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Zambezi River Basin electrical infrastructure
The estimated hydropower potential of the Zambezi River is in the order of 20 000 MW of which only 4 684 MW has been developed (Hirji et al. 2002). About 40 possible new hydropower plants with a total installation capaci...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Map of Zimbabwe
Total Area of Country: 390 759 sq km Portion of Country within Zambezi Basin: 215 800 (55.2%) National Population in 2010: 13.5 million Portion of National Population within Zambezi Basin: 9 059 850 (67.11%) Zimbab...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Protected area share of total land area in Zimbabwe
The Government of Zimbabwe has maintained the size of protected areas since 1990 at 46 504 sq km, which is 12 per cent of the national surface area.
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Map of Zambia
Total Area of Country: 752 614 sq km Portion of Country within Zambezi Basin: 577 900 (76.8%) National Population in 2010: 13 million Portion of National Population within Zambezi Basin: 8 517 600 (65.52%) Zambia i...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Protected ares share of total land area in Zambia
Zambia has the highest proportion of protected areas to total surface area among Basin states, at 236 921 sq km, or 31 per cent.
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Deforestation in Zambezi Basin Countries
There is a growing body of evidence that the rate and extent of deforestation contribute to climate change in the Basin (SARDC and HBS 2010). The major causes of deforestation in the Basin are agricultural expansion, fue...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Forest cover in Zambezi Basin Countries
The figure shows the changes in area covered by forest in the individual countries over the years.
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Map of Tanzania
Total Area of Country: 945 087 sq km Portion of Country within Zambezi Basin: 27 300 (2.9%) National Population in 2010: 42 million Portion of National Population within Zambezi Basin: 1 646 400 (03.92%) The United...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Protected areas share of total land area in Namibia
Despite the arid climate, Namibia is home to abundant bio-diversity, including unique desertadapted ecological communities, mega fauna, and productive coastal fisheries. Namibia has one of the largest remaining populatio...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Map of Mozambique
Total Area of Country: 799 390 sq km Portion of Country within Zambezi Basin: 163 800 (20.5%) National Population in 2010: 22.4 million Portion of National Population within Zambezi Basin: 5 185 600 (23.15%) Mozamb...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Protected areas share of total land area in Mozambique
The extent of protected areas has risen slightly from 66 020 at the end of the war in 1992 to 67 300 by 2001, amounting to eight per cent of the total surface area as shown in this figure.
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Map of Malawi
Total Area of Country: 118 484 sq km Portion of Country within Zambezi Basin: 110 700 (93.4%) National Population in 2010: 13.9 million Portion of National Population within Zambezi Basin: 13 050 000 (96.67%) Malaw...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Protected areas share of total land area in Malawi
The extent of protected land area in Malawi has remained at 10 585 sq km since 1990, amounting to nine per cent of the total surface area in a densely populated country, as shown in the figure.
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Map of Botswana
Total Area of Country: 581 730 sq km Portion of Country within Zambezi Basin: 19 100 sq km (3.3 %) National Population in 2010: 1.8 million Portion of National Population within Zambezi Basin: 13 140 (0.73%) Botswa...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Protected areas share of total land area in Botwana
The Government of Botswana has designated a sizeable portion of land area for conservation since before 1990. The protected areas in Botswana total 104,988 sq km, which is 18 per cent of the total surface area of the cou...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Map of Angola
Total Area of Country: 1 246 700 sq km Portion of Country within Zambezi Basin: 256 500 sq km (20.5%) National Population in 2010: 17.8 million Portion of National Population within Zambezi Basin: 651 480 (03.66%) ...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Access to safe drinking water in Angola
Large numbers of people were displaced during the war and moved to urban areas, living in overcrowded slums, where the infrastructure did not exist or could not cope with their influx. The sharp increase in access to sa...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Change in the number of threatened species in Angola
This figure shows the change in numbers of threatened species, indicating that this spiked at 71 in 2003 following the end of the war when some areas became more accessible and counts resumed. The 2008 figure shows a red...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Change in biodiversity for selected species in Angola
This figure shows the percentage changes in biodiversity of some species, illustrating the reduction in diversity of mammals and molluscs, while others are steady or increasing (eg, birds).
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Protected areas share total land area in Angola
Another indicator of environmental sustainability is the proportion of terrestrial and marine areas protected. The extent of the protected land area in Angola has remained the same since 1990, but there is little data av...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Carbon dioxide emissions in Angola
Carbon emissions have not been a significant part of environmental monitoring in Angola as the potential is minimal when compared to industrialized countries, and estimated figures are still low, although increasing rap...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Land area covered by forests in Angola
Angola is the most densely forested country in the Basin (FAO 2010), including tropical rainforests in the north. While some Basin states had deforestation rates as high as 2.2 per cent, Angola shows a rate of between 0...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Freshwater availability per capita in Zambezi River Basin countries
The water flow in the Zambezi river is estimated at 3 600 cu m per second. This represents about 87 mm/year of equivalent rainfall and less than 10 per cent of the average rainfall in the basin (Shela 2000). The average...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Urban Population in Zambezi River Basin States
Zambezi River Basin countries share similar settlement patterns characterized by both low and high densities. While the basin is largely rural, urbanization rates are high. In Botswana and Angola, urban population consti...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Annual Mean Temperature Changes for Kariba
The Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC states that global greenhouse gas emissions due to human activities grew by 70 per cent between 1970 and 2004 (IPCC 2009). The emission of greenhouse gases in one region may resul...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Zambezi River runoff
A major impact of the construction of the Kariba and Cahora Bassa dams from 1950–1970 was the reduction in the Zambezi River runoff. Before the dam construction, the Zambezi River was torrential with high flows during t...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Population distribution in the Zambezi River Basin
Population distribution is uneven in the basin, with large areas uninhabited and reserved for wildlife. In 1998, the average population density in the basin was 24 people per sq km, and this increased to 28.75 people per...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Reported malaria cases in Zambia
The health of millions of people in the Zambezi basin is under threat due to an increase in the occurrence and spread of water-borne, vector-borne and respiratory diseases resulting from climate change related events (B...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Popoulation density increasing, per capita land area shrinking in Zambezi River Basin
The population of the Zambezi River Basin grew from 31.7 million in 1998 to 38.4 million in 2005, before reaching 40 million in 2008. It is projected that by 2025 the population will reach 51 million (Chenje 2000; SADC a...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Forest cover in Zambezi basin countries
Zambezi River Basin countries have been losing forests over the decades, and this loss continues unabated. Rates of forest loss per year in the last 20 years have been significant with Tanzania, Zimbabwe and Mozambique r...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Zambezi River Basin flood areas
Over the last two decades, the Zambezi River Basin has experienced extreme floods and droughts (SARDC and HBS 2010). Most of the flooding in the basin is associated with active cyclones that develop in the Indian Ocean. ...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Threatened Species in the Zambezi River Basin countries
Despite the abundance of wildlife resources in the basin, there are pressures that threaten the existence of this resource. Species that have become extinct in the basin in recent times include the blue wildebeest in Mal...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Zambezi River Basin wetlands
Wetlands cover a large area of the Zambezi River Basin. For example, in Zambia the Kafue Flats, Lukanga swamps, Barotse flood plains, Nyambomba swamps, Cuando, Busanga,Luangwa and Luena flats cover an area greater than 2...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Zambezi River Basin vegetation
Land cover and land use have great impacts on water resources, as they affect how precipitation translates into runoff, infiltration, evaporation, and the quality of the water (Hirji et al. 2002). Almost 75 per cent of ...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Zambezi River Basin average temperature
The temperature across the river basin varies according to elevation and, to a much lesser extent, latitude. Mean monthly temperatures for the coldest month, July, vary from below 13°C for higher elevation areas in the s...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Zambezi River Basin
The Zambezi River Basin is located between 8–20° S latitude and 16.5–36° E longitude in southern Africa (Chenje 2000). It drains an area of almost 1.4 million square kilometres, stretching across 8 of the 15 member state...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Zambezi River Basin average rainfall
Average annual rainfall across the river basin varies from 500mm in the extreme south and southwest part of the basin to more than 1 400 mm in the Upper Zambezi and Kabompo sub-basins, in the north-eastern shores of Lake...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Zambezi River Basin hydropower facilities
The hydropower potential of the Zambezi River Basin is estimated at 20 000 megawatts (MW)of which about 5 000 MW has been developed (Tumbare 2004). More than half of this potential is in Mozambique, about one-quarter in...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Zambezi River Basin share by country
The Zambezi River Basin has 13 sub-basins, most of which are transboundary. The largest portion of the basin lies in Zambia, with smaller segments in Angola, Zimbabwe, Mozambique and Malawi in that order. Tanzania, Botsw...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Africa major river basins
There are 63 transboundary river basins in Africa, covering 64 per cent of the continent’s land area (UNEP 2010). The Zambezi basin is the fourth largest in Africa after the Congo, Nile and Niger River Basins (Mukosa and...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Tanzania, a hotspot for agrofuel investments
12 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Africa, a global market for large-scale land acquisitions
By 2013, international large-scale land transactions amounting to 46 million hectares had been successfully transacted worldwide. Africa is the main target of these transactions: transactions accounting for 50 percent of...
20 Jun 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Land acquisition by agricultural use
12 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Merury management options
Several stabilization technologies exist: chemical transformation into a more stable, less mobile chemical compound; micro-encapsulation, the embedding of particles in an impermeable matrix such as cement; and macro-enca...
11 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Compact fluorescent lamps (CLFs)
Mercury is widely used in compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) and the demand for them is increasing in the quest for energy efficiency. According to the EU Directive 2002/95/EC on the restriction of hazardous substances in ...
11 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
The industry's self-commitment to phase out mercury use in the chlor-alkali industry
Efforts to confront the threat posed by mercury to human health and the environment have grown over the last decades. There are a number of initiatives aiming, for example, to reduce the use of mercury in products, to re...
11 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM)
Mercury residues from mining and industrial processing, as well as mercury in waste, have resulted in a large number of contaminated sites all over the world. Polluted soil can contain as much as 400 grammes of mercury p...
11 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Long-range mercury transport
Coal burning for electric power generation and for industrial purposes continues to increase, especially in Asia (UNEP, 2013). Assessing the global spread and fate of mercury is a challenging task, as there are few studi...
11 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Emissions to air
Emissions of mercury from ASGM reported for 2010 are more than twice those reported for 2005. While the higher price of gold and increased rural poverty may indeed have caused more activity in this sector, the increased ...
11 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Regional mercury emissions in 2010
Global emissions of mercury to the air in 2010 from human activities were estimated at 1,960 tonnes. Although it is difficult to compare emissions estimates for individual years, total anthropogenic emissions of mercury ...
11 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Mercury and human health
Mercury can enter the food chain either from agricultural prod- ucts or from seafood. It was widely used in agriculture, and at least 459 people are known to have died in Iraq after grain treated with a fungicide contain...
11 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
How mercury can enter our environment
While some pollutants are restricted in their range and in the size and number of the population they affect, mercury is not one of them. Wherever it is mined, used or discarded, it is liable – in the absence of effectiv...
11 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Industrial processes: input and output of mercury
Socio-economic conditions are often barriers to the adoption of better practices (UNEP, 2012). This figure shows the inputs and outputs of mercury by industries.
11 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Global mercury supply
Artisanal and small-scale Gold Mining (ASGM) is the largest sector of demand for mercury, using it to separate the metal from the ore. Though mercury mining and by-products were very high in the eighties, since then, min...
11 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Global mercury demand in 2011
In 2011, the largest demands in mercury were artisanal & small-scale gold mining as well as vinyl chloride monomers.
11 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Global mercury consumption in 2005
Most of the world’s estimated 600,000 tonnes of mercury de- posits are found in a handful of countries, including China, Kyrgyzstan, Mexico, Peru, Russia, Slovenia, Spain and Ukraine (USGS, 2012). Primary mining (where m...
11 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Mercury in food and products
Even now, mercury is commonplace in daily life. Electrical and electronic devices, switches (including thermostats) and relays, measuring and control equipment, energy- efficient fluorescent light bulbs, batteries, masca...
11 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Global annual mercury mining production
Global annual mercury production was at its peak in 1971 and has since significantly decreased. In 2005, UNEP estimated global annual mercury demand at be- tween 3,000 and 3,900 tonnes (UNEP, 2006). Demand has fallen sig...
11 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Global cases of mercury poisoning incidents
Mercury poisoning incidents. As elemental mercury is eligible for long distance transport, it can also accumulate in various forms. This figure illustrates its global distribution as well as the number of affected people...
11 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Minamata mercury events timeline
The events which lead to the government's decision on the revitalization and development of local communities.
11 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Minamata mercury events timeline
The events which lead to the government's decision on the revitalization and development of local communities.
11 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Trees for Global Benefits, Uganda
In Mitooma-Bushenyi in Uganda, the environmental conservation organisation Ecotrust has agreed with local landowners that in exchange for planting native species they will receive payments based on the amount of carbon t...
17 Sep 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
GDP of the Poor: estimates for ecosystem-service dependence
Poverty often occurs when links between ecosystem services and human well-being have been damaged or broken. Healthy ecosystems are ‘the wealth of the poor’. It has been estimated that ecosystem services and other non- m...
17 Sep 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Tmatboey - Cambodia
Cambodia’s deciduous forests are some of the most important conservation areas in southeast Asia, home to many mammals and water birds. Deforestation, hunting and the advance of settlers into forest areas have endangered...
17 Sep 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Market bundled
For the most part PES schemes have tended to focus on a single ecosystem service, whether it is connected with the conservation of a watershed, the restoration of a forest or the preservation of a wildlife area for biodi...
17 Sep 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Simanjiro Conservation Easement, Tanzania
Terrat is a village of some 3 500 people involved mainly in pastoral activities in northern Tanzania. In 2004, a group of five tourism operators entered into a PES type agreement with the community, with villagers helpin...
17 Sep 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Market Landscape
Landscape beauty services are dependent on the preservation of nature and the beauty of intact and uninterrupted landscapes. Preserving nature’s bounty is not only important for traditional livelihoods but also to safegu...
17 Sep 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Ecuador Ishpingo-Tambococha-Tiputini Yasaní
The Yasuní National Park in Ecuador is generally considered to be one of the richest biodiversity ‘hot spots’ in the world. It is also rich in natural resources, including oil. In 2007 Ecuador proposed a plan for a form ...
17 Sep 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Catskill-Delaware watershed: champagne drinking water for New York City
In the 1980s New York City was in need of new legislation on water management as water quality showed signs of deterioration. Rather than investing in new filtration plants, officials adopted a more progressive approach ...
17 Sep 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Watershed Market
A watershed is an area of land which feeds water into a river or a lake. A variety of ecosystems can make up a watershed, including various bodies of water, wetlands, grasslands, forests and cultivated areas. Watersheds...
17 Sep 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Scolel Té: growing up with trees
The Scolel Té Plan Vivo project involves over 2,500 families and nearly 50 communities in the central and northern Chiapas and northeast Oaxaca areas of southern Mexico. It is a model for community-based, sustainable lan...
17 Sep 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
23 Ecosystem services
The concepts within ecosystem services are clustered in four main categories: provisioning services, regulatory services, cultural services, and supporting services. In addition to this, ecosystem services can also be ca...
17 Sep 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
The 3 Capital fluxes
Within the topic of payment for ecosystem services, it is important to consider the complexity of interactions between the three main capitals (natural capital, economic capital and social capital). Services and needs th...
17 Sep 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Ivory transaction index
Overall, using weight and transaction indices derived from the ETIS data, illegal ivory trade activity remained at or slightly above 1998 levels up to 2006. Subsequently, a gradual increase in illegal ivory trade acti...
28 Nov 2013 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Percentage of elephants illegally killed in Africa
Since 2010, the percentage of elephants being killed illegally at MIKE sites across Africa has been higher than their natural reproduction rate.
28 Nov 2013 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Trend in proportion of illegally killed elephants (PIKE) in Africa
The PIKE trend across Africa show a clear increase in the proportion of illegally killed elephants from 2006 and up to 2012.
28 Nov 2013 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Asian elephant population estimates
Asian elephants occur in isolated populations in 13 range States, with an approximate total range area of almost 880,000 square kilometres equivalent to only one-tenth of the historical range as defined by the IUCN. Tod...
28 Nov 2013 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Large scale ivory seizures
Large-scale ivory shipments originating from Africa have almost exclusively been seized in containers at major ports in Asia, where there is an established customs inspection systems. Shipments have mainly originated fro...
28 Nov 2013 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
African elephant population by country
The overall sub-regional distribution of the African elephant indicates that approximately half of the total elephant population is found in Southern Africa, while less than 30 per cent are found in Eastern Africa. West...
28 Nov 2013 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
African elephant range and population distribution
Elephant population distribution and approximate core ranges of elephants in Africa. Individuals and minor groups of elephants can be found outside these ranges.
28 Nov 2013 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
African elephant range and population density
While poaching is an immediate and direct threat to the African elephant, range and habitat loss are the most significant longterm threat to the species’ survival. There is good reason to believe that the total eleph...
28 Nov 2013 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
African elephant population: a different count
The latest estimates of the total number of African elephants range between 419,000 and 650,000. Overall data reliability at the continental level has declined as many important populations have not been surveyed for ove...
28 Nov 2013 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Estimates of illegally killed elephants in 2011
In 2011, approximately 7.4 per cent of the total elephant populations in African MIKE sites were killed illegally. This is a significant increase from 2010, when the average number of elephants killed was estimated to be...
28 Nov 2013 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Percentage of illegally killed elephants per sub-region
Central Africa has shown worrying poaching trends for some time, and has consistently displayed the highest levels of poaching in any sub-region since MIKE monitoring began. In 2006, PIKE levels were at 0.5, meaning that...
28 Nov 2013 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
African elephants threatened by conflict
The African continent has struggled with political instability and conflict in recent history. Such instability encourages criminal activity including wildlife trafficking, poaching and other environmental crimes (Bouch...
28 Nov 2013 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Illegal ivory trafficking routes
Primary and secondary ivory smuggling routes in Africa based on a wide range of sources including both ETIS seizures and criminal intelligence.
28 Nov 2013 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Main international routes for the illegal trafficking of great apes
In principle, wildlife smuggling is done in the following ways: • Transport over land by foot, horse, donkey, motorbike and other vehicles; • Transport by river by boats; • Transport by sea by vessels; • Transport b...
07 Oct 2013 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Great ape illegal trafficking “tariffs”
Prices for live great apes vary greatly according to where they are sold, initial cost to the seller, risk factors and bribes in shipping, the estimated economic status of the buyer and demand factors.
11 Mar 2013 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Orangutan range and population estimates
The orangutan is the only great ape found in Asia, and historically is thought to have once ranged across Indochina. Today, two distinct species are found on the islands of Borneo and Sumatra, respectively. The Bornean o...
11 Mar 2013 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Great apes range in Africa
There are two populations of Mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei beringei): one in the Bwindi Impenetrable Forest National Park in Uganda (extending into the Sarambwe Forest in DR Congo), and the second in the Virunga Vo...
11 Mar 2013 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Great apes population estimates
All great ape species have experienced considerable declines in population size and range over the past few decades. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species lists all of t...
11 Mar 2013 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Wood exports from Congo Basin
China is probably the largest importer of wood products of illegal origin. Other primary importers of illegal logs or wood products are Japan, the EU, and the US.
27 Sep 2012 - by GRID-Arendal
Soy Expansion in the Brazilian Amazon frontier
Often, small-scale farmers settle the areas along logging roads in order to burn secondary or cleared forest for crop production. These farmers are eventually pushed or bought-out by large-scale cattle ranchers or soy p...
27 Sep 2012 - by GRID-Arendal
Annual Value of Illegal Logging
The official value of the global wood trade has been estimated at around US $327 billion dollars (FAO, 2007; UNEP 2009). If illegal logging consists of as much as 10-30 per cent of the total logging worldwide, with some ...
27 Sep 2012 - by GRID-Arendal
Plantation in Indonesia: a new frontier in black wood laundering?
Much of the logging in Indonesia, takes place in association with the establishment of palm oil or other plantations. As the forest is cleared for plantations, it is common practic to cut beyond the plantation area, or t...
27 Sep 2012 - by GRID-Arendal
Illegal Timber from the Congo
Political economic networks often provide forceful drivers for small-scale illegal logging and timber trade. Many of these networks bring together not only powerful actors from the private sector but als government offic...
27 Sep 2012 - by GRID-Arendal
Illegal Logging and Log Laundering
A key element in illegal logging schemes is the laundering of the illegal timber and other wood products. This is the primary way that illegal logs are transported, processed and exported or manufactured, thereby bypassi...
27 Sep 2012 - by GRID-Arendal
By-passing flow of investment to illegal logging
The Norwegian sovereign wealth fund is an example of a governance mechanism employed in an attempt to limit investment in companies involved in illegal logging.
27 Sep 2012 - by GRID-Arendal