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SLCP Control Measures
16 cost effective control measures involving technologies and practices that already exist and could significantly reduce SLCP emissions. If implemented globally, these measures could reduce global methane emissions by 4...
20 Jun 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)
HFCs are man-made fluorinated greenhouse gases rapidly building up in the atmosphere. They are used as replacements for ozone-depleting substances (ODS) in air conditioning, refrigeration, foam-blowing, fire retardants, ...
19 Jun 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Tropospheric Ozone (O3)
Tropospheric Ozone (O3) is a major air and climate pollutant. It causes warming and is a highly reactive oxidant, harmful to crop production and human health. O3 is known as a `secondary´ pollutant because it is not emit...
19 Jun 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Methane (CH4)
Approximately 60% of methane is emitted from human activities. Methane is one of the most significant drivers of climate change, as well as the main precursor of tropospheric ozone, a powerful greenhouse gas and air poll...
20 Jun 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Black Carbon (BC) and Co-pollutants from Incomplete Combustion
Black carbon (or soot) particles are formed from the incomplete combustion of biomass and fossil fuels. It is a powerful climate forcer and dangerous air pollutant. BC and co pollutants make up the majority of PM2.5 air ...
20 Jun 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
What are Short-Lived Climate Pollutants?
SLCPs are substances with a relatively short lifetime in the atmosphere – a few days to a few decades – and a warming effect on near term climate. The main SLCPs are BC, CH4, tropospheric O3, and many HFCs. A reduction i...
20 Jun 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
The SLCP Opportunity - Benefits of Control Measures
A number of available mitigation options have been identified that if rapidly implemented have the potential to deliver rapid multiple benefits for human well-being by improving air quality and reducing near term global ...
19 Jun 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
The SLCP Challenge
SLCPs are responsible for a substantial fraction of near term climate change, with a particularly large impact on sensitive regions of the world, and have significant detrimental health, agricultural and environmental im...
19 Jun 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Time to act
Short-lived climate pollutants are everywhere in our lives. They are impacting the climate system and the quality of our air. It is time to act against these pollutants and deliver near term and multiple benefits for hum...
22 May 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
GOODS bioregions abyssal
Abyssal provinces bioregions. Depth range 3500 to 6500 metres.
20 Jun 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Examples of exploration tools
Exploration for ferromanganese crusts involves the identification, delineation and evaluation of deep sea mineral resources and generally requires sophisticated, multipurpose research vessels using advanced technologies ...
20 Jun 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Key element of marine reserve design
The hey design elements of marine reserves listed by the partnership for Interdisciplinary Studies of Coastal Oceans (PISCO 2007) provide a useful starting point for considering marine spatial planning and MPA planning.
20 Jun 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Sea-floor ferromanganese crust mining system and related sources of potential environmental impact.
The operation of sea-floor production tools will increase levels of introduced noise, vibration, and light. There can be direct damage to other animals, sessile benthic fauna will be particularly vulnerable.
20 Jun 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
List of potential studies
List of potential studies that may be required to define the environment prior to development. Note that this is not an exhaustive list.
12 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Relative abundance of megafanual taxa
Relative abundance of megafaunal taxa (number of animals per hectare) from the different substrate types sampled during Japan-SOPAC surveys.
12 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Cobalt-rich crust
A generalized schematic of biological characteristics associated with ferromanganese crust on a seamount in the Pacific (with reference to Fukushima 2007 and Clark et al. 2011b).
12 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
GOODS bioregions bathyal
Lower bathyal provinces. Depth range 800 to 3000 metres.
12 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Concentration of cobalt, nickel, and other metals of potential economic importance in ferromanganese crusts
Cobalt, the trace metal of greatest economic interest, can be up to 2 per cent, but usually averages 0.5 to 0.8 per cent by weight. Ferromanganese crusts contain, among other metals, the highest concentrations of the r...
20 Jun 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Concentration of iron and manganese in deep sea crusts
Concentration of iron and manganese in ferromanganese crusts.
12 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Formation of Fe-Mn crusts
A wide array of metals and elements dissolved in ocean water are adsorbed (meaning to adhere to a surface) in large quantities onto the manganese and iron oxides. The main source of nearly all metals dissolved in seawa...
20 Jun 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Location of Seamounts
n the Pacific Ocean there are more than 11,000 seamounts (57% of the global total) and 41 000 knolls, and many more might exist in uncharted waters. Many seamounts are within the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZs) of Pacific...
20 Jun 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Participating Pacific Island States
The Pacific ACP States (i.e., Africa-Caribbean-Pacific Group of States) participating in the European-Union-funded SPC Deep Sea Minerals Project.
12 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
The road from exploration to exploitation
Environmental impact assessment and environmental permitting process considerations – an example from Papua New Guinea.
12 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Gifford Guyot, Tasman Sea, southwest Pacific Ocean
This multibeam sonar image was collected in 2007 aboard the RV Tangaroa during a Geoscience Australia marine survey. The flat top of the guyot is about 250 m deep.
12 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Potential structure of a mineral fund
A simplified structure of a natural resources fund, its actors and functions.
12 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Yearly revenue vs. withdrawal with PIH
Yearly revenue vs. withdrawal with permanent-income hypothesis (PIH).
12 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Fiscal Progressivity
This figure shows the contribution of three different fiscal elements to the fiscal burden on a mining project: corporate income tax, additional profits tax, and royalty. The burden is measured in terms of state take (y-...
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Key governance principles for sustainability
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Signatories to the Noumea Convention
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
The social licence
Model of a social licence to operate: levels granted by community.
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
The Bismarck-Solomon Sea region
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Deep sea mining life cycle
Deep sea mining lifecycle - key stages and impacts.
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Difference between EIA and SEA
Environmental impact assessment (EIA) and strategic environmental assessment (SEA) as part of a decision-making process.
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Benefit-cost analysis
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Balancing the three capitals
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Natural, economic, and social capital
The three capitals of a green economy.
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Building blocks of an inclusive Green Economy
Principles of a green economy.
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
World oceans, a cornucopia of goods and services N Source: GRID-Arendal
Marine ecosystem services.
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Metal price volatility
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Worldwide progression of water depth capabilities for offshore drilling and production
Worldwide progression of water depth capabilities for offshore drilling and production (as of March 2011).
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Pacific Islands states physical and economic size
Pacific Island states: economic indicators.
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Top 40 net assets, market capitalization
Top 40 mining companies’ net assets as percentage of market capitalization (PWC 2012).
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Less copper, more waste
Increase in mine waste associated with lower ore grades (Mudd et al 2013).
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Average ore grades over time
Declining average ore grades (Mudd et al 2013).
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Declining copper ore grades
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Steel intensity and GDP 1900 - 2011
Relationship between steel production and GDP. Steel intensity for China is yet to peak (Rio Tinto 2012).
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
World population growth, 1950-2050
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Environmental Information
Environmental information required by the ISA to establish environmental baselines.
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Mining Code
Regulations on prospecting, exploration, and extraction developed by the International Seabed Authority.
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
The International Seabed Authority governance structure
The primary policy-making organ of the Authority is the Assembly, comprising all members (that is, all of the countries that have signed UNCLOS, which includes all of the Pacific ACP States). Executive authority is vest...
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Potential Extended Continental Shelf in the Paci
Maritime jurisdiction and extended continental shelf submissions of Pacific Island states.
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Payment scheme
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Maritime sovereignty
Maritime zones and rights under the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). M = nautical miles.
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
History of UNCLOS
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Participating Pacific Island States
The Pacific Island states participating in the SOPAC/SPC Deep Sea Minerals Project.
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Pilot Area Bathymetry
Bathymetric map of pilot area showing observed nodule abundance.
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Key elements of marine reserve design
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Example of a sea-floor manganese nodule mining system and related sources of potential environmental impact
Example of a sea-floor manganese nodule mining system and related sources of potential environmental impact. Note that while mineral processing (concentrating) is part of the minerals life cycle, it is not specific to de...
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Examples of exploration tools.
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Depth region of potential nodule development
Sea-floor bathymetric map showing where manganese nodules might occur in the Pacific ACP States region. Manganese nodules occur at depths of 4 000 to 6 500m, indicated by dark green in this map.
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Participating Pacific Island States
The Pacific ACP States (i.e., Africa-Caribbean-Pacific Group of States) participating in the European-Union-funded SPC Deep Sea Minerals Project.
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Studies that may be required to define the environment prior to development
Studies that may be required to define the environment prior to development. Note that this is not an exhaustive list.
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Size of life in the deep oceans
Faunal size classes routinely found on the abyssal plain.
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Links between abyssal benthic ecosystems and particulate organic matter
Links between abyssal benthic ecosystems and particulate organic matter. Regression relationships demonstrating the strong dependence of abyssal benthic ecosystem structure and function on the level of particulate organi...
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Habitats and biodiversity in nodule regions
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Sources of cobalt production
Current sources of cobalt. After Wilburn 2012.
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Increasing land-based cobalt production
Increase in cobalt production. (Wilburn 2012).
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Cobalt metal prices between 1976 and 2013
Global cobalt prices 1976-2011.
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Metal tonnages in nodules from the Cook Islands compared to global reserves
Current estimates of Cook Islands manganese nodules compared to global reserves. In-place tonnage of cobalt, nickel, copper, and manganese in Cook Islands nodules and a comparison with global land-based reserves and glob...
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Concentration of nickel and other metals of potential economic importance in deep sea nodules
Concentrations of metals other than iron and manganese. Concentrations are shown in gm/t in nodules from three different nodule regions.
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Concentration of iron and manganese in deep sea nodules
Varying percentages of iron and manganese in nodules from different environments. The iron/manganese ratio is controlled by the ratio of hydrogenetic/diagenetic input and whether or not the sediments involved in diagenes...
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Physical characteristics of manganese nodules
Manganese nodules come in many shapes and sizes. They can be round, oblong, composite, or flat. Their shape can be influenced by the shape of the nucleus, the water content of the surrounding sediment, growth rates, and ...
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Average abundance of nodules
Current estimates of average nodule abundance in four major locations.
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Cobalt, the target mineral for Cook Islands
Current estimated average concentration of various metals in nodules from the Cook Islands
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Nodules in the South Pacific
Location of nodule zones in Oceania.
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Growth age and growth rate of nodules.
Growth age versus cumulative growth rate (left) and growth rate versus model age(right) in nodules from the Campbell Nodule Field, New Zealand. Extrapolated ages are based on measured 10Be/9Be ratios and the extrapolate...
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Formation environment for manganese nodules
This process takes place in water depths of 4 000 to 6 500 metres.
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
The road from exploration to exploitation
Permitting process - note these requirements are used as an example of the permitting process. Manganese nodule exploration and exploitation would require a different permitting process, which could also be multi leveled...
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Participating Pacific Island States
The Pacific ACP States (i.e., Africa-Caribbean-Pacific Group of States) participating in the European-Union-funded SPC Deep Sea Minerals Project.
03 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Location of Pual Ridge and SuSu Knolls as well as SMS deposits in the eastern Manus Basin
Inset shows location of the eastern Manus Basin in relation to major plate tectonic structures.
03 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Basics of a hydrothermal vent - a Black Smoker
Seawater percolates through the sea floor and is modified by chemical exchange with the surrounding rocks and rising magmatic fluid. The altered seawater is released back into the ocean at the vent site and forms a hydro...
03 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Global distribution of hydrothermal vent fields
Confirmed vents are those where hydrothermal activity has been observed at the sea floor. The unconfirmed sites are inferred to be active based on plume surveys.
03 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Distribution of known SMS occurrences
Distribution of known sea-floor massive sulphide occurrences in different environments.
03 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Geochemistry of massive sulphides in various tectonic settings
Concentrations of copper, zinc, and lead in sea-floor massive sulphides formed in different geological settings.
03 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Chemoautotrophic symbiotic relationships
These relationships are similar to the symbiosis between shallow-water reef corals and their photosynthesizing algae. Like some species of corals, which must be exposed to sunlight to reap the benefits of their algal pa...
03 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
The road from exploration to exploitation
Environmental impact assessment and environmental permitting process considerations – an example of a permitting process for a proposed SMS project.
03 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Deep sea mining
Example of a sea-floor massive sulphide mining system and related sources of potential environmental impact.
03 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal