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Population growth Population growth
The population in Latin America and the Caribbean grew by 85 percent between 1970 and 2001, from 285 million to about 528 million. In the same time, the annual growth rates fell from 2.5 percent to 1.5 percent, which is largely due to high level of urbanization, improvements in birth control programmes and social development factors.
17 May 2005 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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CO2 emissions in the world and in Latin America and the Caribbean CO2 emissions in the world and in Latin America and the Caribbean
A comparison between the amount of CO2 emissions of the world and latin America and the Caribbean. Since pre-industrial times, the atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases has grown significantly. The present level of carbon dioxide concentration (around 375 parts per million) is the highest for 420,000 years, and probably the highest for the past 20 million years. CO2 is the greenhouse gas that contributes most to the enhanced greenhouse e...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Quick retreat of the Santa Rosa glacier, Peru Quick retreat of the Santa Rosa glacier, Peru
Several mountain glaciers now disappear at a frightening rate as in the Santa Rosa glacier of Peru. A warmer climate often leads to increased precipitation. Much of the increased precipitation comes as rain instead of snow, mostly in the winter and to a lesser extent during the autumn and the spring. The winter rains fall over existing snow, causing increased melting. As the ice and snow cover is reduced, the albedo of the area is reduced as we...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Trends and projections in carbon dioxide emissions Trends and projections in carbon dioxide emissions
Historic emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) for Latin America and the Caribbean 1970-2000 with projections up to 2030 using two different scenarios.
17 May 2005 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Regional differences in CO2 emissions Latin America and the Caribbean Regional differences in CO2 emissions Latin America and the Caribbean
Compares the total amounts of CO2 emissions from the three main regions within Latin America and the Caribbean. CO2 emissions in the region vary considerably. The highest emissions come from South America, while the lowest and relatively more stable emissions come from the Caribbean. Between 1990 and 2000, CO2 emissions from South America increased by more than 40%, mainly because of increased emissions from transportation, industry and electri...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Top 10 CO2 emitting countries in 2000; Latin America and the Caribbean Top 10 CO2 emitting countries in 2000; Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil is the world’s second largest emitter of carbon dioxide (CO2) from land use change. Only Indonesia emits more. In 2000 CO2 emissions from land use change in Brazil represented 18% of the world’s total emissions. The per capita emissions from land use change in Brazil are 6 times higher than the world average. Most of the land use change emissions in Brazil are caused by the massive logging of its rainforest. The per capita emissions of C...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Mass balance of the Antisana glacier (Ecuador) versus ENSO variability index Mass balance of the Antisana glacier (Ecuador) versus ENSO variability index
Time series 1995-200 with ENSO index vs glacier.
17 May 2005 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Tropical hydropower dams as greenhouse sources Tropical hydropower dams as greenhouse sources
Large tropical hydropower reservoirs in Latin America may have a potential adverse impact on the climatic system through releasing greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Submerging large areas of land and tropical vegetation under water and fluctuations in water level promote physical-chemical processes that decompose the organic matter and generate methane and carbon dioxide emissions. In the initial years of operation, emission levels are especi...
17 May 2005 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Projected changes in maize crops, Venezuela Projected changes in maize crops, Venezuela
Agriculture is a key sector in the region’s economy and it employs an important proportion of the economically active population. Climate change could adversely affect Latin American agricultural regions, especially tropical Latin America, by reducing the amount of land available for cultivation due to increased risk of desertification, and by decreasing yields, especially on rain fed lands due to changes in climatic patterns. The dry land in the...
06 Nov 2005 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Retreat of the ice cap on the Volcano Nevado Santa Isabel (Colombia) Retreat of the ice cap on the Volcano Nevado Santa Isabel (Colombia)
Shows the retreat of the glacier on the volcano Nevado Santa Isabel and the correlation of global warming. With spectacular mountain peak glaciers melting away, the area becomes less attractive to tourists. In addition, the local forestry and agricultural fertility suffer.
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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CO2 emissions per person in Latin America and the Caribbean compared to the world and OECD average emissions CO2 emissions per person in Latin America and the Caribbean compared to the world and OECD average emissions
Emissions of greenhouse gases are on the increase around the world, contributing to man-made global warming and climate change. This graphic displays greenhouse gas emissions per capita in Latin America and the Caribbean compared to countries in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Brazilian alcohol transport fleet and regional climate benefits Brazilian alcohol transport fleet and regional climate benefits
In Brazil there are noticeable benefits for using alcohol as a fuel over traditional gasoline. This graphic illustrates the reduction in use of fossil fuels (gasoline) in favor of ethanol/alcohol. This has lead to a reduction in emissions of CO2 emissions, as illustrated by the bottom chart.
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Major CH4 emitting countries in Latin America and caribbean Major CH4 emitting countries in Latin America and caribbean
Shows the main producers of CH4 from countries in Latin America and the Caribbean and the source of the emissions. Brazil, a leading cattle-ranching country, has the highest methane emission level in the region and is one of the world’s biggest emitters of methane (CH4). Most of the methane emissions in the region are generated by agriculture.
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Use of renewables and combustible waste for energy production in 2001; Latin America and the Caribbean Use of renewables and combustible waste for energy production in 2001; Latin America and the Caribbean
Approximately 12 % of the world’s energy supply comes from renewable energy sources (biomass, waste and other renewables, excluding hydropower). The average renewable share in Latin America is higher than the world average,. But even if the energy supply from renewables will increase in Latin America, the percentage share of renewables of total energy supply is projected to decrease in the years to come. (World Energy Outlook 2004). Latin Ameri...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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N2O emissions in 2000; Latin America and selected countries N2O emissions in 2000; Latin America and selected countries
Since pre-industrial times, the atmospheric concentration of nitrous oxide (N2O) has increased by 16%. Nitrous oxide is a greenhouse gas that has a global warming potential that is 296 times stronger than CO2. In 2000 the total world N2O emissions were estimated at 3,400 million tonnes of CO2 equivalents. In South America the emissions of N2O per capita was almost twice the world average, while the emissions of N2O per capita emissions in Centra...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Sea level rise due to the melting of mountain and subpolar glaciers Sea level rise due to the melting of mountain and subpolar glaciers
Oceans change as a result of the impact of climatic variability on glaciers and ice caps that further contributes to fluctuation sin sea leve. Observational and modelling studies of glaciers and ice caps indicate an average sea level increase of 0.2 to 0.4 mm/yr during the 20th century. Since the Last Glacial Maximum about 20,000 years ago, sea level has risen by over 120 m at locations far from present and former ice sheets, as a result of los...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Cooling factors Cooling factors
The amount of aerosols in the air has direct effect on the amount of solar radiation hitting the Earth's surface. Aerosols may have significant local or regional impact on temperature. Water vapour is a greenhouse gas, but at the same time the upper white surface of clouds reflects solar radiation back into space. Albedo - reflections of solar radiation from surfaces on the Earth - creates difficulties in exact calculations. If e.g. the polar ice...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Global atmospheric concentration of CO2 Global atmospheric concentration of CO2
Atmospheric CO2 has increased from a pre-industrial concentration of about 280 ppmv to about 367 ppmv at present (ppmv= parts per million by volume). CO2 concentration data from before 1958 are from ice core measurements taken in Antarctica and from 1958 onwards are from the Mauna Loa measurement site. The smooth curve is based on a hundred year running mean. It is evident that the rapid increase in CO2 concentrations has been occurring since the...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Freshwater stress Freshwater stress
Today, the great pressure on water resources is rising human populations, particularly growing concentrations in urban areas. This diagram shows the impact of expected population growth on water usage by 2025, based on the UN mid-range population projection. It uses the current rate of water use per person without taking into account possible increases in water use due to economic growth or improvements in water use efficiency. The regions most v...
07 Nov 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Planets and atmospheres Planets and atmospheres
A planet's climate is decided by its mass, its distance from the sun and the composition of its atmosphere. Mars is too small to keep a thick atmosphere. Its atmosphere consists mainly of carbon dioxide, but the atmosphere is very thin. The atmosphere of the Earth is a hundred times thicker.
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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