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Recent

Population
Environment and Security in the Mediterranean: Population
17 Nov 2009 - by Emmanuelle Bournay and Matthias Beilstein, Zoï Environment Network
Migration
Environment and Security in the Mediterranean: Migration
17 Nov 2009 - by Emmanuelle Bournay and Matthias Beilstein, Zoï Environment Network
Non-renewable Natural Resources
Environment and Security in the Mediterranean: Non-renewable Natural Resources
17 Nov 2009 - by Emmanuelle Bournay and Matthias Beilstein, Zoï Environment Network
Differentiated Responnsibilities
Reported CFC production of Non-Article 5 countries (24 out of 49 states reporting)
02 Nov 2009 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Vulnerabilities
Health impacts due to ultraviolet radiation
02 Nov 2009 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
The Ozone Protection Landscape
National Ozone Units in developing countries
02 Nov 2009 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Arctic Ozone Depletion and Stratospheric Temperature
Changes in ozone amounts are closely linked to temperature, with colder temperatures resulting in more polar stratospheric clouds and lower ozone levels. Atmospheric motions drive the year-to-year temperature changes.The...
02 Nov 2009 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Ozone Hole Size
The extent of ozone depletion for any given period depends on complex interaction between chemical and climatic factors such as temperature and wind. The unusually high levels of depletion in 1988, 1993 and 2002 were due...
02 Nov 2009 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
HCFC: A Transitional Substitute for CFC
Depicting gradually replaced by HFCs and, to a lesser degree by natural refrigerants in developped countries (where the HCFC phase-out deadline for production was reached in 2004).
02 Nov 2009 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Deadlines for Production and Consumption of Ozone Depleting Substances
Defined in the Montreal Protocol phase-outs
02 Nov 2009 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
The Ozone International Awakening
No data
02 Nov 2009 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Air Conditioning in Southern China
No data
02 Nov 2009 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
The Antarctic Hole
From September 21-30, 2006, the average area of the ozone hole was the largest ever observed.
02 Nov 2009 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
ODS Banks Reduction Potential by 2015
No data
02 Nov 2009 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Chemical Ozone Destruction Process in the Stratosphere
No data
02 Nov 2009 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Destroying ODS Banks: A Cheap Way to Mitigate Climate Change
No data
02 Nov 2009 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Recipients and contributors countries of the Multilateral Fund
Countries receive funds according to their compliance needs. That is, they receive funds to phase-out specific amounts of ODS production and consumption. Hence,ODS producer countries and high consumers receive more funds...
02 Nov 2009 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
HFC AND N2O: Two Climate Enemies Related to the Ozone Layer
Selected greenhouse gases emissions and projections
02 Nov 2009 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Skin Colour Map (Indigenous People)
Predicted from multiple environmental factors.
02 Nov 2009 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
CFC End Uses in the US in 1987
In percentage of all CFC uses in the US
02 Nov 2009 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
HFC emissions for selected countries
Note: 26 reporting countries only. Emissions under 1 000 tonnes are not represented.
02 Nov 2009 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Methyl Bromide Trends
No data
02 Nov 2009 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
The 'Hole': A Result of Specil Weather Conditions over the Pole Repeated Every Spring
The Antarctic continent is circled by a strong wind in the stratosphere which flows around Antarctica and isolates air over Antarctica from air in the midlatitudes.
02 Nov 2009 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Examples of ODS Smuggling Patterns in Asia and the Pacific
No data
02 Nov 2009 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
The Effects of the Montreal Protocol Amendments and their Phase-Out Schedules
Predicted abundance throughout the years
02 Nov 2009 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
UV Index Worldmap
The Global Solar UV Index (UVI) is a simple measurement of the UV radiation level at the Earth's surface. It has been designed to indicate the potential for adverse health effects and to encourage people to protect thems...
02 Nov 2009 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Production of Main ODS Gases
Depicting thousand ozone depleting potential tonnes.
02 Nov 2009 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
World ODS Banks by Sector
‘Banks’ are the total amount of substances contained in existing equipment, chemical stockpiles, foams and other products not yet released to the atmosphere or destroyed in destruction facilities.
01 Oct 2009 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Nitrous Oxide: A Major Culprit after 2010... ... Mostly Released by the Agricultural Sector
No data
02 Nov 2009 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Ozone Depletion and Climate Change
Ozone depletion and climate change are two distinct problems but as they both modify global Earth cycles, they cannot be totally separated. There are still many uncertainties concerning the relations between the two proc...
02 Nov 2009 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Global sea-level rise
According to the 2007 IPCC report, global average sea level rise will vary from 18 cm to 59 cm by 2100. The IPCC models did not account for the accelerated melting of ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica. Some of th...
01 Oct 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
MSV Partners around the World
Partners include policy and research organisations, non-governmental organisations, indigenous people organisations and communities, multinational bodies and governmental supporters in over 20 Arctic and SIDS (Small Isla...
03 Feb 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Mean annual coastal erosion in arctic Alaska (Beaufort Sea shoreline)
In the Arctic, impacts of climate change will include increased coastal erosion. For Arctic human communities impacts are projected to be mixed, with detrimental impacts expected on infrastructure and traditional ind...
03 Feb 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Regional CO2 emissions
World carbon dioxide emissions by region, 1950-2006. Under the terms of the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), countries that have contributed the most greenhouse gas emissions have a ...
03 Feb 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Arctic ice cover extent
The greatest reduction in Arctic summer sea ice extent since satellite observations began occurred in 2007, with the following two years experiencing the second and third biggest reductions. The Greenland ice sheet i...
03 Feb 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Submissions and preliminary information
No data.
03 Feb 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Global distribution of outer continental shelf
No data.
03 Feb 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
If the area of the seabed under review was land…
No data.
03 Feb 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Status of submissions for outer continental shelf
No data.
03 Feb 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
No title
No data.
03 Feb 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Small area, big variety in types of Submission (Legend)
No data
03 Feb 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Small area, big variety in types of Submission
No data
03 Feb 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Seabed jurisdiction
No data.
03 Feb 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Deep underwater, deeper underground
No data
03 Feb 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Total area of outer continental shelf by state
No data.
03 Feb 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Marittime zones
No data.
03 Feb 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Status of the convention
No data.
03 Feb 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, Jean-Nicolas Poussart, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Relative contribution of outer continental shelf to total area under national jurisdiction
No data
03 Feb 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Ratio of outer continental shelf over emerged land area
No data
03 Feb 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Role of geology in Article 76
No data
03 Feb 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Area of outer continental shelf submitted per continent
No data.
03 Feb 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Glacier Lake Outburst Floods
Cumulative frequency graph of GLOFs in Nepal, Bhutan and Tibet. The best-ft line suggests an increase in GLOF frequency through time, although older events may be under-reported. GLOFs also took place in Patagonia,...
06 Dec 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni
Glacier volume change forecasts
Oerlemans et al. (1998) conducted modelling experiments for a sample of 12 glaciers and ice caps, to determine volume changes under a range of temperature and precipitation forcings (Fig. 3). The range of glacier respon...
06 Dec 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni
Southern Asia natural disasters between 1975 and 2004
Overview of natural disasters in Asia between 1975 and 2004. Floods account for a very signifcant proportion of the disasters observed.
06 Dec 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni
Glacier cumulative mass balance
Compilation of available data (Fig. 1) shows that most mountain glaciers are losing mass, and that the overall rate of mass loss has increased in the last decade. For the last decade the highest mass loss per unit area h...
06 Dec 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni
Regional flood vulnerability
Since Asia comprises a large portion of the World’s popula- tion, and more than 40% of all the foods in the world occur in Asia, a large number of people are affected by disasters (Fig. 14). More than 40% of the peo...
06 Dec 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni
Seasonal patterns of precipitation and runoff
The infuence of glaciers on seasonal distribution of river fow is strongly dependent on annual temperature and precipitation cycles, and the proportion of the catchment occupied by glacier ice. Figure 4 compares precip...
06 Dec 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni
Qanat
A qanat is a water management system used to secure reliable water supply to human settlements or irrigation in semi-arid and arid regions. Probably originating in Persia, the qanat system has been adopted and developed ...
06 Dec 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni
Glacier recession and expansion in Hindu Kush-Himalayas and Central Asia
Averaged over their entire areas, within the period 1960– 2003 glaciers in Patagonia and Alaska have thinned by ap- proximately 35 m and 25 m, respectively, whereas high mountain glaciers in Asia have thinned by over...
06 Dec 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni
Victims and affected people in Pakistan flood, August 2010
Seasonal fooding can occur along all the major watersheds in the Himalayan region (Figure 11–14). The largest problems occur in food prone areas with high population densities. This includes parts of northeast India, ...
15 Feb 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni
Salzach river discharge, Austrian Alps
Simulated contributions of glacier melt (frn/ice melt) to annual total runoff were calculated between 1 and 4%. In the period 1999–2000, when the glacier mass balance of Goldbergkees and Stubacher Sonnblickkees have been...
06 Dec 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni
Glacier shrinkage in hypothetical river basins
Downstream variation in the impact of glacier recession is illustrated in Figure 5, which shows modelled river fows for idealized catchments under climates representative of the western and eastern Himalaya and a 0....
06 Dec 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni
Recent flood events in the Hindu Kush-Himalaya region
Since Asia comprises a large portion of the World’s popula- tion, and more than 40% of all the foods in the world occur in Asia, a large number of people are affected by disasters (Fig. 14). More than 40% of the peo...
03 Feb 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni
Sources of water for domestic use in Port Harcourt
The main source of water in Port Harcourt is boreholes, which account to about 50 per cent of the water sources for domestic use. Many of these boreholes are shallow, making them prone to pollution, and increasing the ri...
18 Mar 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Slum population in urban Africa
One of the major challenges of urbanisation in Africa is the rapid expansion of areas of informal settlements. These slum areas tend to lack infrastructure such as pipe-borne water and sewerage, and services such as garb...
18 Mar 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Access to sanitation in urban Africa
The number of people in Africa with access to improved sanitation, defined as “one that hygienically separates human excreta from human contact” (WHO/UNICEF 2010), has increased over the last two decades. Still, because ...
18 Mar 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Urban growth rate in Africa
Africa’s urban centres are currently growing at an annual rate that is the fastest compared to other regions. The urban expansion is expected to continue, with cities like Abuja and Ouagadougou expecting very high growth...
27 Feb 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Population distribution in Africa
In 1990 there were only 24 cities in Africa with more than one million inhabitants. Today this number has increased to 48 cities, of which Cairo and Lagos are the largest with more than ten million inhabitants each.
18 Mar 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Water supply and demand in Nairobi
The bulk of water supply for Nairobi comes from Thika, Sasumua and Ruiru Dams, as well as the Kikuyu Springs. Over time water supply for the city has failed to meet demand. The current estimated water demand for Nairobi ...
18 Mar 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Access to water in urban Africa
Improved water sources, defined as “one that is protected from outside contamination” (WHO/UNICEF 2010), is essential for ensuring the health of Africa’s urban dwellers. Although an increasing number of people have acces...
18 Mar 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Urban population trends, Kenya and Nairobi
As the total urban population of Kenya continues to grow, the capital of Nairobi still harbours the largest share of the country’s urban population. Between 1948 and 2009, Nairobi’s share of the country’s urban populatio...
18 Mar 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Access to sanitation in Yaoundè
Proper disposal of sewage is essential for urban water quality, and in Yaoundè the treatment of wastewater, excreta, and sewage can be classified into two categories – individual wastewater systems (septic tanks and latr...
18 Mar 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Historical population trend, Grahamstown 1840-1980
While the white population were the majority in the early period of Grahamstown, South Africa, they were outnumbered around 1920. Historically, the non-white population did not pay for water and sanitation services, and ...
18 Mar 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
South Africa population distribution
Kwazulu-Natal has the largest share of population in the coastal areas. Approximately 9 million people live in the province and they are Zulu-speakers. The Eastern Cape Province has the second largest population with 5.8...
21 Jun 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Working for the Coast
Working for the Coast is a programme initiated under the Social Responsibility Programme, which provides jobs and training for unemployed people in coastal communities to create and maintain a cleaner coastal environment...
21 Jun 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
South Africa biomes
South Africa is blessed with a rich abundance of biodiversity and a wide range of ecosystems and biomes. Among them are the wetland ecosystems, which occupy approximately seven per cent of South Africa’s total land area....
21 Jun 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Selected environmental threats in South Africa
In examining environmental challenges in South Africa, it becomes clear that environmental pressures tend to occur in overlapping geographical areas. This tendency results in amplified environmental threats in already di...
21 Jun 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
National environmental legislation, South Africa
The Working for the Environment programmes (water, fire, wetland, coast) are all supported by important national environmental legislation including the National Environmental Management: Biodiversity Act, the Disaster M...
21 Jun 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Working for Water employment
The Working for Water programme was launched in 1995 and is administered through the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry. The programme works in partnership with local communities which it provides with jobs, and al...
01 Nov 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Clearing invasive alien plant species
Despite the widespread distribution and extent of alien invasive species in South Africa, actions to control such plants have had some good results. In the fight against invasive alien plant species, the Working for Wate...
21 Jun 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Invasive alien plant species potential distribution
Alien plant species pose a major threat to South Africa’s native biodiversity. It is estimated that more than 9 000 plant species have been introduced so far. Of these, about 198 species are deemed invasive, covering 10 ...
21 Jun 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Working on Fire programme achievements
The goal of the Working on Fire programme is to protect life and livelihoods and ensure a sustainable and well balanced environment. The programme is advocating and assisting with good land management strategies and an i...
21 Jun 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Water scarcity in Africa
Wetlands are essential in providing and storing freshwater, but today more than half of South Africa’s wetlands have been destroyed or degraded and it is estimated that by 2025 South Africa will suffer from water scarcit...
21 Jun 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Pressures on the South African coast
Population growth puts pressure on coastal ecosystems. Increased population means growing demand for land for housing and infrastructure, increased use of living resources for food, and more use of available freshwater r...
21 Jun 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Poverty and social unrest in South Africa
Although the United Nations Development Programme’s (UNDP) Human Development Index ranks South Africa as a middle-income country, the way in which income is distributed across the population is highly skewed. Some 39 per...
21 Jun 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Job opportunity created per focus area
The Social Responsibility Programme was initiated in 1999 under the then Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEAT) and represents an important part of the Environment and Culture sector of the Expanded Publi...
21 Jun 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Biodiversity threats
South Africa is recognised as the third most megadiverse country in the world. The abundance of biodiversity found within its borders covers an estimated ten per cent of the world’s plant species, seven per cent of al...
21 Jun 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Wildfires in South Africa
Wildfires mostly affect rural settlements, but to an increasing degree also urban areas, which have developed in fire-prone areas. The impact of wildfires in natural vegetation on the poorest groups of the population can...
01 Mar 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Share of projects per focus area
The Social Responsibility Programme was initiated in 1999 under the then Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEAT) and represents an important part of the Environment and Culture sector of the Expanded Publi...
21 Jun 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Value for the avoided CO2 emissions during a 25-year transition period from primary forest to oil palm or other land uses
For the focus areas Batang Toru and Tripa in the two main orangutan habitats (forest on non-peatlands and peat) it was calculated what the values (USD/ha) would be of the avoided CO2 emissions over a period of 25 years. ...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Areas that qualify for protection under Indonesian law
Under Indonesian law, areas that qualify for protection are based on slope (>40%), sensitive soil types, elevation (above 2000m), and peat land (>3m), thereby preventing any man-made development within most of the Sumatr...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Tourism
Sumatran orangutan habitat offers excellent opportunities for tourism, including direct viewing of orangutans and other diverse wildlife, jungle treks and caving, rafting and bathing in rivers and hot springs, and even u...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Fire events in Tripa
Although the burning of peat is forbidden by Indonesian law, more than 458 fire hotspots have been detected by satellite in Tripa during the last 10 years, the vast majority being located within palm oil concessions.
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Abatement costs for transition from undisturbed forest to other land uses
Opportunity costs for the transition from forest to other land uses between 1994-2009 in Tripa and 1990-2009 in Batang Toru are shown. For the transition to the most profitable land-use a price of slightly more than USD ...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Conversion of forests to different land uses
Using satellite images, land use changes were determined at Batang Toru (2001-2009) and Tripa (2001-2009) to calculate overall CO2 emissions. Deforestation in both areas led to different land use transitions, with the pr...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Conversion from primary forest to other land uses, 1985-2007
The main driver for forest loss on peat areas in the Leuser Ecosystem was oil palm development between 1985 and 2007, while for forest on non-peatlands other land uses than oil palm contributed more to land use changes.
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Below-ground carbon stocks
The three coastal peat swamps of Tripa, Kluet and Singkil together represent the most important habitat for Sumatran oran-gutan populations in terms of density (van Schaik et al. 1995). When considering that the depth of...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Carbon storage in terrestrial ecosystems vs. great ape distribution
All great ape species predominantly live in tropical rainforests, which are among the most carbon-rich areas in the world. This overlap between the areas where great apes occur and carbon indicates that more potential sy...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal