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World ocean thermohaline circulation (alternative version) World ocean thermohaline circulation (alternative version)
The global conveyor belt thermohaline circulation is driven primarily by the formation and sinking of deep water (from around 1500m to the Antarctic bottom water overlying the bottom of the ocean) in the Norwegian Sea. When the strength of the haline forcing increases due to excess precipitation, runoff, or ice melt the conveyor belt will weaken or even shut down. The variability in the strength of the conveyor belt will lead to climate change in...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Historical trends in carbon dioxide concentrations and temperature, on a geological and recent time scale Historical trends in carbon dioxide concentrations and temperature, on a geological and recent time scale
The most recent geological history, in the last hundred thousand years, has been characterised by cycles of glaciations, or ice ages. The historic temperatures, through these times, have been low, and continental ice sheets have covered large parts of the world. Through ancient air, trapped in tiny bubbles in the Antarctic ice, we have been able to see what the temperature cycle was at that time, and also the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2)...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Major glacier hazard locations Major glacier hazard locations
Major glacier hazard locations
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Arctic sea ice minimum extent in September 1982, 2005 and 2007 Arctic sea ice minimum extent in September 1982, 2005 and 2007
The red line indicates the median minimum extent of the ice cover for the period 1979–2000. This figure compares the Arctic sea ice extent in September for the years 1982 (the record maximum since 1979), 2005 and 2007 (the record minimum). The ice extent was 7.5 million km2 in 1982 and only 5.6 million km2 in 2005 and down to 4.3 million km2 in 2007. As has been observed in other recent years, the retreat of the ice cover was particularly pronoun...
18 Apr 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Increases in annual temperatures for a recent five-year period, relative to 1951-1980 Increases in annual temperatures for a recent five-year period, relative to 1951-1980
Warming is widespread, generally greater over land than over oceans, and the largest gains in temperatures for the planet are over the North American Arctic, north central Siberia, and on the Antarctic Peninsula. These recent increases in temperature are confirmed by changes in other features: loss of sea ice, shift of tundra to shrub vegetation, and migration of marine and terrestrial ecosystems to higher latitudes.
18 Apr 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Ringed seal pupping lair, with the pup in the lair and the female approaching the haul-out hole from the water Ringed seal pupping lair, with the pup in the lair and the female approaching the haul-out hole from the water
Ringed seals are the 'classic' Arctic seal in many regards, being found as far north as the Pole because of their ability to keep breathing holes open in ice that can reach 2 metres in depth. This species is certainly one of the most vulnerable of the high-Arctic seals to the declines in the extent or quality of sea ice because so many aspects of their life-history and distribution are tied to ice. Ringed seals also require sufficient snow cover...
01 Nov 2007 - by Robert Barnes, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Greenland, showing rates of surface-elevation change between the late 1990s and 2003 Greenland, showing rates of surface-elevation change between the late 1990s and 2003
Mass-balance estimates for Greenland show thickening at high elevations since the early 1990s at rates that increased to about 4 cm per year after 2000, consistent with expectations of increasing snowfall in a warming climate. However, this mass gain is far exceeded by losses associated with large increases in thinning of the ice sheet near the coast. Total loss from the ice sheet more than doubled, from a few tens of billions of tonnes per year ...
18 Apr 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Solid waste management cost for selected cities Solid waste management cost for selected cities
As garbage piles up, however much space we set aside for landfill, we are beginning to realise that producing waste at this rate is no longer viable. It is time for the three “Rs”: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle and integrated waste management. Waste management strategies are as diverse as waste itself. But whatever we do there is no escaping the “waste of waste” (unless we rein in our greed and buy less).
15 Dec 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
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Barents Sea ecoregion conservation priority areas Barents Sea ecoregion conservation priority areas
The Barents Sea ecoregion - the part of the World Ocean north of the Nordic countries and Northwest Russia, has a unique environment with major sea bird colonies, rich benthic and plankton fauna and many major sea mammal species. To identify priority areas for conservation, thirty experts delineated sea areas based on ecological criteria in a WWF study.
06 Dec 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Catches in the Mauritania Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) 1950-2002 Catches in the Mauritania Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) 1950-2002
Marine fisheries represent a significant, but finite, natural resource for coastal countries. For some countries like Mauritania, the majority of the catches belong to international fleets. This represents a significant income for the country in question, but at the same time oppurtunities for value-added services and domestic employment are lost.
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Number of borrowers in the micro-credit scheme Number of borrowers in the micro-credit scheme
Number of borrowers in the MACH micro-credit scheme, Bangladesh
11 Jul 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Deforestation in the MAB, Guatemala case study Deforestation in the MAB, Guatemala case study
Deforestation in the MAB, Guatemala case study
11 Jul 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Water management in Central Asia: state and impact Water management in Central Asia: state and impact
The withdrawal of water for irrigated agriculture has caused a social and environmental crisis in the Aral Sea Basin. Drying up of the sea has been accompanied by a wide range of other environmental, economic and social problems in the basin. The problems precipitated by this crisis have aggravated the social and economic difficulties caused by the collapse of the Soviet Union. Following the break- up of the Soviet Union the interests of Up-strea...
16 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Consumption of Nitrogen fertilizers in EU 15 Consumption of Nitrogen fertilizers in EU 15
The graph shows Consumption of Nitrogen fertilizers in EU 15 from 1970 to 1992. The main source of nitrogen in soils is from organic matter. Nitrogen also comes from sources such as factories. A common concern with these forms of inorganic nitrogen is the incremental amount of nitrates they add to the nitrogen cycle, which may threaten groundwater, inland waters and fisheries.
14 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Trends in life expectancy in Europe, 1980 and 1990 Trends in life expectancy in Europe, 1980 and 1990
Life expectancy has increased in all countries surveyed in this graphic, from both Western and Eastern Europe. In the Western European countries, life expectancy at the end of the eighties is higher than 72 years old, with the former Eastern Bloc countries trailing behind.
07 Nov 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Water resources in Europe Water resources in Europe
The amount of natural water resorces available per inhabitant in Europe, in cubic meter per year. Water resources are at the highest in the Nordic countries and Central an Easter Europe, while scarce in Western/Central Europe
14 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Consumption of pesticides (active ingredients) Consumption of pesticides (active ingredients)
The graphic shows consumption of pesticide (active ingredients) from 1980 to 2010. Pesticides are natural chemicals or altered versions of natural chemicals used in agriculture to control various sorts of pests such as different types of insects, rodents, weed and fungi.
14 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Renewable water resources in Europe Renewable water resources in Europe
Water resources are a major political issure with most European countries a large portion of their fresh water supply orginating from other countries. Hungary has over 90 percent of its fresh water coming from river flows of other coutries.
14 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Water resources in Europe Water resources in Europe
On the continental scale, Europe appears to have abundant water resources. However, these resources are unevenly distributed, both between and within countries. Once population density is taken into account, the disequity in the distribution of water resources per inhabitant is striking.
14 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Renewable water resources Renewable water resources
Renewable water represents the main water resource available to society. This is the water that is continously recharged in the hydrological cycle. This graphic shows renewable resources in cubic meter per capita in Eastern and Western Europe
14 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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