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Regional flood vulnerability
Since Asia comprises a large portion of the World’s popula- tion, and more than 40% of all the foods in the world occur in Asia, a large number of people are affected by disasters (Fig. 14). More than 40% of the peo...
06 Dec 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni
Seasonal patterns of precipitation and runoff
The infuence of glaciers on seasonal distribution of river fow is strongly dependent on annual temperature and precipitation cycles, and the proportion of the catchment occupied by glacier ice. Figure 4 compares precip...
06 Dec 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni
Qanat
A qanat is a water management system used to secure reliable water supply to human settlements or irrigation in semi-arid and arid regions. Probably originating in Persia, the qanat system has been adopted and developed ...
06 Dec 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni
Glacier recession and expansion in Hindu Kush-Himalayas and Central Asia
Averaged over their entire areas, within the period 1960– 2003 glaciers in Patagonia and Alaska have thinned by ap- proximately 35 m and 25 m, respectively, whereas high mountain glaciers in Asia have thinned by over...
06 Dec 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni
Victims and affected people in Pakistan flood, August 2010
Seasonal fooding can occur along all the major watersheds in the Himalayan region (Figure 11–14). The largest problems occur in food prone areas with high population densities. This includes parts of northeast India, ...
15 Feb 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni
Salzach river discharge, Austrian Alps
Simulated contributions of glacier melt (frn/ice melt) to annual total runoff were calculated between 1 and 4%. In the period 1999–2000, when the glacier mass balance of Goldbergkees and Stubacher Sonnblickkees have been...
06 Dec 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni
Glacier shrinkage in hypothetical river basins
Downstream variation in the impact of glacier recession is illustrated in Figure 5, which shows modelled river fows for idealized catchments under climates representative of the western and eastern Himalaya and a 0....
06 Dec 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni
Recent flood events in the Hindu Kush-Himalaya region
Since Asia comprises a large portion of the World’s popula- tion, and more than 40% of all the foods in the world occur in Asia, a large number of people are affected by disasters (Fig. 14). More than 40% of the peo...
03 Feb 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni
Sources of water for domestic use in Port Harcourt
The main source of water in Port Harcourt is boreholes, which account to about 50 per cent of the water sources for domestic use. Many of these boreholes are shallow, making them prone to pollution, and increasing the ri...
18 Mar 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Slum population in urban Africa
One of the major challenges of urbanisation in Africa is the rapid expansion of areas of informal settlements. These slum areas tend to lack infrastructure such as pipe-borne water and sewerage, and services such as garb...
18 Mar 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Access to sanitation in urban Africa
The number of people in Africa with access to improved sanitation, defined as “one that hygienically separates human excreta from human contact” (WHO/UNICEF 2010), has increased over the last two decades. Still, because ...
18 Mar 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Urban growth rate in Africa
Africa’s urban centres are currently growing at an annual rate that is the fastest compared to other regions. The urban expansion is expected to continue, with cities like Abuja and Ouagadougou expecting very high growth...
27 Feb 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Population distribution in Africa
In 1990 there were only 24 cities in Africa with more than one million inhabitants. Today this number has increased to 48 cities, of which Cairo and Lagos are the largest with more than ten million inhabitants each.
18 Mar 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Water supply and demand in Nairobi
The bulk of water supply for Nairobi comes from Thika, Sasumua and Ruiru Dams, as well as the Kikuyu Springs. Over time water supply for the city has failed to meet demand. The current estimated water demand for Nairobi ...
18 Mar 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Access to water in urban Africa
Improved water sources, defined as “one that is protected from outside contamination” (WHO/UNICEF 2010), is essential for ensuring the health of Africa’s urban dwellers. Although an increasing number of people have acces...
18 Mar 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Urban population trends, Kenya and Nairobi
As the total urban population of Kenya continues to grow, the capital of Nairobi still harbours the largest share of the country’s urban population. Between 1948 and 2009, Nairobi’s share of the country’s urban populatio...
18 Mar 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Access to sanitation in Yaoundè
Proper disposal of sewage is essential for urban water quality, and in Yaoundè the treatment of wastewater, excreta, and sewage can be classified into two categories – individual wastewater systems (septic tanks and latr...
18 Mar 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Historical population trend, Grahamstown 1840-1980
While the white population were the majority in the early period of Grahamstown, South Africa, they were outnumbered around 1920. Historically, the non-white population did not pay for water and sanitation services, and ...
18 Mar 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
South Africa population distribution
Kwazulu-Natal has the largest share of population in the coastal areas. Approximately 9 million people live in the province and they are Zulu-speakers. The Eastern Cape Province has the second largest population with 5.8...
21 Jun 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Working for the Coast
Working for the Coast is a programme initiated under the Social Responsibility Programme, which provides jobs and training for unemployed people in coastal communities to create and maintain a cleaner coastal environment...
21 Jun 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
South Africa biomes
South Africa is blessed with a rich abundance of biodiversity and a wide range of ecosystems and biomes. Among them are the wetland ecosystems, which occupy approximately seven per cent of South Africa’s total land area....
21 Jun 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Selected environmental threats in South Africa
In examining environmental challenges in South Africa, it becomes clear that environmental pressures tend to occur in overlapping geographical areas. This tendency results in amplified environmental threats in already di...
21 Jun 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
National environmental legislation, South Africa
The Working for the Environment programmes (water, fire, wetland, coast) are all supported by important national environmental legislation including the National Environmental Management: Biodiversity Act, the Disaster M...
21 Jun 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Working for Water employment
The Working for Water programme was launched in 1995 and is administered through the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry. The programme works in partnership with local communities which it provides with jobs, and al...
01 Nov 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Clearing invasive alien plant species
Despite the widespread distribution and extent of alien invasive species in South Africa, actions to control such plants have had some good results. In the fight against invasive alien plant species, the Working for Wate...
21 Jun 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Invasive alien plant species potential distribution
Alien plant species pose a major threat to South Africa’s native biodiversity. It is estimated that more than 9 000 plant species have been introduced so far. Of these, about 198 species are deemed invasive, covering 10 ...
21 Jun 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Working on Fire programme achievements
The goal of the Working on Fire programme is to protect life and livelihoods and ensure a sustainable and well balanced environment. The programme is advocating and assisting with good land management strategies and an i...
21 Jun 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Water scarcity in Africa
Wetlands are essential in providing and storing freshwater, but today more than half of South Africa’s wetlands have been destroyed or degraded and it is estimated that by 2025 South Africa will suffer from water scarcit...
21 Jun 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Pressures on the South African coast
Population growth puts pressure on coastal ecosystems. Increased population means growing demand for land for housing and infrastructure, increased use of living resources for food, and more use of available freshwater r...
21 Jun 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Poverty and social unrest in South Africa
Although the United Nations Development Programme’s (UNDP) Human Development Index ranks South Africa as a middle-income country, the way in which income is distributed across the population is highly skewed. Some 39 per...
21 Jun 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Job opportunity created per focus area
The Social Responsibility Programme was initiated in 1999 under the then Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEAT) and represents an important part of the Environment and Culture sector of the Expanded Publi...
21 Jun 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Biodiversity threats
South Africa is recognised as the third most megadiverse country in the world. The abundance of biodiversity found within its borders covers an estimated ten per cent of the world’s plant species, seven per cent of al...
21 Jun 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Wildfires in South Africa
Wildfires mostly affect rural settlements, but to an increasing degree also urban areas, which have developed in fire-prone areas. The impact of wildfires in natural vegetation on the poorest groups of the population can...
01 Mar 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Share of projects per focus area
The Social Responsibility Programme was initiated in 1999 under the then Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEAT) and represents an important part of the Environment and Culture sector of the Expanded Publi...
21 Jun 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Value for the avoided CO2 emissions during a 25-year transition period from primary forest to oil palm or other land uses
For the focus areas Batang Toru and Tripa in the two main orangutan habitats (forest on non-peatlands and peat) it was calculated what the values (USD/ha) would be of the avoided CO2 emissions over a period of 25 years. ...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Areas that qualify for protection under Indonesian law
Under Indonesian law, areas that qualify for protection are based on slope (>40%), sensitive soil types, elevation (above 2000m), and peat land (>3m), thereby preventing any man-made development within most of the Sumatr...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Tourism
Sumatran orangutan habitat offers excellent opportunities for tourism, including direct viewing of orangutans and other diverse wildlife, jungle treks and caving, rafting and bathing in rivers and hot springs, and even u...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Fire events in Tripa
Although the burning of peat is forbidden by Indonesian law, more than 458 fire hotspots have been detected by satellite in Tripa during the last 10 years, the vast majority being located within palm oil concessions.
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Abatement costs for transition from undisturbed forest to other land uses
Opportunity costs for the transition from forest to other land uses between 1994-2009 in Tripa and 1990-2009 in Batang Toru are shown. For the transition to the most profitable land-use a price of slightly more than USD ...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Conversion of forests to different land uses
Using satellite images, land use changes were determined at Batang Toru (2001-2009) and Tripa (2001-2009) to calculate overall CO2 emissions. Deforestation in both areas led to different land use transitions, with the pr...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Conversion from primary forest to other land uses, 1985-2007
The main driver for forest loss on peat areas in the Leuser Ecosystem was oil palm development between 1985 and 2007, while for forest on non-peatlands other land uses than oil palm contributed more to land use changes.
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Below-ground carbon stocks
The three coastal peat swamps of Tripa, Kluet and Singkil together represent the most important habitat for Sumatran oran-gutan populations in terms of density (van Schaik et al. 1995). When considering that the depth of...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Carbon storage in terrestrial ecosystems vs. great ape distribution
All great ape species predominantly live in tropical rainforests, which are among the most carbon-rich areas in the world. This overlap between the areas where great apes occur and carbon indicates that more potential sy...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Land cover change in Batang Toru
Migration from the island of Nias to the West Batang Toru forests over the last two decades has been largely spontaneous. These settlers have opened up primary forests for agriculture and hunt many species of local wildl...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Ecosystem services value for the Leuser Ecosystem
Values for the various non-carbon ecosystem services (water, regulation of floods and landslides, fisheries, prevention and limitation of fires, agriculture, tourism, and non-timber forest products (NTFP) and biodiversit...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Timber concessions
Some timber concessions overlap orangutan habitat in a number of key locations. If left to recover after logging, orangutans will gradually return to former concessions. But if the land is converted to monoculture planta...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Distribution of benefits under different land use scenarios in the Leuser Ecosystem
Net present value (NPV) is in millions of USD over a 30-year period (2000-2030) at a 4% discount rate. The NPV for local communities under a deforestation scenario would be 3,132 million USD and under a conservation scen...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Population growth in North Sumatra and Aceh 1920-2008
Overall population growth in the region has been very rapid during the past nine decades. In 1920, the human populations of Aceh and North Sumatra provinces were 736,348 and 1,961,678, respectively (Volkstelling 1922). B...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Forest status
Most Sumatran orangutan habitat is protected by Indonesian law. The government has created a very comprehensive system of functional forest categories, and institutions responsible for managing its forests. Some areas re...
01 Mar 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Plantation concessions
Oil palm plantations depend on the microclimate conditions generated by nearby forests, and the rivers emanating from orangutan habitat. Not all plantations concessions on the map have been cleared and planted yet. The m...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Sites
Sumatran orangutan habitat is restricted to the westernmost tip of Indonesia. Boxes indicate the case study areas Tripa and Batang Toru. The case of Sumatran orangutan serves as a useful example to illustrate how the fat...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Hydrogeology
Most of the Sumatran orangutan's forests inland play a key role in ensuring downstream freshwater supplies, since the non-alluvial inland areas of the region tend to have very little or no underlying groundwater resourc...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Forest loss from 1985-2007 for Sumatra
If only the most important orangutan habitat is examined – i.e. forest below 1,000 m – for the 1985-2007 period, the rate of loss was even higher, at 28% and 49% for Aceh and North Sumatra respectively. When only the mos...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Above-ground carbon-stock density changes
In Batang Toru, land use changes and deforestation led to an overall loss of around 10 tonnes of carbon per hectare between 1994 and 2009. Due to its exploitation for the cultivation of oil palm, the peat area of Tripa h...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Hunting of orangutans
Orangutans are also still regularly killed or captured. This occurs for three main reasons: first, even today some people still hunt orangutans for food, most notably in the non-Muslim parts of North Sumatra. Second, whe...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Change in forest cover, 1985-2007
Between 1985 and 2007, 49.3% of all forests on the island were lost. In the provinces of Aceh and North Sumatra the figures were 22.7% and 43.4%, respectively. Most forest loss has occurred in the lowlands, the very area...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Multinational networks to exploit natural resources
A generalized diagram of how multinational networks exploit natural resources by developing numerous temporary subsidiaries and use corruption and security firms to ensure rapid exploitation and maximum profits. Arms tra...
