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Examples of GHG emission amounts 14
Examples of GHG emission amounts generated by different activities or goods are scattered across the book in the form of proportional bubbles (in kilograms of CO2 equivalent).
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Political choices
About political choices, National / International scale, Local / City scale
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Climate change global processes and effects
Greenhouse gases emissions, HUMAN ACTIVITIES, CLIMATE CHANGE PROCESSES, MAIN CLIMATE FEATURES, MAJOR THREATS.
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
The boom in air travel
Number of air transport passengers per year (millions)
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Meat imports in 2005
Meat imports in 2005 & Meat consumption
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Examples of GHG emission amounts 04
Examples of GHG emission amounts generated by different activities or goods are scattered across the book in the form of proportional bubbles (in kilograms of CO2 equivalent).
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
table02
About table02
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
World Greenhouse gas emissions by sector
All data is for 2000. All calculations are based on CO2 equivalents, using 100-year global warming potentials from the IPCC (1996), based on a total global estimate of 41 755 MtCO2 equivalent. Land use change includes b...
05 Jan 2009 - by WRI/Tim Herzog
Top 20 greenhouse gas emitters (including land use change and forestry)
The following gases are taken into account: CO2 - Carbon dioxide CH4 - Methane N2O - Nitrous oxide PFCs - Perfluorocarbons HFCs - Hydrofluorocarbons SF6 - Sulphur hexafluoride
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Animal proteins: the good, the bad and the ugly
Kilograms of CO2 equivalents per 100 kilocalories of product
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Accounting units
A table about Accounting units
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Copenhagen, paradise for cyclists
In Copenhagen 36 per cent of the city's inhabitants cycle to work, using a network of more than 330 kilometres of cycle tracks and travelling at an average speed of 15 kph.
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Examples of GHG emission amounts 05
Examples of GHG emission amounts generated by different activities or goods are scattered across the book in the form of proportional bubbles (in kilograms of CO2 equivalent).
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Dirty coal is here to stay
Coal producers are already taking advantage of the oil shortage and might even more in the future. In 2004 43 % of the electricity produced in the world came from coal.
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Examples of GHG emission amounts 03
Examples of GHG emission amounts generated by different activities or goods are scattered across the book in the form of proportional bubbles (in kilograms of CO2 equivalent).
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
German transportation means
(in pink, the average German rates used here). Better results can be obtained for metro, tram and train if more people are using them (better network and schedules, accessibility, affordability and competitiveness compar...
03 Oct 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Urban density and transport-related energy consumption
Transport-related energy consumption Gigajoules per capita per year, Urban density Inhabitants per hectare
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Emissions from agriculture
Average emissions Thousand million tonnes of CO2 equivalent per year
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
All actors towards a climate neutral society
About All actors towards a climate neutral society
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Same comfort level, same needs, different choices
In this example, C02 emitted each day by two persons living in Munich are detailed, showing two different ways of fulfilling the same needs: 38 kg of C02 emitted by an average consumer versus 14 kg by a more aware one.
03 Oct 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Europe’s “Dirty Thirty”
WWF Ranking of the 30 dirtiest power plants in Europe Please note: *These are not the most emitting power plants but the least efficient ones. *This ranking only compares plants located in the European Union (25 cou...
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
How much is emitted by ships?
Million tons of CO2, How much is emitted by ships?
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Examples of GHG emission amounts 09
Examples of GHG emission amounts generated by different activities or goods are scattered across the book in the form of proportional bubbles (in kilograms of CO2 equivalent).
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Carbon inventory
Carbon stored by forests graphic, Distribution of carbon inventory graphic and Carbon inventory up to 2100.
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Examples of GHG emission amounts 16
Examples of GHG emission amounts generated by different activities or goods are scattered across the book in the form of proportional bubbles (in kilograms of CO2 equivalent).
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Emission Calculators
Table explaining Emission Calculators
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Examples of GHG emission amounts 06
Examples of GHG emission amounts generated by different activities or goods are scattered across the book in the form of proportional bubbles (in kilograms of CO2 equivalent).
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Life cycle emissions of a computer
“Manufacturing computers is materials-intensive; the total fossil fuels used to make one desktop computer weigh over 240 kilograms, some ten times the weight of the computer itself. This is very high compared to many oth...
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Emissions Assessment
Direct measurements of greenhouse gases emissions are not possible. Assessments are therefore using precise theoretical calculations for each sectors. They are called “emission factors” and are regularly updated. Tryi...
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Energy cost of various construction materials
CO2 emissions are not directly deducible from energy costs. Concrete for instance is a very CO2-intensive material due to the emissions from chemical processes involved in its production, despite the relatively low energ...
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Examples of GHG emission amounts 19
Examples of GHG emission amounts generated by different activities or goods are scattered across the book in the form of proportional bubbles (in kilograms of CO2 equivalent).
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Examples of GHG emission amounts 18
Examples of GHG emission amounts generated by different activities or goods are scattered across the book in the form of proportional bubbles (in kilograms of CO2 equivalent).
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Examples of GHG emission amounts 15
Examples of GHG emission amounts generated by different activities or goods are scattered across the book in the form of proportional bubbles (in kilograms of CO2 equivalent).
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Do you really save time?
Train versus plane in a busy world
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Examples of GHG emission amounts 11
Examples of GHG emission amounts generated by different activities or goods are scattered across the book in the form of proportional bubbles (in kilograms of CO2 equivalent).
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Greenhouse gas intensity of national economies
The national greenhouse gas intensity measures the quantity of GHG emissions in relation to the economic output of a country and is independent of the absolute quantity of GHG emitted. Other ways to represent GHG emissio...
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Strategic options for climate change mitigation Global cost curve for greenhouse gas abatement measures
This graphic attempts to show 'all in one': the various measures for greenhouse gas reduction with both reduction (in CO2 equivalent) and cost (in Euros) quantified. Read from left to right it gives the whole range of s...
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Examples of GHG emission amounts 13
Examples of GHG emission amounts generated by different activities or goods are scattered across the book in the form of proportional bubbles (in kilograms of CO2 equivalent).
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Biofuel versus fossil fuel
About Biofuel versus fossil fuel
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Examples of GHG emission amounts 02
Examples of GHG emission amounts generated by different activities or goods are scattered across the book in the form of proportional bubbles (in kilograms of CO2 equivalent).
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Some examples of the effect of individual behaviour on greenhouse gas emissions in France
The area of the squares is proportionate to the annual reduction in emissions in million tonnes of CO2 equivalent. Estimated values calculated by France's Environment Institute (Ifen), drawing on various sources: Mani...
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Climate Change Performance Index 2008
The Climate Change Performance Index developed by Germanwatch is calculated using three weighted indexes: *Emissions trends for energy, transport, industry and residential account for 50 % of total rating; *A countr...
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Certified Emission Reductions
One certified emission reduction unit is equivalent to a one-tonne reduction in greenhouse gas emissions (measured in CO2 equivalent). Circles have only been drawn for countries that have issued more than 50,000 CERs....
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Turn it off!
Household appliances with a standby mode
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Total CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel burning, cement production and gas flaring
The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), adopted in 1992, divides countries into Annex I (industrialized countries and countries with economies in transition) and Non-Annex I parties (mostly d...
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
The boom in shipping trade
Map showing The boom in shipping trade and a graphic showing world imports.
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Offset providers
Table explaining Offset providers
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Energy cost of out-of-season vegetables
Oil required for production Liters per kilogram of vegetable
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Most commonly used air routes, in million passengers a year
Other options besides flight?
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Energy consumption and CO2 emissions from building
Energy consumption for heating and hot water Kilowatt hour per square metre per year CO2 emissions depending on the energy used for heating and hot water, for a 100 square metre dwelling Kilograms of carbon equivalent...
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
table01
About table01
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Examples of GHG emission amounts 01
Examples of GHG emission amounts generated by different activities or goods are scattered across the book in the form of proportional bubbles (in kilograms of CO2 equivalent).
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
The Carbon cycle
The figures indicate carbon storage and flows, expressed in Gigatonnes (1 000 million tonnes) of carbon. The arrows are proportionate to the volume of carbon. The figures for the flows express amounts exchanged annual...
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Examples of GHG emission amounts 10
Examples of GHG emission amounts generated by different activities or goods are scattered across the book in the form of proportional bubbles (in kilograms of CO2 equivalent).
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Energy consumption by usage in a building
Buildings (residential and commercial) account for 10 to 15% of all greenhouse gas emissions, including almost 70% carbon dioxide and 25% methane.
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Largest industrial CO2 emitters
Facilities emitting more than 100 000 tonnes of CO2 each year
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Emissions by gas
Thousand million tonnes of CO2 equivalent per year (1970-2004 period)
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Greenhouse gas emissions for three sectors
The data comes from national reports to UNFCCC. For developing countries (i. e. non-Annex I countries), data is either old or missing. To better reflect the truth, we chose to overlap 2000 data from IEA (dashed circle...
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Biofuel production Map
Global map about Biofuel production
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
table03
About table03
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Examples of GHG emission amounts 07
Examples of GHG emission amounts generated by different activities or goods are scattered across the book in the form of proportional bubbles (in kilograms of CO2 equivalent).
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Examples of GHG emission amounts 12
Examples of GHG emission amounts generated by different activities or goods are scattered across the book in the form of proportional bubbles (in kilograms of CO2 equivalent).
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Registered projects implemented under Kyoto’s “Clean Development Mechanism”
Number of projects by host parties and Number of projects by investor parties
05 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Dissolved phosphate levels: concentrations at river mouths
Phosphorus is naturally present in water, primarily as inorganic and organic phosphates. Phosphates can enter aquatic environments in several ways: from the natural weathering of minerals in the drainage basin, from biol...
26 Jan 2009 - by Phillippe Rekacewicz, February 2006
Water Scarcity Index
Water overuse is damaging the environment in many major basins. High overuse tends to occur in regions heavily dependent on irrigated agriculture, such as the Indo-Gangetic Plain in south Asia, the North China Plain and ...
13 Sep 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, February 2006
Water competition between cities and agriculture
It is estimated that water pollution denies close to 1.3 billion people (20% of the global population in 2000) access to clean water supplies. In 1986, WHO reported that there were 250 million new cases of waterborne dis...
26 Jan 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz
Sea level rise and assessment of the state of the marine environment
A significant sea level rise is one of the major anticipated consequences of climate change. This will cause some low-lying coastal areas to become completely submerged, while others will increasingly face short-lived hi...
01 Oct 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz
Inequity in access to clean water and sanitation
The supply of safe drinking water and the provision of sanitation are management issues that raise concerns about inequitable service provision, particularly in developing countries. Although several successful initiativ...
26 Jan 2009 - by Phillippe Rekacewicz, February 2006
Increased global water stress
According to Population Action International, based upon the UN Medium Population Projections of 1998, more than 2.8 billion people in 48 countries will face water stress, or scarcity conditions by 2025. Of these countri...
26 Jan 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz (Le Monde diplomatique), February 2006
Relative demographic weight for each continent
Population percentage increase by continent.
26 Jan 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz (Le Monde diplomatique)
Poor and rich: inequal demographic evolution
According to the medium hypothesis of the United Nations, a projection comparing the population in developed and undeveloped countries.
26 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Fishing yield
Three-quarters of the world’s fish stocks are currently exploited to the maximum extent, if not in excess (FAO, 2000). This exploitation has had the following impacts: - A growing variety of fishery products are being e...
26 Jan 2009 - by Phillippe Rekacewicz, February 2006
The water cycle
Environment water transport system. The water cycle consists of precipitation, vapour transport, evaporation, evapo-transpiration, infiltration, groundwater flow and runoff. Figure 1 explains the global water cycle, ill...
01 Feb 2008 - by Philippe Rekacewicz , UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Water - cooperation or conflict?
History shows that conflicts over water often emerge and give rise to political tensions, but that most disputes are resolved peacefully. However, the absence of conflict is, at best, only a partial indicator of the dept...
26 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Freshwater use by sector at the beginning of the 2000s
The agricultural sector is by far the biggest user of freshwater. Analysis indicates that: - In the United States, agriculture accounts for some 49% of total freshwater use, with 80% of this volume being used for irriga...
26 Jan 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz (Le Monde diplomatique)
The disappearance of the Aral Sea
The demise of the Aral Sea in central Asia was caused primarily by the diversion of the inflowing Amu Dar’ya and Syr Dar’ya rivers to provide irrigation water for local croplands. These diversions dramatically reduced th...
26 Jan 2009 - by GRIDA
Nitrate levels: concentrations at river mouths
Nutrients are essential to life. In aquatic systems, nitrogen and phosphorus are the two nutrients that most commonly control the growth of aquatic plants, algae and bacteria. Nitrogen and phosphorus are considered to be...
26 Jan 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz
Tigris and Euphrates rivers fragmentation
It has been predicted that access to water will create conflict between countries. In Africa, central Asia, west Asia and the Americas, some countries are already arguing fiercely over access to rivers and inland seas, a...
26 Jan 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz
State of world fisheries and aquaculture
Drawing on research and statistical data since 2000, experts at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver have shown that catches reported by China are largely overestimated, concealing a substantial decline in wor...
26 Jan 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz
Benefits of marine and coastal ecosystems to human wellbeing
Besides the well-known economic value of fisheries, there are several other activities generating significant revenues in coastal and marine areas. Tourism has become one of the world’s fastest growing industries, provid...
26 Jan 2009 - by Phillippe Rekacewicz, February 2006
Level of river fragmentation and flow regulation
River fragmentation - The interruption of a river’s natural flow by dams, inter-basin transfers or water withdrawal - is an indicator of the degree to which rivers have been modified by man (Ward and Stanford, 1989, and ...
26 Jan 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz (Le Monde diplomatique), March 2006
Increasing price with volume
Rising block tariffs aim to achieve several public policy goals. A low or zero tariff applied to the first block can enhance affordability. For example, Durban, South Africa, provides 25 litres of water a day free of cha...
26 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Water supply per river basin in 1995 and 2025
Although the absolute quantities of freshwater on earth have always remained approximately the same, the uneven distribution of water and human settlement continues to create growing problems freshwater availability and ...
26 Jan 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz,February 2006
Fish diversity in freshwater systems
Although freshwater ecosystems such as rivers, lakes and wetlands occupy less than 2% of the earth’s total land surface, they provide a wide range of habitats for a significant proportion of the world’s plant and animal ...
26 Jan 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz
Cereal productivity in sub-Saharan Africa under a projected Intergovernamental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenario
A majority of the population in sub-Saharan African lives in rural areas, where income and employment depend almost entirely on rain-fed agriculture. This population is today at high risk. Sub-Saharan Africa already has ...
26 Jan 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz
The spread of cholera 1950-2004
Increasing floods in between dry periods represent ideal conditions for spreading diseases such as cholera. In Nouakchott, the capital of Mauritania located in the desert, precipitations - when they occur - are always ac...
26 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
More water evaporates from reservoirs than is consumed by humans
Throughout the 20th century, global water use has increased in the agricultural, domestic and industrial sectors. Evaporation from reservoirs has increased at a slower rate. Projections indicate that both global water us...
26 Jan 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz)
Freshwater alkalinity: 1976-2008
Alkalinity is commonly used to indicate a water body’s capacity to buffer against acidity; that is, the ability to resist, or dampen, changes in pH. Thus, alkaline compounds in water, such as bicarbonates, carbonates, an...
26 Jan 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz (Le Monde diplomatique), February 2006
Water withdrawal and consumption: the big gap
Freshwater use by continents is partly based on several socio-economic development factors, including population, physiographic, and climatic characteristics. Analysis indicates that: - Annual global freshwater withdraw...
26 Jan 2009 - by Phillipe Rekacewicz, February 2008
Water storage capacity for selected countries
Cross-country water storage comparisons provide insights into one aspect of risk mitigation capacity. However, storage capacity is only one guide to the linkage between infrastructure and vulnerability. Countries such as...
26 Jan 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz
Public services provide cheaper water
By bringing water to people water resellers extend the coverage of piped water and provide a service with important benefits for households - but at a price. That price rises with distance from the utility, as defined by...
26 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
World fish consumption per capita and per year
World fish consumption per year and per capita.
26 Jan 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz
Total population: access to sanitation
The 2004 global image sadly shows that the lack of access to clean water remains a burden for the poorest countries, preventing them accelerating their development. Essentially handicapping most sub-Saharan African count...
26 Jan 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz (Le Monde diplomatique)
Human actions leading to coastal degradation
Physical alteration and the destruction of habitats are now considered one of the most significant threats to coastal areas. Half of the world’s wetlands, and even more of its mangrove forests, have been lost over the pa...
26 Jan 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz (Le Monde diplomatique), February 2006
World's surface water: evaporation and runoff
Because much of the world’s surface water is far from concentrations of human settlements, not all of it is readily usable. Some facts concerning global freshwater concentrations: - It is estimated that the freshwater ...
26 Jan 2009 - by Phillippe Rekacewicz (Le Monde diplomatique), February 2006
The Mekong River - survival for millions
The Mekong River - survival for millions Following the course of the Mekong River helps to understand the human/river hydrological interdependence. From its source on the Tibetan Plateau it drops 5,000 metres and flows a...
26 Jan 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz
World population evolution
Trois hypothèses pour l’évolution de la population mondiale : Selon le bureau de la population des Nations unies, la plus vraisemblable est l’hypothèse moyenne : pour les périodes 1995-2000 et 2045-2050, elle prend...
26 Jan 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz
The decline of cod in the North Atlantic
Graph of the decline of fish stock globally and a map of fish stock in Maritime Canada and the United States.
26 Jan 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz