer use and nitrogen release in the Mediterranean region
Agriculture is the largest non-point source of pollutants in the Mediterranean (UNEP/MAP 2011). Agriculture-related nutrients enter the sea through groundwater, lakes, wetlands, and rivers. Nitrogen consumption per surface unit of arable land is highest in countries of the northern watershed, with the exception of Bosnia-Herzegovina and Albania. In contrast, point-source release is highest on the eastern coast of the Adriatic. Other point sou...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Sources of emissions of nutrients in the Mediterranean region, 2008 Sources of emissions of nutrients in the Mediterranean region, 2008
Nutrients in seawater present a paradox. Nutrients are, of course, essential for life. In the oligotrophic environment of the Mediterranean, the ecosystems with the most nutrients are generally the most productive and diverse. At the same time, many Mediterranean nearshore areas are threatened by nutrient over-enrichment due to coastal and watershed development. Many developed coastal areas suffer particularly from increased influx of dissolve...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Sea surface temperature increase Sea surface temperature increase
Climate change accelerates the rates of hydrologically-influenced degradation and can compound its impacts. According to CIESM, Western Mediterranean waters are experiencing a substantial warming trend (+0,2°C in last ten years), which could have a drastic impact on species adapted to more uniform temperatures, especially deeper water organisms accustomed to a near-constant temperature of 13°C.
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Sea level variations in the Mediterranean Sea level variations in the Mediterranean
Sea level is rising significantly in the Eastern Mediterranean, with an average 12 cm rise registered on the Levantine coast since 1992. However, causes are not yet known, and a cause-effect relationship with climate change has not yet been established.
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Demersal destructive fishing in the Mediterranean Sea Demersal destructive fishing in the Mediterranean Sea
Fishing is one of the major contributors to habitat damage in the Mediterranean Sea. Most of this damage comes from trawling operations. Since fishing is most intense in the Western Mediterranean, it is not surprising that impacts on marine habitats are particularly severe there (UNEP/MAP 2012). Benthic, or sea-bottom, habitats and the communities associated with them are especially vulnerable.
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Aquaculture in the Mediterranean and Black seas Aquaculture in the Mediterranean and Black seas
Aquaculture is the fastest growing food sector in the world, with about one-third of global fish consumption coming from farmed fish.More than half of aquaculture production in the Mediterranean comes from western European countries (58 %).
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Aquaculture production in the Mediterranean Aquaculture production in the Mediterranean
Aquaculture is the fastest growing food sector in the world, with about one-third of global fish consumption coming from framed fish. Although the Mediterranean region has a long history of fish farming, aquaculture and particularly mariculture have undergone a dramatic expansion since the 1990s. Decreasing wild fish stocks, combined with increasing consumer demand for fish, have spurred growth of the industry.
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Mediterranean Sea fish landings Mediterranean Sea fish landings
Total fish landings increased exponentially from 1950 to 1980, with current production fluctuating around 800.000 tonnes annually (Garcia 2011) during the last three decades. Of that total, 85 % comes from six countries: Italy, Turkey, Greece, Spain, Tunisia and Algeria (UNEP/MAP 2012).
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Non-indigenous species over the 20th Century Non-indigenous species over the 20th Century
Both the number and rate of non-indigenous introductions to the Mediterranean have been increasing in recent years (UNEP/ MAP 2009). Currently, about a thousand non-indigenous aquatic species have been identified in the Mediterranean Sea, with a new species being introduced roughly every ten days. About 500 of these species are well-established; many others are one-off observations (UNEP/MAP 2012). In addition, there are also terrestrial no...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Non-indigenous species Non-indigenous species
Maritime transportation and aquaculture are the main ways non-indigenous species enter the Western Basin of the Mediterranean. Migration through the Suez Canal is responsible for most non-indigenous species in the Eastern Basin.
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Major types of marine litter in the Mediterranean Major types of marine litter in the Mediterranean
A large proportion of marine litter is plastics (UNEP 2009). The impact of large plastic material on the environment has been widely studied. Effects include entanglement of marine animals in plastic and ingestion of plastic by marine organisms.
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Oil spilled in the Mediterranean Oil spilled in the Mediterranean
The Eastern Mediterranean accounts for two-thirds of the total quantity spilled in the last decade. If the Lebanese spill of 2006 is taken out of the calculations, the Western Mediterranean, Central Mediterranean, and Eastern Mediterranean spilled roughly the same quantities (between 4.000 and 6.000 tonnes), while less than 100 tonnes was spilled in the Adriatic, according to the information made available to REMPEC.
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Possible oil slicks detected by satellites Possible oil slicks detected by satellites
Illicit vessel discharges can be detected using satellite images, allowing the estimation of the spatial distribution of oil-spill density and the identification of hot spots (Abdulla and Linden 2008). This provides evidence that the distribution of oil spills is correlated with the major shipping routes, along the major west-east axis connecting the Straits of Gibraltar through the Sicily Channel and the Ionian Sea with the different distributio...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Mean concentrations of trace metals and Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) Mean concentrations of trace metals and Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)
The term trace metal is used here for potentially toxic metals that persist in the environment, bioaccumulate in human and animal tissues, and biomagnify in food chains. Metals and organometallic compounds are commonly included in emission inventories and monitoring networks, specially mercury, cadmium and lead. Urban and industrial wastewaters, atmospheric deposition and run-off from metal contaminated sites constitute the major sources of toxic...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Wastewater treatment in the Mediterranean coastal cities Wastewater treatment in the Mediterranean coastal cities
The distribution of coastal cities that either lack wastewater treatment facilities or have inadequate treatment facilities (defined as those removing less than 70 to 90 % of the Bio-chemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)) can be used as a proxy to identify areas where potentially deleterious amounts of organic matter are being added to the marine environment. Effective removal of pollutants from wastewater is achieved through secondary treatment that rem...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Organic water pollutants from point sources Organic water pollutants from point sources
Organic-matter pollution in industrial wastewater was documented by MED POL through an inventory of industrial point sources of pollution in 2003. The areas with the highest Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) are the southern shore of the Western Basin, the eastern coast of the Adriatic, the Aegean and the northeastern sector of the Levantine Basin. These regions, in general, also have insufficient sewage wastewater treatment facilities. This indic...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Environmental hotspots on the Mediterranean coast Environmental hotspots on the Mediterranean coast
A graphic overview identifying the environmental hotspots and ares of major environmental concern on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea.
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Chlorinated pesticides and HCB/PCBs releases by sector, 2008 Chlorinated pesticides and HCB/PCBs releases by sector, 2008
HCB and PCBs are mostly released as unwanted by-products in the cement and metal industry, while chlorinated pesticides are emitted by the organic chemical industry, or by wastewater treatment plants, which may collect pesticides contained in sewage and runoff waters.
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Major industrial sectors emitting metals in the Mediterranean region Major industrial sectors emitting metals in the Mediterranean region
In the Mediterranean countries, according to the National Baseline Budget (NBB) inventory, atmospheric emissions of metals are mostly related to the cement industry (Hg, Cu), production of energy (As, Cd, Ni) and the metal industry (Pb, Zn). Water releases appear to be mostly related to the fertiliser industry (Hg, As, Pb), metal industry (Ni, Zn) and wastewater treatment plants (Cd, Cu), with important contributions also from the energy sec...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Coastal transport infrastructure in the Mediterranean Coastal transport infrastructure in the Mediterranean
With regards to the coastal zone the development of maritime transport is inherently linked to the development of coastal infrastructures such as ports and motorways and railways connecting inland areas to the ports. The development of large logistic coastal infrastructures brings, amongst others, fragmentation of coastal landscapes and habitats, changes in the land use and increased pollution loads
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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