08 Mar 2011 - by Hugo Ahlenius
Carbon stock for different type of land uses, on mineral and peat soil
For a range of land uses that occur in Tripa (forests on peatland) and Batang Toru (forest on non-peatland) the profitability and carbon stocks were determined. Undisturbed forest clearly has the highest carbon stock whi...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Annual rainfall
Sumatran orangutans live in lowland tropical rainforests, with precipitation normally between 1,680 mm and 4,070 mm annually. Western regions receive much more rain than those in the east, as prevailing winds from the In...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Land use values
The area where orangutans occur can be separated into two main habitat types: forest on peat-lands (Tripa) and forests on mineral soils (Batang Toru), and the results are presented for these types separately. Values for ...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Above-ground carbon stocks
Some of the richest above-ground carbon stocks are found in forests occupied by Sumatran orangutans. The total carbon stored in the above-ground woody biomass of a tropical forest varies between 170 and 250 tonnes of car...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Conservation areas and the Leuser Ecosystem
Approximately 50% of Sumatran orangutan habitat is inside conservation areas directly managed by the Ministry of Forestry, and 78% lies within the boundaries of the vast Leuser Ecosystem Conservation Area.
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Human relative population density
Only areas with very low human population densities harbour orangutans. In Aceh and North Sumatra, human settlements are still primarily concentrated in the relatively flat coastal zones, particularly along the north and...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Roads
Roads, both existing and planned, are a major threat to Sumatran orangutans as they increasingly fragment populations, making them more vulnerable and less viable. Often such roads are crossing protected areas such as th...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Ecological zones
Sumatran orangutans occur in two main forest habitats, those on dryland mineral soils and those on wet coastal peat. The three main peat areas are Singkil, Kluet and Tripa on the west coast of Aceh province.
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Water catchments
Orangutan habitat overlaps the catchments of 44 major rivers in Sumatra, each of which reaches the coast and discharges into the sea. Thus it is very important to guarantee proper functioning of ecosystem services relate...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Smuggling routes of illegally logged ramin timber from Indonesia, including from national parks and protected areas
Illegal transport and organization of illegal logging by syndicates. Much of the timber is re-sold during transport and thus changes ownership en route, obliterating tracking efforts to trace origins and diluting import-...
07 Mar 2011 - by Hugo Alhenius
Land not suitable for major agriculture crops
An estimated 88% of Sumatran orangutan habitat is on land classified by Indonesian Government studies (RePPProT) as completely unsuitable for cultivation of major crops such as oil palm, rubber, robusta coffee or cocoa. O...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Land use types that replaced forest in the Leuser Ecosystem during 1985-2007
The main driver for forest loss on peat areas in the Leuser Ecosystem was oil palm development between 1985 and 2007, while for forest on non-peatlands other land uses than oil palm contributed more to land use changes.
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Administration
Sumatran orangutan habitat overlaps 2 Provinces and 21 Districts, presenting many challenges for integrated development policies. 78% of the species’ present range lies within Aceh, and the remaining 22% in North Sumatra...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Land cover change in Tripa, Indonesia
In the Tripa peat swamps, companies are operating seven large concessions of between 3,000 and 13,000 hectares. They are converting the remaining forests on peatlands into oil palm plantations. The concessions cover more...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Mining exploration
The mining industry is a potential threat to Sumatran orangutan habitat in a number of important areas, both directly by its own activities and indirectly by road access. It includes a major gold mine near the town of Ba...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Megafauna
Forests that support Sumatran orangutans also harbour high numbers of other animal and plant species, including some of the most emblematic megafauna species in the world, the Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae), S...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Elevation
The Bukit Barisan mountain range that runs down the full length of Sumatra reach altitudes of over 3,000 meters above sea level (m asl), with the highest peaks being Gunung Kerinci in West Sumatra (3,800 m asl) and Gunun...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Global flyways of the six subspecies of Red Knot
The Red Knot is a migratory shorebird that travels up to 20,000 km twice a year from its breeding grounds on the high Arctic tundra to its southern non-breeding sites. Along with having one of the longest total migrati...
15 Nov 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Migratory routes for selected marine animals
Acknowledging ecological networks and how their disruption may have an impact populations of migratory species is essential for the survival of these species and for fostering international collaboration. This is an ov...
15 Nov 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Iron mine threatens Beluga around Baffin Island
A large iron mine, operated by the Baffinland Iron Mines Corporation, has now been proposed in Baffin Island, with possibly severe impacts on wildlife on the island, such as development across the calving grounds of the ...
06 May 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Migration of grassland birds in America
The grasslands of Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay in southern South America represent important habitat to numerous migratory and resident bird species. These birds play vital roles in the ecosystem by ...
15 Nov 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Saiga antelope locations in Kazakhstan
Saiga Antelope locations in Kazakhstan in a period between 1970 to 2008.
15 Nov 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Red Knot migration along the East Atlantic flyway
Red Knots set off in April with large fat reserves (fuel) from the airport “West Coast National Park” (the Langebaan Lagoon tidal flats in South Africa) to fly 7,000–8,000 km until they reach the tidal flats of Guinea ...
15 Nov 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Spatial configuration on an ecological network
A spatial configuration of an Ecological Network, showing how various resources are connected in the landscape
15 Nov 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Highway threaten Serengeti wildlife
This graph shows proposed commercial roads across the Serengeti and surrounding region in 2010. However, following intense international pressure, the Tanzanian Government announced in 2011 that it will favour an alterna...
15 Nov 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Leatherback Turtle migration in the Pacific
The Leatherback Turtle is a long-distance migratory sea turtle, travelling between tropical breeding grounds and multiple pelagic and coastal foraging regions located in temperate and tropical waters. There are effecti...
15 Nov 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Saiga Antelope populations
The Saiga Antelope is a migratory herbivore of the steppes and deserts of Central Asia and Russia, capable of travelling hundreds of kilometres north to south on its annual migrations. Saigas have been hunted since prehi...
15 Nov 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Humpback Whale movements within the South Pacific
Mortality due to entanglement and collisions with ships has been reported within the Southern Hemisphere. To varying degrees these threats are all present in both the Oceania region and the Southern Ocean. The Internati...
15 Nov 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Cheetah and Wildebeest in East Africa
Protecting the Cheetah’s range also benefits other migratory wildlife, including those not currently protected by international agreements such as Appendix I of the CMS. The Serengeti- Mara-Tsavo landscape, for example, ...
08 Mar 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Lesser White-fronted Goose migratory routes in Eurasiah
The globally threatened Lesser White-fronted Goose is a Palearctic migrant, breeding discontinuously in forest- or shrub tundra and mountainous shrubby wetlands from Fennoscandia to easternmost Russia. The species ha...
15 Nov 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Who protects them? Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals
Parties and non-parties to the Convention of Migratory Species. Severe gaps exist in the north and east and are urgently needed for protecting the ecological networks and migrations of many endangered species
01 Nov 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Snow Leopard range in Asia
The Snow Leopard inhabits the alpine and sub-alpine regions of Asia’s most spectacular mountain ranges. Occupying nearly 2 million km2, the snow leopard’s range extends across 12 range states from Russia and Mongolia t...
15 Nov 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Yellow Sea, the flyway hub
The East Asian-Australasian flyway for migratory birds
15 Nov 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Nathusius’ Pipistrelle distribution and migration
The tiny Nathusius’ Pipistrelle, weighing only 6–10 grams, travels almost 2000 km from its breeding grounds in north-eastern Europe to its main hibernation areas in south-west Europe. Populations in Russia are thought to...
15 Nov 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Migratory species – flying in the air
Acknowledging ecological networks and how their disrup-tion may have an impact populations of migratory species is essential for the survival of these species and for fostering international collaboration. This is an...
15 Nov 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
The long migration of the Humpback Whale
Humpback annual migrations between feeding grounds in polar waters to mating and calving grounds in tropical waters are amongst the longest of any mammal. Following heavy exploitation during much of the 19th and 20th c...
15 Nov 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Migratory species – running on land
Acknowledging ecological networks and how their disruption may have an impact populations of migratory species is essential for the survival of these species and for fostering international collaboration. This is an ov...
15 Nov 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Gender division of labour in agriculture and household activities - Nepal and India
In Nepal, the gender division of labour is highly skewed, especially when agricultural, pastoral and wage labour is combined with household, community and casual labour, and when high rates of men’s out-migration to ur...
05 Dec 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Human trafficking in Nepal - Patterns
Maiti Nepal rescues an estimated 2,000 thousand girls each year, including children and women intercepted at borders and victims liberated from brothels and from various forms of abuse and exploitation. It provides them...
05 Dec 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Gender (im)balance in the delegation of parties (COP) on climate change
Critical importance is the under-representation of women in policy and decision-making institutions, in dialogue on adaptation to climate change, in the governance of natural resources and in other important livelihood ...
01 Nov 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Climate change vulnerability
Vulnerability of human populations to extreme climate related events and changes in major climate parameters over the next 30 years.
05 Dec 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal