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Population density and urban centres in the Mediterranean basin
The total population of the Mediterranean countries grew from 276 million in 1970 to 412 million in 2000 (a 1,35 % increase per year) and to 466 million in 2010. The population is predicted to reach 529 million by 2025....
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Status of Ratification of the Barcelona Convention and its Protocols
The main regulatory instrument aimed at the protection of the Mediterranean marine and coastal environment is the Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment and the Coastal Region of the Mediterranean (Barce...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Timeline of Barcelona Convention and its Protocols
The Barcelona Convention now has a total of seven associated Protocols: • The Protocol for the Prevention of Pollution of the Mediterranean Sea by Dumping from Ships and Aircraft or Incineration at Sea (Dumping Protocol...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Tourist pressure on Mediterranean coast
Tourism contributes CO2 emissions, mostly through increased use of air and road transportation. Beyond that, the major direct pressure from coastal tourism on the marine and coastal environment is the demand for space, ...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Chlorophyll-a concentration
Climatogical yearly mean of chlorophyll-a concentration.
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Surface circulation in the Mediterranean Sea
The large-scale circulation of the Mediterranean Sea has been described as sub-basin-scale and mesoscale gyres interconnected and bounded by currents and jets with strong seasonal and inter-annual variability (Millot a...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Mean surface salinity
Schematically, the Mediterranean Sea comprises three main water masses (EEA and UNEP 1999): • the Modified Atlantic Water (MAW), found in the surface layer, with a thickness of 50–200 m and characterised by a salinity...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Mean surface temperature
A large thermohaline cell (affected by both temperature and salinity) characterises the general circulation in the Mediterranean Sea. Circulation is driven by the water balance deficit and by the heat fluxes between the ...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Mediterranean Sea water masses: vertical distribution
Schematically, the Mediterranean Sea comprises three main water masses (EEA and UNEP 1999): • the Modified Atlantic Water (MAW), found in the surface layer, with a thickness of 50–200 m and characterised by a salinity...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Total annual precipitations
Mediterranean river discharge patterns depend on properties of the atmospheric water budget as well as on the geographical characteristics of the Mediterranean catchment. A substantial latitudinal gradient characteris...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Mean annual temperature
Climatically, the Mediterranean is characterised by warm temperatures, winter-dominated rainfall, dry summers, and a profusion of microclimates (UNEP/MAP/MED POL 2003). Mean annual temperature follows a marked north-to-...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
River discharge of freshwater into the Mediterranean
The estimated mean annual river discharge into the Mediterranean for recent years is about 10.000 m3/s, with a dry season in midsummer and a peak flow in early spring (Struglia et al. 2004). Ranked according to annual ...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Geography, physiography and landscapes
A general overview of the Mediterranean region’s physical geography reveals an irregular, deeply indented coastline, especially in the north, where the Iberian, Italian, and Balkan peninsulas jut southward from the main ...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Items not regulated
The Technical Regulation of the Customs Union establishes common principles and rules for Belarus, Kazakhstan and the Russian Federation. The category ‘On the safety of toys’ contains a list of items not regarded as toys...
25 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Concentrations of heavy metals in children's toys
The study found that of the 569 products tested, 104 (18 per cent) exceeded the limit for lead, 18 (3 per cent) exceeded the limit for mercury, 45 (8 per cent) exceeded the limit for arsenic and 75 products (13 per cent)...
25 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Impact of toxic metals
The toxic substances found in toys in the study can cause a variety of harmful consequences. Lead is a neurotoxin with no safe level of exposure. Even small amounts in children can give rise to learning difficulties, att...
25 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Movement of the toys
Of the 164 products containing a toxic metal, six originated in the EU, contrary to labeling data. The presence of such substances raises questions over the integrity of EU standards and regulations for children’s produ...
25 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Percentage of analysed toys that exceeded the Russian regulatory limit for toxic metal content in soil
The study found that of the 569 products tested, 104 (18 per cent) exceeded the limit for lead, 18 (3 per cent) exceeded the limit for mercury, 45 (8 per cent) exceeded the limit for arsenic and 75 products (13 per cent)...
25 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Metal contamination in analysed toys
The study found that of the 569 products tested, 104 (18 per cent) exceeded the limit for lead, 18 (3 per cent) exceeded the limit for mercury, 45 (8 per cent) exceeded the limit for arsenic and 75 products (13 per cent...
25 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Origin of the toys
Of the 164 products containing a toxic metal, six originated in the EU, contrary to labeling data. The presence of such substances raises questions over the integrity of EU standards and regulations for children’s produ...
25 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
World Toys Market and Population and GDP in 2010
Toys are a big business. Between 2007 and 2010 the global toys market grew by nearly 5 per cent in value terms – from US$78.1 billion to US$83.3 billion. The majority of the toys on the market – many millions of them – a...
25 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Protected areas share of total land area in Tanzania
Tanzania has the second highest proportion of national protected areas among the Basin states, after Zambia, with 28 per cent of the country set aside for national parks, conservation areas, game reserves, and controlle...
21 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Existing and potential hydropower projects on the Zambezi River
Proposed Dams and Hydropower Projects Water has many critical roles in the realization of socio-economic development in southern Africa. One such role is to provide hydropower to help the region to meet its ever-growing ...
21 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Proportion of urban dwellers living in slum conditions in Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe has the lowest proportional slum population among the Zambezi Basin states at just 3.4 per cent, down from 4 per cent in 1990. The portion of national population living in urban areas was 36.4 per cent in 200...
21 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Proportion of urban dwellers living in slum conditions in Zambia
Africa is the fastest urbanizing region in the world and Zambia was the third most highly urbanized country in southern Africa in 1990 after South Africa and Botswana (UN-HABITAT 2010). Zambia has continued to experience...
21 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Proportion of urban dwellers living in slum conditions in Tanzania
The population living in unplanned peri-urban settlements has been decreasing as a proportion of total urban population, while the urban population has also been increasing. Therefore the numbers have been increasing whi...
21 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Proportion of urban dwellers living in slum conditions
One-third of the urban population of Namibia lives in slum conditions, a situation that has remained almost static since 1990, reducing by less than one per cent.
21 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Sanitation trends in Zimbabwe
Progress in achieving water and sanitation targets is off track. Urban water and sanitation systems are in urgent need of renewal, and have faced serious problems that led to localized outbreaks of cholera and typhoid. ...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Access to safe water in rural and urban areas in Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe’s total annual renewable freshwater resources amount to 20 cubic km per year, and although the country experiences quality and dry season problems at present, continued pressure on the resource will lead to wat...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Threatened species in Zimbabwe
Through the intensified conservation programmes, including the Communal Areas Management Programme for Indigenous Resources (CAMPFIRE), the number of threatened species was reduced from 38 in 2000 to 32 in 2004. CAMPFIRE...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Carbon dioxide emissions in Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe has done well in phasing out ozone depleting substances, reaching the target five years ahead of the 2015 deadline set by the Montreal Protocol (Government of Zimbabwe 2010). The extent of carbon emissions is no...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Change in proportion of land area covered by forests in Zimbabwe
An initial impact of land reform was deforestation as forests were cleared to accommodate larger numbers of farmers, but the impact is yet to be quantified. Figure 4.52 shows that the proportion of land area covered by f...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Wood production in Zimbabwe
Between 2000 and 2005, Zimbabwe had the sixth highest rate of deforestation in Africa, averaging 3 130 sq km per year (FAO 2005), with increasing uncontrolled bush and forest fires. Agriculture is responsible for an esti...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Proportion of population without access to improved sanitation in Zambia
The proportion of national population without sustainable access to an improved water source had dropped below 40 per cent by 2008 and is on course to meet the MDG target of 25.5 per cent by 2015. With respect to sanitat...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Access to safe water for the urban and rural population in Zambia
Although Zambia has serious challenges of water pollution arising from contamination by sewage and toxic industrial chemicals in mining areas, the country continues to sustain the provision of improved water supply to ur...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Change in proportion of land area covered by forests in Zambia
The proportion of land area covered by forests has dropped more than six per cent since 1990, leaving two-thirds of the land under forests as shown in this figure.
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Fuelwood production in Zambia
The consumption of fuelwood is expected to increase by 35 per cent between 2000 and 2020 (FAO 2003) and had already reached a level of 8.8 million cu m per year by 2009 (Figure 4.44). Much of the fuelwood is converted to...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Access to sanitation facilities in Tanzania
Sewerage service coverage in urban centres increased from around four per cent in 1990, to six per cent in 2000 and 17 per cent in 2008. There has been a steady increase of coverage in improved sanitation facilities from...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Population using improved water sources in Tanzania
The proportion of people in urban areas who use drinking water from improved sources has increased to 83 per cent in 2008, from 68 per cent in 1990 (Government of Tanzania 2008). While more than 80 per cent of people liv...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Threatened species in Tanzania
Tanzania is a large country with vast biological diversity and high numbers of threatened species,well documented. According to IUCN (2008), Tanzania has 10 008 known species of higher plants including endemic and non-en...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Change in proportion of land area covered by forests in Tanzania
The proportion of land area covered by forests has dropped by 19 per cent since 1990 due to deforestation, leaving just over one-third of the land under forests as shown in this figure. Much of the fuelwood that is cut ...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Households with access to basic sanitation in Namibia
Access by urban households to safe drinking water is slightly less than 100 per cent, but decreasing. Access of rural households to safe drinking water was 88 per cent in 2008, up from 67 per cent in 2000. The governmen...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Population using improved water sources in Namibia
Access by urban households to safe drinking water is slightly less than 100 per cent, but decreasing. Access of rural households to safe drinking water was 88 per cent in 2008, up from 67 per cent in 2000. The governmen...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Change in the number of threatened species in Namibia
Threats to biodiversity include over-grazing, agriculture and mining (WWF 2006). Figure 4.34 shows that there are 58 threatened species in Namibia, an increase of 60 per cent in less than a decade, although some increase...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Carbon Dioxide emissions in Namibia
Carbon dioxide emissions have increased slightly since 1999 due to urban growth and increased use of fossil fuels, but the increase shown in the graphic, is largely due to improved monitoring.
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Change in proportion of land area covered by forests in Namibia
While Namibia is not heavily forested, the graphic shows a 17 per cent drop in the proportion of land area covered by forests since 1990. Just 8.8 per cent of the country was covered by forests in 2010.
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Cattle stocks in Namibia
Overgrazing is the largest threat to the environment since cattle, which outnumber people in Namibia, have surpassed the carrying capacity of the land. Current evidence of desertification includes declining ground water ...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Proportion of urban dwellers living in slum conditions in Mozambique
The 15-year conflict from 1977-1992, and drought in some regions, caused significant migration to coastal and urban areas, which have continued to grow by more than four per cent per year although the war ended 20 years...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Access to clean water and improved sanitation in Mozambique
The proportion of the population with access to safe drinking water has increased significantly to 56 per cent in 2009, from 37.3 per cent in 1997. The national target for 2015 is 70 per cent. The proportion of the popul...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Threatened Species in Mozambique
Mozambique is also rich in birdlife, mammals, reptiles and amphibians, but the number of threatened species recorded jumped from 41 in 1996 to 108 in 2003 as shown in this figure, in part due to greater access to areas ...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Consumption of ozone layer depleting substances in Mozambique
The extent of carbon emissions is not well documented in Mozambique and is not considered a significant factor in environmental sustainability. While the consumption of ozone depleting substances has been increasing slow...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Change in proportion of land area covered by forests in Mozambique
Mozambique lost 5.5 per cent of its forests in the 20 years between 1990 and 2010, but has since launched reforestation projects which have fostered denser forest cover in the wet and fertile regions while thin savannah...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Prevalence and death rates associated with malaria in Mozambique
Mozambique’s geographical location has resulted in the occurrence of floods and environmentally related diseases such as malaria and cholera which pose a threat to human health. However, the prevalence and death rates ...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Urban dwellers living in slum conditions in Malawi
The slum population as a proportion of total urban population in Malawi has been reduced by almost 30 per cent since 1990, from 94.6 per cent to 66.4 per cent, and is projected to reach 64.57 per cent by 2015, according...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Proportion of population with access to improve sanitation in Malawi
According to the Malawi Development Goals Report 2009, the country has already surpassed the MDGs targets for access to clean water and improved sanitation, and is well on its way to achieving 100 per cent for the latter...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Households with sustainable access to improved water source in Malawi
According to the Malawi Development Goals Report 2009, the country has already surpassed the MDGs targets for access to clean water and improved sanitation, and is well on its way to achieving 100 per cent for the latter...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Area protected to maintain biodiversity in Malawi
This figure shows the ratio of area protected to maintain biological diversity. Malawi’s aquatic resources of over 1 000 fish species, which make up almost 15 per cent of global freshwater fish biodiversity, are unde...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Change in proportion of land area
Malawi is on track towards attaining half of the environmental sustainability indicators, although the land area covered by forest has declined from 32.9 percent in 1990 to 27.3 per cent in 2010. This decline can be attr...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Proportion of urban dwellers living in slum conditions in Botswana
The number of people living in slum conditions as a proportion of urban residents is high, according to UNEP (2008), and slowly increasing, as shown in the figure.
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Population growth and urbanization in Botswana
The proportion of people living in urban areas is expected to increase from 57 per cent in 2005 to more than 70 per cent in 2030 (Government of Botswana 2009).
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Proportion of people using improved sanitation facility in Botswana
Due to deliberate policy and strategic action, Botswana is in the envious position of having met its water and sanitation targets well before the MDG targets and the timelines for its own Vision 2016. More than 90 per c...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Population using improved drinking water sources in Botswana
Due to deliberate policy and strategic action, Botswana is in the envious position of having met its water and sanitation targets well before the MDG targets and the timelines for its own Vision 2016. More than 90 per c...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Carbon dioxide emissions in Botswana
Botswana’s per capita carbon emissions levels are shown to be the highest in the region, as presented by the African Development Bank, but have not been a significant part of environmental monitoring at local level to d...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Change in proportion of land area covered by forest in Botswana
Some forest cover is lost to fuelwood that supplies 98 per cent of domestic energy in rural areas and 79 per cent in urban areas (Government of Botswana 2009), but timber operations have been banned since 1992, due to t...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Cattle stocks in Botswana
Significant growth in cattle stocks has forced pastoralists to expand westward into the Kgalagadi, leading to vegetation loss and erosion of marginal lands. A gradual increase of cattle stock has been noted from 2002 to ...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Total sturgeon catch in the Caspian
Six sturgeon species are found in the Caspian Sea and its drainage basin: Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii), Persian sturgeon (A. persicus), Stellate sturgeon (A. stellatus), Ship sturgeon (A. nudiventris), St...
17 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Historical decline of the Caspian seal (Pusa caspica)
It is unclear how many seals remain in the Caspian Sea. From a population estimated at more than one million in the early years of the twentieth century, population estimates now vary between 110 000 and 350 000. For mo...
17 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Comb jelly (Mnemiopsis leidyi) abundance variation in the Caspian Sea
One Comb jelly species has been introduced into the Caspian Sea – Mnemiopsis leidyi. The invasion of this jelly during the late 1990s represents one of the main environmental issues in this unique ecosystem, and is consi...
17 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
How the comb jelly (Mnemiopsis leidyi) is spreading in the European seas
One Comb jelly species has been introduced into the Caspian Sea – Mnemiopsis leidyi. The invasion of this jelly during the late 1990s represents one of the main environmental issues in this unique ecosystem, and is consi...
17 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Hazards in and around the Caspian
The map highlights the various environmental hazards around the Caspian Sea.
17 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Pesticides and heavy metals in sediments
Several pollutants such as HCB, DDT and lindane were investigated during the 2001 survey. Generally, concentrations were low, except that of DDT and its compounds which exceeded NOAA quality standards at a number of loca...
17 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Discharge of selected pollutants
Data referring to the Biological Oxygen Demand load (BOD), total suspended solids (TSS), total nitrogen and total phosphorus levels were available for all five of the Caspian countries through the Baseline Inventory Re...
17 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Oil production, consumption and export
Azerbaijan has been widely recognized as an oil-producing country with the oldest field – the Balahani-Sabunchi-Ramani site – having started operations in 1871. It is only recently, with the development of the offshore ...
17 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Oil production
Over the last 20 years, the Caspian Sea has become a focus of global attention. A worldwide decline in oil and gas reserves together with a rise in energy prices has heightened interest in an area where there is still g...
17 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Gas production, consumption and export
In terms of total world production, the Caspian accounts for 3.29% of oil production and 3.6% of gas production (BP 2009). The main focus of the oil and gas industry continues to be in the areas of Azerbaijan, Kazakhsta...
17 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Fragmentation pf the Volga river over the last 60 years
The construction of several dams along spawning rivers (mainly the Volga River) significantly altered water flows and destroyed about 90 per cent of the sturgeon’s spawning grounds (UNEP/GRID-Arendal 2006).
17 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Changing Caspian
At present, most scientists seem to agree that climate change plays a significant role in sea level fluctuations in the Caspian Sea, since temperature increases and changes in precipitation directly impact the overall w...
17 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Caspian coastline vulnerable to flooding
This map depicts the Caspian coastline that is vulnerable to flooding.
17 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Regional land degradation
Climate change-related land degradation or desertification is another phenomenon affecting all Caspian Sea littoral states. In the normal course of events, a lack of rainfall and extreme summer evaporation result in a h...
17 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Selected impacts of climate change in the Caspian basin
The Caspian Sea, though a land-locked water basin not directly affected by global sea level rise, is being similarly impacted by climate change. The Caspian Basin plays an important role in atmospheric processes, regiona...
17 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Urbanisation on the Caspian shores
The population dynamics of the Caspian littoral states (US Census Bureau 2010) in 1992 – 2007 vary: while the overall population of Kazakhstan and Russia has declined by 7.6 and 4.8 per cent respectively, the population...
17 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Protected areas in the Caspian basin
The biological diversity of the Caspian Sea and its coastal zone makes the region particularly significant. One of the most important characteristics of the Caspian Sea’s biodiversity is the relatively high level of ende...
17 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Sea level rise in Anzali Lagoon, Iran
About 77,800 hectares are currently flooded in Iran as a result of sea level rise. Infrastructure is under threat. For example, the power station in Neka region has already been damaged. The rise in sea level has increa...
17 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Heavy metals in sediments
According to the first monitoring programme, 23 metals were found in Caspian Sea sediments. Some of the most significant results show: Arsenic (As) concentrations were fairly high in the region and, in some areas, exceed...
17 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Cheleken Peninsula pollution sources
The figure shows the sources of pollution in the Cheleken Peninsula.
17 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Tourism in the Mediterranean countries
The economic importance of coastal tourism is unquestionable, although due to data limitations there is no comprehensive analysis of the sector’s contribution to the global economy. The Mediterranean Basin alone hosted ...
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Estimated potential yearly whale watching revenue
The value of marine recreational activities was calculated by Cisneros-Montemayor & Sumaila (2010). A database of reported expenditure on marine recreational activities was compiled for 144 coastal countries, with the au...
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Tourism, a source for economy and employment
The economic importance of coastal tourism is unquestionable, although due to data limitations there is no comprehensive analysis of the sector’s contribution to the global economy. The Mediterranean Basin alone hosted ...
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Blue flags up!
Marine environments are key assets of global tourism, and their preservation is ultimately a precondition for the survival of marine and coastal tourism.
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
The sanitation ladder
Per capita costs of sewage treatment go up roughly tenfold from basic latrines to tertiary treatment of collected waste water.
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen export by rivers for world regions
The figure shows the amounts of nitrogen exported by rivers per year and provides a forecast for the future.
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Nitrogen sources to watershed exports to the oceans
Over the last 20 years, significant data and experience in understanding and addressing the sectoral drivers, pressures, sources, impacts and response to reactive nitrogen have been gathered and progress made in trying t...
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Unbalancing the cycle
The figure compares the flow of nitrogen between the the years 1890 and 1990.
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Dead zones and fertilizers
The production and use of reactive nitrogen based artificial fertilizers has had huge global benefits providing food for billions through the green revolution. The down side of the increased availability of cheap manufac...
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Production of nitrogen
The rapid increase in the production of reactive nitrogen via the Haber-Bosch process correlates closely with the increase in world population from about 2.6 billion in 1950 to over 6 billion in 2000 (figure page 78). B...
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Development in Offshore wind capacity
Offshore wind, currently around 3 000 MW, has mainly been concentrated in northern European countries, around the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. Europe’s leadership is primarily attributed to public policy and a thriving...
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Spots of potential for wave energy harvest
Wave energy is captured directly from surface waves or from pressure fluctuations below the ocean surface. Wave power varies considerably in different parts of the world, making it more economically feasible to harness ...
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Looking further offshore and in deeper waters
The high capital cost of offshore foundations bounds offshore wind energy to near shore locations. Most of the capacity has been installed in relatively shallow waters (under 20 m deep) no more than 20 km from the coast...
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal