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Proportion of urban dwellers living in slum conditions in Zambia
Africa is the fastest urbanizing region in the world and Zambia was the third most highly urbanized country in southern Africa in 1990 after South Africa and Botswana (UN-HABITAT 2010). Zambia has continued to experience...
21 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Proportion of urban dwellers living in slum conditions in Tanzania
The population living in unplanned peri-urban settlements has been decreasing as a proportion of total urban population, while the urban population has also been increasing. Therefore the numbers have been increasing whi...
21 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Proportion of urban dwellers living in slum conditions
One-third of the urban population of Namibia lives in slum conditions, a situation that has remained almost static since 1990, reducing by less than one per cent.
21 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Sanitation trends in Zimbabwe
Progress in achieving water and sanitation targets is off track. Urban water and sanitation systems are in urgent need of renewal, and have faced serious problems that led to localized outbreaks of cholera and typhoid. ...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Access to safe water in rural and urban areas in Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe’s total annual renewable freshwater resources amount to 20 cubic km per year, and although the country experiences quality and dry season problems at present, continued pressure on the resource will lead to wat...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Threatened species in Zimbabwe
Through the intensified conservation programmes, including the Communal Areas Management Programme for Indigenous Resources (CAMPFIRE), the number of threatened species was reduced from 38 in 2000 to 32 in 2004. CAMPFIRE...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Carbon dioxide emissions in Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe has done well in phasing out ozone depleting substances, reaching the target five years ahead of the 2015 deadline set by the Montreal Protocol (Government of Zimbabwe 2010). The extent of carbon emissions is no...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Change in proportion of land area covered by forests in Zimbabwe
An initial impact of land reform was deforestation as forests were cleared to accommodate larger numbers of farmers, but the impact is yet to be quantified. Figure 4.52 shows that the proportion of land area covered by f...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Wood production in Zimbabwe
Between 2000 and 2005, Zimbabwe had the sixth highest rate of deforestation in Africa, averaging 3 130 sq km per year (FAO 2005), with increasing uncontrolled bush and forest fires. Agriculture is responsible for an esti...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Proportion of population without access to improved sanitation in Zambia
The proportion of national population without sustainable access to an improved water source had dropped below 40 per cent by 2008 and is on course to meet the MDG target of 25.5 per cent by 2015. With respect to sanitat...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Access to safe water for the urban and rural population in Zambia
Although Zambia has serious challenges of water pollution arising from contamination by sewage and toxic industrial chemicals in mining areas, the country continues to sustain the provision of improved water supply to ur...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Change in proportion of land area covered by forests in Zambia
The proportion of land area covered by forests has dropped more than six per cent since 1990, leaving two-thirds of the land under forests as shown in this figure.
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Fuelwood production in Zambia
The consumption of fuelwood is expected to increase by 35 per cent between 2000 and 2020 (FAO 2003) and had already reached a level of 8.8 million cu m per year by 2009 (Figure 4.44). Much of the fuelwood is converted to...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Access to sanitation facilities in Tanzania
Sewerage service coverage in urban centres increased from around four per cent in 1990, to six per cent in 2000 and 17 per cent in 2008. There has been a steady increase of coverage in improved sanitation facilities from...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Population using improved water sources in Tanzania
The proportion of people in urban areas who use drinking water from improved sources has increased to 83 per cent in 2008, from 68 per cent in 1990 (Government of Tanzania 2008). While more than 80 per cent of people liv...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Threatened species in Tanzania
Tanzania is a large country with vast biological diversity and high numbers of threatened species,well documented. According to IUCN (2008), Tanzania has 10 008 known species of higher plants including endemic and non-en...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Change in proportion of land area covered by forests in Tanzania
The proportion of land area covered by forests has dropped by 19 per cent since 1990 due to deforestation, leaving just over one-third of the land under forests as shown in this figure. Much of the fuelwood that is cut ...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Households with access to basic sanitation in Namibia
Access by urban households to safe drinking water is slightly less than 100 per cent, but decreasing. Access of rural households to safe drinking water was 88 per cent in 2008, up from 67 per cent in 2000. The governmen...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Population using improved water sources in Namibia
Access by urban households to safe drinking water is slightly less than 100 per cent, but decreasing. Access of rural households to safe drinking water was 88 per cent in 2008, up from 67 per cent in 2000. The governmen...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Change in the number of threatened species in Namibia
Threats to biodiversity include over-grazing, agriculture and mining (WWF 2006). Figure 4.34 shows that there are 58 threatened species in Namibia, an increase of 60 per cent in less than a decade, although some increase...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Carbon Dioxide emissions in Namibia
Carbon dioxide emissions have increased slightly since 1999 due to urban growth and increased use of fossil fuels, but the increase shown in the graphic, is largely due to improved monitoring.
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Change in proportion of land area covered by forests in Namibia
While Namibia is not heavily forested, the graphic shows a 17 per cent drop in the proportion of land area covered by forests since 1990. Just 8.8 per cent of the country was covered by forests in 2010.
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Cattle stocks in Namibia
Overgrazing is the largest threat to the environment since cattle, which outnumber people in Namibia, have surpassed the carrying capacity of the land. Current evidence of desertification includes declining ground water ...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Proportion of urban dwellers living in slum conditions in Mozambique
The 15-year conflict from 1977-1992, and drought in some regions, caused significant migration to coastal and urban areas, which have continued to grow by more than four per cent per year although the war ended 20 years...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Access to clean water and improved sanitation in Mozambique
The proportion of the population with access to safe drinking water has increased significantly to 56 per cent in 2009, from 37.3 per cent in 1997. The national target for 2015 is 70 per cent. The proportion of the popul...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Threatened Species in Mozambique
Mozambique is also rich in birdlife, mammals, reptiles and amphibians, but the number of threatened species recorded jumped from 41 in 1996 to 108 in 2003 as shown in this figure, in part due to greater access to areas ...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Consumption of ozone layer depleting substances in Mozambique
The extent of carbon emissions is not well documented in Mozambique and is not considered a significant factor in environmental sustainability. While the consumption of ozone depleting substances has been increasing slow...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Change in proportion of land area covered by forests in Mozambique
Mozambique lost 5.5 per cent of its forests in the 20 years between 1990 and 2010, but has since launched reforestation projects which have fostered denser forest cover in the wet and fertile regions while thin savannah...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Prevalence and death rates associated with malaria in Mozambique
Mozambique’s geographical location has resulted in the occurrence of floods and environmentally related diseases such as malaria and cholera which pose a threat to human health. However, the prevalence and death rates ...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Urban dwellers living in slum conditions in Malawi
The slum population as a proportion of total urban population in Malawi has been reduced by almost 30 per cent since 1990, from 94.6 per cent to 66.4 per cent, and is projected to reach 64.57 per cent by 2015, according...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Proportion of population with access to improve sanitation in Malawi
According to the Malawi Development Goals Report 2009, the country has already surpassed the MDGs targets for access to clean water and improved sanitation, and is well on its way to achieving 100 per cent for the latter...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Households with sustainable access to improved water source in Malawi
According to the Malawi Development Goals Report 2009, the country has already surpassed the MDGs targets for access to clean water and improved sanitation, and is well on its way to achieving 100 per cent for the latter...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Area protected to maintain biodiversity in Malawi
This figure shows the ratio of area protected to maintain biological diversity. Malawi’s aquatic resources of over 1 000 fish species, which make up almost 15 per cent of global freshwater fish biodiversity, are unde...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Change in proportion of land area
Malawi is on track towards attaining half of the environmental sustainability indicators, although the land area covered by forest has declined from 32.9 percent in 1990 to 27.3 per cent in 2010. This decline can be attr...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Proportion of urban dwellers living in slum conditions in Botswana
The number of people living in slum conditions as a proportion of urban residents is high, according to UNEP (2008), and slowly increasing, as shown in the figure.
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Population growth and urbanization in Botswana
The proportion of people living in urban areas is expected to increase from 57 per cent in 2005 to more than 70 per cent in 2030 (Government of Botswana 2009).
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Proportion of people using improved sanitation facility in Botswana
Due to deliberate policy and strategic action, Botswana is in the envious position of having met its water and sanitation targets well before the MDG targets and the timelines for its own Vision 2016. More than 90 per c...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Population using improved drinking water sources in Botswana
Due to deliberate policy and strategic action, Botswana is in the envious position of having met its water and sanitation targets well before the MDG targets and the timelines for its own Vision 2016. More than 90 per c...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Carbon dioxide emissions in Botswana
Botswana’s per capita carbon emissions levels are shown to be the highest in the region, as presented by the African Development Bank, but have not been a significant part of environmental monitoring at local level to d...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Change in proportion of land area covered by forest in Botswana
Some forest cover is lost to fuelwood that supplies 98 per cent of domestic energy in rural areas and 79 per cent in urban areas (Government of Botswana 2009), but timber operations have been banned since 1992, due to t...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Cattle stocks in Botswana
Significant growth in cattle stocks has forced pastoralists to expand westward into the Kgalagadi, leading to vegetation loss and erosion of marginal lands. A gradual increase of cattle stock has been noted from 2002 to ...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Total sturgeon catch in the Caspian
Six sturgeon species are found in the Caspian Sea and its drainage basin: Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii), Persian sturgeon (A. persicus), Stellate sturgeon (A. stellatus), Ship sturgeon (A. nudiventris), St...
17 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Historical decline of the Caspian seal (Pusa caspica)
It is unclear how many seals remain in the Caspian Sea. From a population estimated at more than one million in the early years of the twentieth century, population estimates now vary between 110 000 and 350 000. For mo...
17 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Comb jelly (Mnemiopsis leidyi) abundance variation in the Caspian Sea
One Comb jelly species has been introduced into the Caspian Sea – Mnemiopsis leidyi. The invasion of this jelly during the late 1990s represents one of the main environmental issues in this unique ecosystem, and is consi...
17 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
How the comb jelly (Mnemiopsis leidyi) is spreading in the European seas
One Comb jelly species has been introduced into the Caspian Sea – Mnemiopsis leidyi. The invasion of this jelly during the late 1990s represents one of the main environmental issues in this unique ecosystem, and is consi...
17 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Hazards in and around the Caspian
The map highlights the various environmental hazards around the Caspian Sea.
17 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Pesticides and heavy metals in sediments
Several pollutants such as HCB, DDT and lindane were investigated during the 2001 survey. Generally, concentrations were low, except that of DDT and its compounds which exceeded NOAA quality standards at a number of loca...
17 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Discharge of selected pollutants
Data referring to the Biological Oxygen Demand load (BOD), total suspended solids (TSS), total nitrogen and total phosphorus levels were available for all five of the Caspian countries through the Baseline Inventory Re...
17 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Oil production, consumption and export
Azerbaijan has been widely recognized as an oil-producing country with the oldest field – the Balahani-Sabunchi-Ramani site – having started operations in 1871. It is only recently, with the development of the offshore ...
17 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Oil production
Over the last 20 years, the Caspian Sea has become a focus of global attention. A worldwide decline in oil and gas reserves together with a rise in energy prices has heightened interest in an area where there is still g...
17 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Gas production, consumption and export
In terms of total world production, the Caspian accounts for 3.29% of oil production and 3.6% of gas production (BP 2009). The main focus of the oil and gas industry continues to be in the areas of Azerbaijan, Kazakhsta...
17 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Fragmentation pf the Volga river over the last 60 years
The construction of several dams along spawning rivers (mainly the Volga River) significantly altered water flows and destroyed about 90 per cent of the sturgeon’s spawning grounds (UNEP/GRID-Arendal 2006).
17 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Changing Caspian
At present, most scientists seem to agree that climate change plays a significant role in sea level fluctuations in the Caspian Sea, since temperature increases and changes in precipitation directly impact the overall w...
17 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Caspian coastline vulnerable to flooding
This map depicts the Caspian coastline that is vulnerable to flooding.
17 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Regional land degradation
Climate change-related land degradation or desertification is another phenomenon affecting all Caspian Sea littoral states. In the normal course of events, a lack of rainfall and extreme summer evaporation result in a h...
17 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Selected impacts of climate change in the Caspian basin
The Caspian Sea, though a land-locked water basin not directly affected by global sea level rise, is being similarly impacted by climate change. The Caspian Basin plays an important role in atmospheric processes, regiona...
17 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Urbanisation on the Caspian shores
The population dynamics of the Caspian littoral states (US Census Bureau 2010) in 1992 – 2007 vary: while the overall population of Kazakhstan and Russia has declined by 7.6 and 4.8 per cent respectively, the population...
17 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Protected areas in the Caspian basin
The biological diversity of the Caspian Sea and its coastal zone makes the region particularly significant. One of the most important characteristics of the Caspian Sea’s biodiversity is the relatively high level of ende...
17 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Sea level rise in Anzali Lagoon, Iran
About 77,800 hectares are currently flooded in Iran as a result of sea level rise. Infrastructure is under threat. For example, the power station in Neka region has already been damaged. The rise in sea level has increa...
17 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Heavy metals in sediments
According to the first monitoring programme, 23 metals were found in Caspian Sea sediments. Some of the most significant results show: Arsenic (As) concentrations were fairly high in the region and, in some areas, exceed...
17 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Cheleken Peninsula pollution sources
The figure shows the sources of pollution in the Cheleken Peninsula.
17 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Tourism in the Mediterranean countries
The economic importance of coastal tourism is unquestionable, although due to data limitations there is no comprehensive analysis of the sector’s contribution to the global economy. The Mediterranean Basin alone hosted ...
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Estimated potential yearly whale watching revenue
The value of marine recreational activities was calculated by Cisneros-Montemayor & Sumaila (2010). A database of reported expenditure on marine recreational activities was compiled for 144 coastal countries, with the au...
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Tourism, a source for economy and employment
The economic importance of coastal tourism is unquestionable, although due to data limitations there is no comprehensive analysis of the sector’s contribution to the global economy. The Mediterranean Basin alone hosted ...
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Blue flags up!
Marine environments are key assets of global tourism, and their preservation is ultimately a precondition for the survival of marine and coastal tourism.
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
The sanitation ladder
Per capita costs of sewage treatment go up roughly tenfold from basic latrines to tertiary treatment of collected waste water.
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen export by rivers for world regions
The figure shows the amounts of nitrogen exported by rivers per year and provides a forecast for the future.
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Nitrogen sources to watershed exports to the oceans
Over the last 20 years, significant data and experience in understanding and addressing the sectoral drivers, pressures, sources, impacts and response to reactive nitrogen have been gathered and progress made in trying t...
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Unbalancing the cycle
The figure compares the flow of nitrogen between the the years 1890 and 1990.
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Dead zones and fertilizers
The production and use of reactive nitrogen based artificial fertilizers has had huge global benefits providing food for billions through the green revolution. The down side of the increased availability of cheap manufac...
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Production of nitrogen
The rapid increase in the production of reactive nitrogen via the Haber-Bosch process correlates closely with the increase in world population from about 2.6 billion in 1950 to over 6 billion in 2000 (figure page 78). B...
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Development in Offshore wind capacity
Offshore wind, currently around 3 000 MW, has mainly been concentrated in northern European countries, around the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. Europe’s leadership is primarily attributed to public policy and a thriving...
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Spots of potential for wave energy harvest
Wave energy is captured directly from surface waves or from pressure fluctuations below the ocean surface. Wave power varies considerably in different parts of the world, making it more economically feasible to harness ...
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Looking further offshore and in deeper waters
The high capital cost of offshore foundations bounds offshore wind energy to near shore locations. Most of the capacity has been installed in relatively shallow waters (under 20 m deep) no more than 20 km from the coast...
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Public finance mechanisms across stages of technological development
In the early stages of development, public financial support is needed, both for R&D and then later to encourage deployment (see sections above for examples). Later, private finance can be mobilized for near-competitive...
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
World cargo shipping lanes
The international shipping industry is responsible for the carriage of about 90 per cent of world trade by volume and is vital to the functioning of the global economy. Without shipping, intercontinental trade, the bulk ...
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Oil spills from 1970 to 2010
The most obvious potential source of serious pollution from ships is the discharge of oil (cargoes or bunkers) as a result of ship losses. However, there has been a dramatic reduction in the number of major oil spills ov...
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Transportation emission
More recently, however, the focus of the industry and its regulators – encouraged by far greater awareness of the importance of environmental issues amongst all stakeholders – has also been on the wider potential impacts...
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Projected annual CO2 emissions from the shipping sector
In July 2011, international shipping became the first industrial sector to adopt binding international rules for the adoption of technical measures to reduce CO2 emissions. These technical measures were adopted by IMO as...
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Seaborne oil trade and tanker spills
The ultimate goal of the shipping industry and its regulators is zero accidents and zero pollution. Although these goals have not yet been fully achieved, considerable progress has been made, especially in the context of...
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Estimated ecosystem services value
Marine ecosystem services have substantial economic value. While exact figures are still debated, attempts to estimate the value of coastal ecosystem services have found such values to be on the order of trillions of US ...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Human impacts on marine ecosystems
Harmonizing traditional economic activity and ecosystem-dependent economic values is a challenge we must address, especially for our coasts and oceans. Persistent environmental pressures, including pollution, overharvest...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Applicability of space technology to Arctic policy areas
This figure maps the contribution that each type of space system (communications, weather and climate, navigation, earth observation, surveillance, and science) can make to each policy area (safety, environment, sustaina...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Space Technologies and Policy Drivers
Space systems provide unique opportunities to meet the needs of northern stakeholders concerned with safety, the environment, sustainable economic development, sovereignty, and indigenous rights and social development.
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Boundaries of the Arctic Council Working Groups
When defining Arctic regions, it is understood that no single, clear cut boundary exists to delineate their extent. Rather, this boundary will change with its application: environmental, biological, economic, jurisdictio...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
World oceans, a cornucopia of goods and services
Throughout the course of history, humans have been drawn to coastal areas to enjoy the bounty of the sea. As much as 40 per cent of the world’s population now lives within 100 kilometres of the shoreline (Martínez, et al...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Tourism in SIDS
Tourism is a vital sector of the economies of most SIDS. For more than half of the SIDS, it is their largest source of foreign exchange. The social, economic and environmental well-being of many SIDS is tied to this sect...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
The importance of fish for selected SIDS
Globally, 180 million people are engaged in fisheries and aquaculture activities, which sustain over 0.5 billion people, while small scale fisheries employ close to 110 million people (FAO 2010). Many small-scale operat...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Small-scale fishery, large employment
Many small-scale operators are self-employed and engaged in both subsistence and commercial activities (FAO 2011). Aggregate capture fisheries play a major role in many national economies.
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Low Elevation Coastal Zones and CO2 Emisions
SIDS face a number of challenges in pursuit of energy security and poverty reduction, including high and rising oil prices, inadequate policies and regulations, insufficient promotion and investment in renewable energy a...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Ecological footprint and the wealth of SIDS
Small island developing states (SIDS) are a group of countries that “share similar sustainable development challenges, including small population, limited resources, susceptibility to natural disasters, vulnerability to...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Waste management hierarchy
Greening the waste sector refers to a shift from less-preferred waste treatment and disposal methods such as incineration (without energy recovery) and different forms of landfilling towards the “three Rs”: Reduce, Reus...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
SIDS freshwater availability
SIDS, though surrounded by water, grapple with limited potable water supplies, poor potable water quality, sanitisation and inefficient distribution systems. The connectivity of the different components of the water cyc...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
A great socio economic diversity for Small Island Developing States
Small island developing states (SIDS) are a group of countries that “share similar sustainable development challenges, including small population, limited resources, susceptibility to natural disasters, vulnerability to...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Pacific regional waste composition
Waste management in SIDS, as in other developing countries, is a growing problem because of population growth, urbanisation, changing consumption patterns and the large numbers of tourists. Most of the waste collected i...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Zambezi River Basin trans frontier conservation areas
The Zambezi basin has several large transboundary protected areas where two or more countries participate in managing shared natural resources. The creation of Trans Frontier Conservation Areas (TFCAs) in the basin is...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Kavango-Zambezi TFCA
In December 2006, the governments of Angola, Botswana, Namibia, Zambia and Zimbabwe signed an MOU establishing the KAZA TFCA. The TFCA covers an area of 287 000 square kilometres and stretches from the Khaudum National ...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Zambezi River Basin navigation system
Navigation on the Zambezi River is both international and local. The main international transport routes are the Kazungula and Luangwa-Kanyemba, while major national routes are in the upper Zambezi River and on Lake Mal...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal