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Land cover change in Batang Toru
Migration from the island of Nias to the West Batang Toru forests over the last two decades has been largely spontaneous. These settlers have opened up primary forests for agriculture and hunt many species of local wildl...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Ecosystem services value for the Leuser Ecosystem
Values for the various non-carbon ecosystem services (water, regulation of floods and landslides, fisheries, prevention and limitation of fires, agriculture, tourism, and non-timber forest products (NTFP) and biodiversit...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Timber concessions
Some timber concessions overlap orangutan habitat in a number of key locations. If left to recover after logging, orangutans will gradually return to former concessions. But if the land is converted to monoculture planta...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Distribution of benefits under different land use scenarios in the Leuser Ecosystem
Net present value (NPV) is in millions of USD over a 30-year period (2000-2030) at a 4% discount rate. The NPV for local communities under a deforestation scenario would be 3,132 million USD and under a conservation scen...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Population growth in North Sumatra and Aceh 1920-2008
Overall population growth in the region has been very rapid during the past nine decades. In 1920, the human populations of Aceh and North Sumatra provinces were 736,348 and 1,961,678, respectively (Volkstelling 1922). B...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Forest status
Most Sumatran orangutan habitat is protected by Indonesian law. The government has created a very comprehensive system of functional forest categories, and institutions responsible for managing its forests. Some areas re...
01 Mar 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Plantation concessions
Oil palm plantations depend on the microclimate conditions generated by nearby forests, and the rivers emanating from orangutan habitat. Not all plantations concessions on the map have been cleared and planted yet. The m...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Sites
Sumatran orangutan habitat is restricted to the westernmost tip of Indonesia. Boxes indicate the case study areas Tripa and Batang Toru. The case of Sumatran orangutan serves as a useful example to illustrate how the fat...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Hydrogeology
Most of the Sumatran orangutan's forests inland play a key role in ensuring downstream freshwater supplies, since the non-alluvial inland areas of the region tend to have very little or no underlying groundwater resourc...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Forest loss from 1985-2007 for Sumatra
If only the most important orangutan habitat is examined – i.e. forest below 1,000 m – for the 1985-2007 period, the rate of loss was even higher, at 28% and 49% for Aceh and North Sumatra respectively. When only the mos...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Above-ground carbon-stock density changes
In Batang Toru, land use changes and deforestation led to an overall loss of around 10 tonnes of carbon per hectare between 1994 and 2009. Due to its exploitation for the cultivation of oil palm, the peat area of Tripa h...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Hunting of orangutans
Orangutans are also still regularly killed or captured. This occurs for three main reasons: first, even today some people still hunt orangutans for food, most notably in the non-Muslim parts of North Sumatra. Second, whe...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Change in forest cover, 1985-2007
Between 1985 and 2007, 49.3% of all forests on the island were lost. In the provinces of Aceh and North Sumatra the figures were 22.7% and 43.4%, respectively. Most forest loss has occurred in the lowlands, the very area...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Multinational networks to exploit natural resources
A generalized diagram of how multinational networks exploit natural resources by developing numerous temporary subsidiaries and use corruption and security firms to ensure rapid exploitation and maximum profits. Arms tra...
08 Mar 2011 - by Hugo Ahlenius
Carbon stock for different type of land uses, on mineral and peat soil
For a range of land uses that occur in Tripa (forests on peatland) and Batang Toru (forest on non-peatland) the profitability and carbon stocks were determined. Undisturbed forest clearly has the highest carbon stock whi...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Annual rainfall
Sumatran orangutans live in lowland tropical rainforests, with precipitation normally between 1,680 mm and 4,070 mm annually. Western regions receive much more rain than those in the east, as prevailing winds from the In...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Land use values
The area where orangutans occur can be separated into two main habitat types: forest on peat-lands (Tripa) and forests on mineral soils (Batang Toru), and the results are presented for these types separately. Values for ...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Above-ground carbon stocks
Some of the richest above-ground carbon stocks are found in forests occupied by Sumatran orangutans. The total carbon stored in the above-ground woody biomass of a tropical forest varies between 170 and 250 tonnes of car...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Conservation areas and the Leuser Ecosystem
Approximately 50% of Sumatran orangutan habitat is inside conservation areas directly managed by the Ministry of Forestry, and 78% lies within the boundaries of the vast Leuser Ecosystem Conservation Area.
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Human relative population density
Only areas with very low human population densities harbour orangutans. In Aceh and North Sumatra, human settlements are still primarily concentrated in the relatively flat coastal zones, particularly along the north and...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Roads
Roads, both existing and planned, are a major threat to Sumatran orangutans as they increasingly fragment populations, making them more vulnerable and less viable. Often such roads are crossing protected areas such as th...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Ecological zones
Sumatran orangutans occur in two main forest habitats, those on dryland mineral soils and those on wet coastal peat. The three main peat areas are Singkil, Kluet and Tripa on the west coast of Aceh province.
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Water catchments
Orangutan habitat overlaps the catchments of 44 major rivers in Sumatra, each of which reaches the coast and discharges into the sea. Thus it is very important to guarantee proper functioning of ecosystem services relate...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Smuggling routes of illegally logged ramin timber from Indonesia, including from national parks and protected areas
Illegal transport and organization of illegal logging by syndicates. Much of the timber is re-sold during transport and thus changes ownership en route, obliterating tracking efforts to trace origins and diluting import-...
07 Mar 2011 - by Hugo Alhenius
Land not suitable for major agriculture crops
An estimated 88% of Sumatran orangutan habitat is on land classified by Indonesian Government studies (RePPProT) as completely unsuitable for cultivation of major crops such as oil palm, rubber, robusta coffee or cocoa. O...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Land use types that replaced forest in the Leuser Ecosystem during 1985-2007
The main driver for forest loss on peat areas in the Leuser Ecosystem was oil palm development between 1985 and 2007, while for forest on non-peatlands other land uses than oil palm contributed more to land use changes.
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Administration
Sumatran orangutan habitat overlaps 2 Provinces and 21 Districts, presenting many challenges for integrated development policies. 78% of the species’ present range lies within Aceh, and the remaining 22% in North Sumatra...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Land cover change in Tripa, Indonesia
In the Tripa peat swamps, companies are operating seven large concessions of between 3,000 and 13,000 hectares. They are converting the remaining forests on peatlands into oil palm plantations. The concessions cover more...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Mining exploration
The mining industry is a potential threat to Sumatran orangutan habitat in a number of important areas, both directly by its own activities and indirectly by road access. It includes a major gold mine near the town of Ba...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Megafauna
Forests that support Sumatran orangutans also harbour high numbers of other animal and plant species, including some of the most emblematic megafauna species in the world, the Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae), S...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Elevation
The Bukit Barisan mountain range that runs down the full length of Sumatra reach altitudes of over 3,000 meters above sea level (m asl), with the highest peaks being Gunung Kerinci in West Sumatra (3,800 m asl) and Gunun...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Global flyways of the six subspecies of Red Knot
The Red Knot is a migratory shorebird that travels up to 20,000 km twice a year from its breeding grounds on the high Arctic tundra to its southern non-breeding sites. Along with having one of the longest total migrati...
15 Nov 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Migratory routes for selected marine animals
Acknowledging ecological networks and how their disruption may have an impact populations of migratory species is essential for the survival of these species and for fostering international collaboration. This is an ov...
15 Nov 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Iron mine threatens Beluga around Baffin Island
A large iron mine, operated by the Baffinland Iron Mines Corporation, has now been proposed in Baffin Island, with possibly severe impacts on wildlife on the island, such as development across the calving grounds of the ...
06 May 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Migration of grassland birds in America
The grasslands of Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay in southern South America represent important habitat to numerous migratory and resident bird species. These birds play vital roles in the ecosystem by ...
15 Nov 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Saiga antelope locations in Kazakhstan
Saiga Antelope locations in Kazakhstan in a period between 1970 to 2008.
15 Nov 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Red Knot migration along the East Atlantic flyway
Red Knots set off in April with large fat reserves (fuel) from the airport “West Coast National Park” (the Langebaan Lagoon tidal flats in South Africa) to fly 7,000–8,000 km until they reach the tidal flats of Guinea ...
15 Nov 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Spatial configuration on an ecological network
A spatial configuration of an Ecological Network, showing how various resources are connected in the landscape
15 Nov 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Highway threaten Serengeti wildlife
This graph shows proposed commercial roads across the Serengeti and surrounding region in 2010. However, following intense international pressure, the Tanzanian Government announced in 2011 that it will favour an alterna...
15 Nov 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Leatherback Turtle migration in the Pacific
The Leatherback Turtle is a long-distance migratory sea turtle, travelling between tropical breeding grounds and multiple pelagic and coastal foraging regions located in temperate and tropical waters. There are effecti...
15 Nov 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Saiga Antelope populations
The Saiga Antelope is a migratory herbivore of the steppes and deserts of Central Asia and Russia, capable of travelling hundreds of kilometres north to south on its annual migrations. Saigas have been hunted since prehi...
15 Nov 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Humpback Whale movements within the South Pacific
Mortality due to entanglement and collisions with ships has been reported within the Southern Hemisphere. To varying degrees these threats are all present in both the Oceania region and the Southern Ocean. The Internati...
15 Nov 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Cheetah and Wildebeest in East Africa
Protecting the Cheetah’s range also benefits other migratory wildlife, including those not currently protected by international agreements such as Appendix I of the CMS. The Serengeti- Mara-Tsavo landscape, for example, ...
08 Mar 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Lesser White-fronted Goose migratory routes in Eurasiah
The globally threatened Lesser White-fronted Goose is a Palearctic migrant, breeding discontinuously in forest- or shrub tundra and mountainous shrubby wetlands from Fennoscandia to easternmost Russia. The species ha...
15 Nov 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Who protects them? Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals
Parties and non-parties to the Convention of Migratory Species. Severe gaps exist in the north and east and are urgently needed for protecting the ecological networks and migrations of many endangered species
01 Nov 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Snow Leopard range in Asia
The Snow Leopard inhabits the alpine and sub-alpine regions of Asia’s most spectacular mountain ranges. Occupying nearly 2 million km2, the snow leopard’s range extends across 12 range states from Russia and Mongolia t...
15 Nov 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Yellow Sea, the flyway hub
The East Asian-Australasian flyway for migratory birds
15 Nov 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Nathusius’ Pipistrelle distribution and migration
The tiny Nathusius’ Pipistrelle, weighing only 6–10 grams, travels almost 2000 km from its breeding grounds in north-eastern Europe to its main hibernation areas in south-west Europe. Populations in Russia are thought to...
15 Nov 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Migratory species – flying in the air
Acknowledging ecological networks and how their disrup-tion may have an impact populations of migratory species is essential for the survival of these species and for fostering international collaboration. This is an...
15 Nov 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
The long migration of the Humpback Whale
Humpback annual migrations between feeding grounds in polar waters to mating and calving grounds in tropical waters are amongst the longest of any mammal. Following heavy exploitation during much of the 19th and 20th c...
15 Nov 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Migratory species – running on land
Acknowledging ecological networks and how their disruption may have an impact populations of migratory species is essential for the survival of these species and for fostering international collaboration. This is an ov...
15 Nov 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Gender division of labour in agriculture and household activities - Nepal and India
In Nepal, the gender division of labour is highly skewed, especially when agricultural, pastoral and wage labour is combined with household, community and casual labour, and when high rates of men’s out-migration to ur...
05 Dec 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Human trafficking in Nepal - Patterns
Maiti Nepal rescues an estimated 2,000 thousand girls each year, including children and women intercepted at borders and victims liberated from brothels and from various forms of abuse and exploitation. It provides them...
05 Dec 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Gender (im)balance in the delegation of parties (COP) on climate change
Critical importance is the under-representation of women in policy and decision-making institutions, in dialogue on adaptation to climate change, in the governance of natural resources and in other important livelihood ...
01 Nov 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Climate change vulnerability
Vulnerability of human populations to extreme climate related events and changes in major climate parameters over the next 30 years.
05 Dec 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Labour migration from Nepal
As numerous studies have demonstrated, women bear the disproportionate burden of the costs of disasters, if their rights are not ensured and if gender, socio-cultural and political-economic inequalities within the conte...
05 Dec 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Trafficking of women and girls in Nepal
Some estimates from Maiti Nepal suggest that trafficking from Nepal may have increased from an estimated 3-5,000 per year during the pre-war times (1990) to possibly 12-20,000 per year in 2010. This includes internal and...
05 Dec 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Recent flood events in the HIndu Kush-Himalaya region
Recent studies focus attention on the radically changed flood patterns, including heavy rainfall that leads to landslides and soil erosion. For example, in Nepal women and men have noted increased frequency and damage ca...
05 Dec 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal