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Recent

Eastern Europe through history
The region’s borderline position has determined its many specific features. Neighbouring cultures deeply penetrated and influenced Eastern European societies, shaping contrasting developmental orientations. Eastern Europ...
01 Nov 2007 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Belarus, Moldova and Ukraine: forest cover
There is not a lot of forest coverage in the area. Most of the region consists of plain and lowland, wooded as in Belarus and northern Ukraine, or open steppe as elsewhere. Forests are concentrated in the relatively smal...
01 Nov 2007 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Belarus, Moldova and Ukraine: topography
Eastern Europe extends from the northern shore of the Black Sea in Ukraine up to the Baltic Sea basin in Belarus. It covers 845,000 square kilometers and is home to almost 60 million people. These nations share common bo...
29 Nov 2007 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Political patterns and communication axes: Belarus, Moldova, Ukraine
Belarus, Moldova and Ukraine are positioned between an enlarging European Union and a historically influential Russia. The area’s unique position and history have played a large part in the overlapping of environmental a...
01 Nov 2007 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Water basins of Eastern Europe
The region’s eastern boundary roughly corresponds to the Dnieper watershed, and its western and south-western boundaries are loosely defined by the Z. Bug, Prut and Danube rivers as well as by the Carpathian Mountains. R...
01 Nov 2007 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Abkhazia - environmental headlines (topographic and political map)
Abkhazia - environmental headlines (topographic and political map). The basemap is complemented with textual information on 'environmental headlines' which are the preliminary results of a desk assessment conducted by GR...
01 Nov 2008 - by Matthias Beilstein and Otto Simonett
South Ossetia - environmental headlines (topographic and political map)
South Ossetia - environmental headlines (topographic and political map. The basemap is complemented with textual information on 'environmental headlines'which are the preliminary results of a desk assessment conducted by...
01 Nov 2008 - by Matthias Beilstein and Otto Simonett
research_antarcticflag_nb
About research_antarcticflag_nb
26 Nov 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
research_greenland_nb
About research_greenland_nb
26 Nov 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
base_climograph_nb
About base_climograph_nb
26 Nov 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
research_arcticflag_nb
About research_arcticflag_nb
26 Nov 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
base_population_nb
About base_population_nb
26 Nov 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
peoples_shipping_nb
About peoples_shipping_nb
26 Nov 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
ozonehole_nb
About ozonehole_nb
26 Nov 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
climate_arcticflag_nb
About climate_arcticflag_nb
26 Nov 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
base_daylight_nb
About base_daylight_nb
26 Nov 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
bio_antarcticflag_nb
About bio_antarcticflag_nb
26 Nov 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
peoples_language_nb
About peoples_language_nb
26 Nov 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
climate_timeline_nb
About climate_timeline_nb
26 Nov 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
climate_recentwarming_nb
About climate_recentwarming_nb
26 Nov 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
climate_antarcticflag_nb
About climate_antarcticflag_nb
26 Nov 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
peoples_arcticflag_nb
About peoples_arcticflag_nb
26 Nov 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
peoples_antarcticflag_nb
About peoples_antarcticflag_nb
26 Nov 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
peoples_tourism_nb
About peoples_tourism_nb
26 Nov 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
climate_arcticice_nb
About climate_arcticice_nb
26 Nov 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
climate_feedback_nb
About climate_feedback_nb
26 Nov 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Examples of GHG emission amounts 08
Examples of GHG emission amounts generated by different activities or goods are scattered across the book in the form of proportional bubbles (in kilograms of CO2 equivalent).
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Examples of GHG emission amounts 20
Examples of GHG emission amounts generated by different activities or goods are scattered across the book in the form of proportional bubbles (in kilograms of CO2 equivalent).
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Biofuel production
Thousand million litres per year
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Varying contribution to climate change
Share of transport-related greenhouse gas emissions
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Two scenarios for biofuels by 2030
Biodiesel is produced from oil, which can be sourced from oil seed crops such as rapeseed, soy bean, sunflower or jatropha and from waste oil such as cooking oil. Water and other contaminants are removed from the oil and...
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Examples of GHG emission amounts 17
Examples of GHG emission amounts generated by different activities or goods are scattered across the book in the form of proportional bubbles (in kilograms of CO2 equivalent).
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Nuclear energy is not a clean alternative The legacy of the Soviet Union's nuclear activities
Even though the nuclear industry does not significantly contribute to greenhouse gas emissions, it is a disputable alternative to fossil fuels. In the former USSR people and the environment still have to cope with the ...
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Examples of GHG emission amounts 14
Examples of GHG emission amounts generated by different activities or goods are scattered across the book in the form of proportional bubbles (in kilograms of CO2 equivalent).
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Political choices
About political choices, National / International scale, Local / City scale
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Climate change global processes and effects
Greenhouse gases emissions, HUMAN ACTIVITIES, CLIMATE CHANGE PROCESSES, MAIN CLIMATE FEATURES, MAJOR THREATS.
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
The boom in air travel
Number of air transport passengers per year (millions)
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Meat imports in 2005
Meat imports in 2005 & Meat consumption
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Examples of GHG emission amounts 04
Examples of GHG emission amounts generated by different activities or goods are scattered across the book in the form of proportional bubbles (in kilograms of CO2 equivalent).
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
table02
About table02
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
World Greenhouse gas emissions by sector
All data is for 2000. All calculations are based on CO2 equivalents, using 100-year global warming potentials from the IPCC (1996), based on a total global estimate of 41 755 MtCO2 equivalent. Land use change includes b...
05 Jan 2009 - by WRI/Tim Herzog
Top 20 greenhouse gas emitters (including land use change and forestry)
The following gases are taken into account: CO2 - Carbon dioxide CH4 - Methane N2O - Nitrous oxide PFCs - Perfluorocarbons HFCs - Hydrofluorocarbons SF6 - Sulphur hexafluoride
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Animal proteins: the good, the bad and the ugly
Kilograms of CO2 equivalents per 100 kilocalories of product
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Accounting units
A table about Accounting units
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Copenhagen, paradise for cyclists
In Copenhagen 36 per cent of the city's inhabitants cycle to work, using a network of more than 330 kilometres of cycle tracks and travelling at an average speed of 15 kph.
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Examples of GHG emission amounts 05
Examples of GHG emission amounts generated by different activities or goods are scattered across the book in the form of proportional bubbles (in kilograms of CO2 equivalent).
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Dirty coal is here to stay
Coal producers are already taking advantage of the oil shortage and might even more in the future. In 2004 43 % of the electricity produced in the world came from coal.
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Examples of GHG emission amounts 03
Examples of GHG emission amounts generated by different activities or goods are scattered across the book in the form of proportional bubbles (in kilograms of CO2 equivalent).
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
German transportation means
(in pink, the average German rates used here). Better results can be obtained for metro, tram and train if more people are using them (better network and schedules, accessibility, affordability and competitiveness compar...
03 Oct 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Urban density and transport-related energy consumption
Transport-related energy consumption Gigajoules per capita per year, Urban density Inhabitants per hectare
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Emissions from agriculture
Average emissions Thousand million tonnes of CO2 equivalent per year
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
All actors towards a climate neutral society
About All actors towards a climate neutral society
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Same comfort level, same needs, different choices
In this example, C02 emitted each day by two persons living in Munich are detailed, showing two different ways of fulfilling the same needs: 38 kg of C02 emitted by an average consumer versus 14 kg by a more aware one.
03 Oct 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Europe’s “Dirty Thirty”
WWF Ranking of the 30 dirtiest power plants in Europe Please note: *These are not the most emitting power plants but the least efficient ones. *This ranking only compares plants located in the European Union (25 cou...
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
How much is emitted by ships?
Million tons of CO2, How much is emitted by ships?
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Examples of GHG emission amounts 09
Examples of GHG emission amounts generated by different activities or goods are scattered across the book in the form of proportional bubbles (in kilograms of CO2 equivalent).
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Carbon inventory
Carbon stored by forests graphic, Distribution of carbon inventory graphic and Carbon inventory up to 2100.
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Examples of GHG emission amounts 16
Examples of GHG emission amounts generated by different activities or goods are scattered across the book in the form of proportional bubbles (in kilograms of CO2 equivalent).
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Emission Calculators
Table explaining Emission Calculators
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Examples of GHG emission amounts 06
Examples of GHG emission amounts generated by different activities or goods are scattered across the book in the form of proportional bubbles (in kilograms of CO2 equivalent).
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Life cycle emissions of a computer
“Manufacturing computers is materials-intensive; the total fossil fuels used to make one desktop computer weigh over 240 kilograms, some ten times the weight of the computer itself. This is very high compared to many oth...
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Emissions Assessment
Direct measurements of greenhouse gases emissions are not possible. Assessments are therefore using precise theoretical calculations for each sectors. They are called “emission factors” and are regularly updated. Tryi...
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Energy cost of various construction materials
CO2 emissions are not directly deducible from energy costs. Concrete for instance is a very CO2-intensive material due to the emissions from chemical processes involved in its production, despite the relatively low energ...
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Examples of GHG emission amounts 19
Examples of GHG emission amounts generated by different activities or goods are scattered across the book in the form of proportional bubbles (in kilograms of CO2 equivalent).
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Examples of GHG emission amounts 18
Examples of GHG emission amounts generated by different activities or goods are scattered across the book in the form of proportional bubbles (in kilograms of CO2 equivalent).
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Examples of GHG emission amounts 15
Examples of GHG emission amounts generated by different activities or goods are scattered across the book in the form of proportional bubbles (in kilograms of CO2 equivalent).
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Do you really save time?
Train versus plane in a busy world
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Examples of GHG emission amounts 11
Examples of GHG emission amounts generated by different activities or goods are scattered across the book in the form of proportional bubbles (in kilograms of CO2 equivalent).
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Greenhouse gas intensity of national economies
The national greenhouse gas intensity measures the quantity of GHG emissions in relation to the economic output of a country and is independent of the absolute quantity of GHG emitted. Other ways to represent GHG emissio...
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Strategic options for climate change mitigation Global cost curve for greenhouse gas abatement measures
This graphic attempts to show 'all in one': the various measures for greenhouse gas reduction with both reduction (in CO2 equivalent) and cost (in Euros) quantified. Read from left to right it gives the whole range of s...
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Examples of GHG emission amounts 13
Examples of GHG emission amounts generated by different activities or goods are scattered across the book in the form of proportional bubbles (in kilograms of CO2 equivalent).
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Biofuel versus fossil fuel
About Biofuel versus fossil fuel
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Examples of GHG emission amounts 02
Examples of GHG emission amounts generated by different activities or goods are scattered across the book in the form of proportional bubbles (in kilograms of CO2 equivalent).
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Some examples of the effect of individual behaviour on greenhouse gas emissions in France
The area of the squares is proportionate to the annual reduction in emissions in million tonnes of CO2 equivalent. Estimated values calculated by France's Environment Institute (Ifen), drawing on various sources: Mani...
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Climate Change Performance Index 2008
The Climate Change Performance Index developed by Germanwatch is calculated using three weighted indexes: *Emissions trends for energy, transport, industry and residential account for 50 % of total rating; *A countr...
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Certified Emission Reductions
One certified emission reduction unit is equivalent to a one-tonne reduction in greenhouse gas emissions (measured in CO2 equivalent). Circles have only been drawn for countries that have issued more than 50,000 CERs....
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Turn it off!
Household appliances with a standby mode
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Total CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel burning, cement production and gas flaring
The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), adopted in 1992, divides countries into Annex I (industrialized countries and countries with economies in transition) and Non-Annex I parties (mostly d...
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
The boom in shipping trade
Map showing The boom in shipping trade and a graphic showing world imports.
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Offset providers
Table explaining Offset providers
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Energy cost of out-of-season vegetables
Oil required for production Liters per kilogram of vegetable
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Most commonly used air routes, in million passengers a year
Other options besides flight?
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Energy consumption and CO2 emissions from building
Energy consumption for heating and hot water Kilowatt hour per square metre per year CO2 emissions depending on the energy used for heating and hot water, for a 100 square metre dwelling Kilograms of carbon equivalent...
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
table01
About table01
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Examples of GHG emission amounts 01
Examples of GHG emission amounts generated by different activities or goods are scattered across the book in the form of proportional bubbles (in kilograms of CO2 equivalent).
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
The Carbon cycle
The figures indicate carbon storage and flows, expressed in Gigatonnes (1 000 million tonnes) of carbon. The arrows are proportionate to the volume of carbon. The figures for the flows express amounts exchanged annual...
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Examples of GHG emission amounts 10
Examples of GHG emission amounts generated by different activities or goods are scattered across the book in the form of proportional bubbles (in kilograms of CO2 equivalent).
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Energy consumption by usage in a building
Buildings (residential and commercial) account for 10 to 15% of all greenhouse gas emissions, including almost 70% carbon dioxide and 25% methane.
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Largest industrial CO2 emitters
Facilities emitting more than 100 000 tonnes of CO2 each year
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Emissions by gas
Thousand million tonnes of CO2 equivalent per year (1970-2004 period)
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Greenhouse gas emissions for three sectors
The data comes from national reports to UNFCCC. For developing countries (i. e. non-Annex I countries), data is either old or missing. To better reflect the truth, we chose to overlap 2000 data from IEA (dashed circle...
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Biofuel production Map
Global map about Biofuel production
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
table03
About table03
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Examples of GHG emission amounts 07
Examples of GHG emission amounts generated by different activities or goods are scattered across the book in the form of proportional bubbles (in kilograms of CO2 equivalent).
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Examples of GHG emission amounts 12
Examples of GHG emission amounts generated by different activities or goods are scattered across the book in the form of proportional bubbles (in kilograms of CO2 equivalent).
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Registered projects implemented under Kyoto’s “Clean Development Mechanism”
Number of projects by host parties and Number of projects by investor parties
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Dissolved phosphate levels: concentrations at river mouths
Phosphorus is naturally present in water, primarily as inorganic and organic phosphates. Phosphates can enter aquatic environments in several ways: from the natural weathering of minerals in the drainage basin, from biol...
26 Jan 2009 - by Phillippe Rekacewicz, February 2006
Water Scarcity Index
Water overuse is damaging the environment in many major basins. High overuse tends to occur in regions heavily dependent on irrigated agriculture, such as the Indo-Gangetic Plain in south Asia, the North China Plain and ...
13 Sep 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, February 2006