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Estimated costs and benefits of restoration projects in different biomes Estimated costs and benefits of restoration projects in different biomes
Biodiversity is the basis for any development; it is the natural capital, the stock of natural ecosystems, which provide services for any human activity. As pointed out above, the main immediate threat to biodiversity from biofuel production is through changes in land use, but longer-term threats may come from the spread of invasive species and uncontrolled use of genetically modified (GM) organisms. The environmental and social costs o...
01 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Value of ecosystem services Value of ecosystem services
Biodiversity is the basis for any development; it is the natural capital, the stock of natural ecosystems, which provide services for any human activity. As pointed out above, the main immediate threat to biodiversity from biofuel production is through changes in land use, but longer-term threats may come from the spread of invasive species and uncontrolled use of genetically modified (GM) organisms. The environmental and social costs of losi...
01 Oct 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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CO2 emissions from land conversion for energy crops CO2 emissions from land conversion for energy crops
The conversion of high carbon-storage ecosystems, such as tropical forest, savannah and peatland into biofuel plants, can neutralise any GHG emission reductions achieved by replacing fossil fuels with biofuels, and even lead to a net increase in CO2 emissions. Biofuels, in the use phase, emit the carbon that has been previously absorbed during plant growth. Inputs during cultivation and conversion need to be accounted for. However, the b...
01 Mar 2012 - by Nieves Lopez Izquierdo
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Ecosystem carbon payback time Ecosystem carbon payback time
The ‘carbon debt’ of biofuels is the number of years it can take to offset the carbon emissions generated by converting land for biofuels. It can take decades or centuries for some pathways to bounce back, depending on the type of land that was converted. Particularly challenging is when crops are grown on converted peatland or forest, or areas with underground carbon storage. The figures are disputed, but even lower figures still raise seri...
01 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Key factors of the Brazilian biofuel sector Key factors of the Brazilian biofuel sector
Brazil has gradually developed and established an ethanol industry and growing biodiesel sector, offering an example of how countries can develop ‘home-grown’ renewable energy sectors. This development has been facilitated by long-term policies to address the entire supply chain, including the introduction of ‘flex-fuel’ vehicles which run on any blend of petrol and ethanol. Social and environmental safeguards were developed to address ...
01 Mar 2012 - by Nieves Lopez Izquierdo
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Brazilian biofuels: infrastructure and crops Brazilian biofuels: infrastructure and crops
Brazil has gradually developed and established an ethanol industry and growing biodiesel sector, offering an example of how countries can develop ‘home-grown’ renewable energy sectors. This development has been facilitated by long-term policies to address the entire supply chain, including the introduction of ‘flex-fuel’ vehicles which run on any blend of petrol and ethanol. Social and environmental safeguards were developed to address ...
01 Mar 2012 - by Nieves Lopez Izquierdo
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From seed and soil to end use From seed and soil to end use
As with every other energy source, biofuels entail some risks and should be assessed over their entire lifecycle. This graphic, From seed and soil to end use, tracks the lifecycle of liquid biofuels for use in the transport sector – most of the available analysis has focused on this part of the sector, but it is increasingly recognised that biofuels are more than just transport fuels – from the moment land is converted for the purpose of growing...
29 Feb 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Differentiation between crops, land-use and end-use efficiency Differentiation between crops, land-use and end-use efficiency
The energy gain from biofuels is often expressed as a ratio of biofuel energy output to fossil energy input. However, when considering which biofuels are the most efficient using this metric, allowance must also be made for whether or not co-products such as animal feed and other forms of energy or biomass production are involved. Economically, the value of co-products is also critical; and together with various subsidies and tax incentiv...
01 Mar 2012 - by Nieves Lopez Izquierdo
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World biofuels production trends World biofuels production trends
Production trends indicate that the supply of both ethanol and biodiesel is steadily increasing, although the global ethanol market is more than four times larger than the global biodiesel market. Markets for both are increasing, not only in established, traditional markets such as the European Union, Brazil and the United States, but also in countries such as China, India and Argentina. The latter countries are beginning to see the ec...
01 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Energy potential from one tonne input: organic matter and landfill material Energy potential from one tonne input: organic matter and landfill material
Dierent biofuels pathways have dierent eciencies in the growth of feedstocks, conversion processes and end-uses. This chain of eciency pertaining to input and output needs to be considered in national planning processes to identify the most suitable biofuel feedstocks for a given country, region and local context. For example, the energy potential of landll material is released through combustion, whereas bioethanol, (both from crops...
01 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Global production of biofuels Global production of biofuels
Global production of biofuels. In 2009, liquid biofuels provided 2.7 percent of all global road transport fuels.
01 Mar 2012 - by Nieves Lopez Izquierdo
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Global ethanol production Global ethanol production
The snapshot of biofuel production in this figuere shows global ethanol production currently concentrated in two countries.
01 Mar 2012 - by Nieves Lopez Izquierdo
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Global biodiesel production, 2009 Global biodiesel production, 2009
Global biodiesel production in 2009.
01 Mar 2012 - by Nieves Lopez Izquierdo
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Energy efficiency of fuels - how many kilometres can we drive ? Energy efficiency of fuels - how many kilometres can we drive ?
The picture shows energy efficiency of various fuels.
01 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Bioenergy, general concept Bioenergy, general concept
The development of biorefineries can greatly support efforts to increase resource efficiency. Biorefineries integrate biomass conversion processes and equipment to produce fuel, power, and chemicals from biomass. By producing multiple products, a biorenery can take advantage of the dierences in biomass components and intermediate products, thus maximising the value of a biomass feedstock.
01 Mar 2012 - by Nieves Lopez Izquierdo
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Wealth of nations and energy consumption Wealth of nations and energy consumption
To date, energy use and economic growth have been closely linked. As figure shows, there is a linear relationship between energy consumption and wealth as measured in the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of nations.
01 Oct 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Green jobs Green jobs
If properly planned and managed, biofuels can contribute to a number of policy objectives which support the development of the green economy. For example, because agriculture is labour-intensive, job opportunities can be found throughout the biofuel value chain, particularly where conversion from feedstock to biofuel occurs close to where the feedstock is produced. The additional income from new jobs is likely to have a multiplier effect wh...
01 Mar 2012 - by Nieves Lopez Izquierdo
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The enlarged biofuels family The enlarged biofuels family
Figure illustrates the various feedstocks, which can be converted to biofuels for transport. However, this represents only part of the larger bioenergy family, which covers liquid, solid and gaseous biofuels for different uses, including electricity production, and the traditional biomass for energy use.
01 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Savings in greenhouse gas emissions by fuel type Savings in greenhouse gas emissions by fuel type
Biofuels, in the use phase, emit the carbon that has been previously absorbed during plant growth. Inputs during cultivation and conversion need to be accounted for. However, the bulk of GHG emissions are related to land-use change. The carbon footprint varies considerably depending on the type of land converted, the type and yield of the feedstock (tonnes per hectare), as this figure shows. It is therefore key that any GHG analysis takes ...
01 Mar 2012 - by Nieves Lopez Izquierdo
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Technical and sustainable biomass supply potentials and expected demand for biomass in 2050 (primary energy) Technical and sustainable biomass supply potentials and expected demand for biomass in 2050 (primary energy)
Technical and sustainable biomass supply potentials and expected demand for biomass in 2050 (primary energy).
01 Mar 2012 - by Nieves Lopez Izquierdo
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