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Depth region of potential nodule development Depth region of potential nodule development
Sea-floor bathymetric map showing where manganese nodules might occur in the Pacific ACP States region. Manganese nodules occur at depths of 4 000 to 6 500m, indicated by dark green in this map.
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
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Participating Pacific Island States Participating Pacific Island States
The Pacific ACP States (i.e., Africa-Caribbean-Pacific Group of States) participating in the European-Union-funded SPC Deep Sea Minerals Project.
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
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Studies that may be required to define the environment prior to development Studies that may be required to define the environment prior to development
Studies that may be required to define the environment prior to development. Note that this is not an exhaustive list.
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
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Size of life in the deep oceans Size of life in the deep oceans
Faunal size classes routinely found on the abyssal plain.
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
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Links between abyssal benthic ecosystems and particulate organic matter Links between abyssal benthic ecosystems and particulate organic matter
Links between abyssal benthic ecosystems and particulate organic matter. Regression relationships demonstrating the strong dependence of abyssal benthic ecosystem structure and function on the level of particulate organic matter (expressed as carbon) flux to the sea floor. All relationships are statistically significant (p < 0.05). Bioturbation intensity is based on 210Pb Db SCOC = sediment community oxygen consumption.
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
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Habitats and biodiversity in nodule regions Habitats and biodiversity in nodule regions
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
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Sources of cobalt production Sources of cobalt production
Current sources of cobalt. After Wilburn 2012.
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
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Increasing land-based cobalt production Increasing land-based cobalt production
Increase in cobalt production. (Wilburn 2012).
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
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Cobalt metal prices between 1976 and 2013 Cobalt metal prices between 1976 and 2013
Global cobalt prices 1976-2011.
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
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Metal tonnages in nodules from the Cook Islands compared to global reserves Metal tonnages in nodules from the Cook Islands compared to global reserves
Current estimates of Cook Islands manganese nodules compared to global reserves. In-place tonnage of cobalt, nickel, copper, and manganese in Cook Islands nodules and a comparison with global land-based reserves and global land-based reserve base.
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
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Concentration of nickel and other metals of potential economic importance in deep sea nodules Concentration of nickel and other metals of potential economic importance in deep sea nodules
Concentrations of metals other than iron and manganese. Concentrations are shown in gm/t in nodules from three different nodule regions.
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
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Concentration of iron and manganese in deep sea nodules Concentration of iron and manganese in deep sea nodules
Varying percentages of iron and manganese in nodules from different environments. The iron/manganese ratio is controlled by the ratio of hydrogenetic/diagenetic input and whether or not the sediments involved in diagenesis are oxic, containing measurable amounts of oxygen. The Cook Islands nodules are almost solely hydrogenetic.
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
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Physical characteristics of manganese nodules Physical characteristics of manganese nodules
Manganese nodules come in many shapes and sizes. They can be round, oblong, composite, or flat. Their shape can be influenced by the shape of the nucleus, the water content of the surrounding sediment, growth rates, and how often they are turned by infauna or moved by epifauna. As a general rule, smaller nodules tend to be more symmetrical. As nodules grow, they are less easily moved about by currents and animals, which leads to asymmetric growth...
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
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Average abundance of nodules Average abundance of nodules
Current estimates of average nodule abundance in four major locations.
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
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Cobalt, the target mineral for Cook Islands Cobalt, the target mineral for Cook Islands
Current estimated average concentration of various metals in nodules from the Cook Islands
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
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Nodules in the South Pacific Nodules in the South Pacific
Location of nodule zones in Oceania.
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
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Growth age and growth rate of nodules. Growth age and growth rate of nodules.
Growth age versus cumulative growth rate (left) and growth rate versus model age(right) in nodules from the Campbell Nodule Field, New Zealand. Extrapolated ages are based on measured 10Be/9Be ratios and the extrapolated 10Be/9Be ratio of the rim. Model ages are based on measured 10Be/9Be ratios and an assumed initial 10Be/9Be ratio. Growth ages (in m.y.) are based on the elapsed time from initiation of growth (i.e., core to rim).
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
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Formation environment for manganese nodules Formation environment for manganese nodules
This process takes place in water depths of 4 000 to 6 500 metres.
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
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The road from exploration to exploitation The road from exploration to exploitation
Permitting process - note these requirements are used as an example of the permitting process. Manganese nodule exploration and exploitation would require a different permitting process, which could also be multi leveled.
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
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