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Red Knot, distribution, breeding areas and migratory routes, by subspecies
The red knot, Calidris canutus, is an example of a longdistance migratory shorebird. It has been the subject of extensive research worldwide including studies on its breeding cycle, winter ecology, and stopover sites. It...
17 Mar 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, GRID-Arendal & CAFF
The Arctic and the World - migration paths
The Arctic plays host to a vast array of biodiversity, including many globally significant populations. Included among these are more than half of the world´s shorebird species, 80% of the global goose populations, sever...
17 Mar 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, GRID-Arendal & CAFF
Arctic conservation area (CAFF), topographic map, ABA version (2010)
The Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna is a working group under the Arctic Council, for the countries of Russia, Denmark, USA, Canada, Sweden, Iceland, Norway and Finland and indigenous peoples. Monitoring, assessmen...
17 Mar 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, GRID-Arendal & CAFF
Advancement of phenological events in high-arctic Greenland
It is clear from lower latitudes that phenological trends are linked to temperature changes and experimental warming also results in earlier plant phenology. Yet, in Arctic and alpine ecosystems, the melting of the winte...
17 Mar 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, GRID-Arendal & CAFF
Reindeer herding - vegetation impacts (Norway and Finland)
A very high-resolution false color Ikonos-2 satellite image of Jauristunturit in the border zone shared by Norway and Finland. Image acquired 28 June 2001. The main vegetation type is lichen dominated tundra heath with d...
17 Mar 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, GRID-Arendal & CAFF
Wild food harvests in Alaska by area, 1990s
The harvest of natural resources is a key feature of traditional lifestyles and economies throughout the Arctic, and a continuing reliance on it as a mainstay of indigenous existence in the north is evident. In Alaska, w...
17 Mar 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, GRID-Arendal & CAFF
Disappearing Arctic lakes - examples in Siberian lakes, 1973 to 1997
The Arctic contains a variety of types of lakes but overall, it is thermokarst lakes and ponds that are the most abundant and productive aquatic ecosystems in the Arctic. They are found extensively in the lowland regions...
17 Mar 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, GRID-Arendal & CAFF
Murre colonies in the Arctic
The two species of murres (known as guillemots in Europe), the thick-billed murre, Uria lomvia, and common murre, Uria aalge, both have circumpolar distributions, breeding in Arctic, sub-Arctic, and temperate seas from C...
17 Mar 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, GRID-Arendal & CAFF
Demography of indigenous peoples of the Arctic based on linguistic groups
Language not only communicates, it defines culture, nature, history, humanity, and ancestry. The indigenous languages of the Arctic have been formed and shaped in close contact with their environment. They are a valuable...
17 Mar 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, GRID-Arendal & CAFF
Trends in Arctic vegetation productivity 1982-2005 (Greening of the Arctic)
Arctic vegetation has undergone enormous change in the past, most notably in response to the glacial and interglacial periods of the Quaternary. Data from many sources and at several scales suggest that recent climate ch...
17 Mar 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, GRID-Arendal & CAFF
Trends in speakers of Arctic indigenous languages (1989-2006)
Language not only communicates, it defines culture, nature, history, humanity, and ancestry. The indigenous languages of the Arctic have been formed and shaped in close contact with their environment. They are a valuable...
17 Mar 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, GRID-Arendal & CAFF
Simulated projections for Polar cod distribution with global warming
Polar cod (Boreogadus saida) was found to be sensitive to the warming scenarios and the model predicted that it would be extirpated in most of its range even under the milder warming scenario. This is due to its occurren...
17 Mar 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, GRID-Arendal & CAFF
Arctic terrestrial species trends 1970-2005 (ASTI)
Dramatic changes, such as sea ice loss, are projected to occur in Arctic ecosystems over the next century. Understanding how the Arctic’s living resources, including its vertebrate species, are responding to these change...
17 Mar 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, GRID-Arendal & CAFF
Arctic biodiversity - pressures and impacts
The Arctic plays host to a vast array of biodiversity, including many globally significant populations. Included among these are more than half of the world´s shorebird species, 80% of the global goose populations, sever...
17 Mar 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, GRID-Arendal & CAFF
Arctic genetic trends - lemming in Arctic Russia
Nucleotide diversity estimates based on the complete sequences of mitochondrial genome in the collared lemming indicate how past climate has structured the genetic component of biodiversity. Lower diversity in regions ...
17 Mar 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, GRID-Arendal & CAFF
Distribution and spawning areas of four fish species
Distribution and spawning areas of arctic cod, polar cod, herring and capelin in the Barents Sea region. The Barents region is in the Arctic and covers the area of Western Russia and the northern areas of Finland, Sweden...
21 May 2010 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Simulated projections for Polar cod distribution with global warming
Polar cod (Boreogadus saida) was found to be sensitive to the warming scenarios and the model predicted that it would be extirpated in most of its range even under the milder warming scenario. This is due to its occurren...
01 May 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Distribution and trends of wild Rangifer in the Arctic
Distribution and observed trends of wild Rangifer populations throughout the circumpolar Arctic (from The Circum Arctic Rangifer Monitoring and Assessment Network, CARMA). Note: Wild boreal forest reindeer have not been ...
01 May 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Invasive species response to climate change - Hydrilla spp, current and 2080 habitat suitability
As climate change alters Arctic ecosystems and enables greater human activity, biological invasions are likely to increase in the Arctic. To some extent, Arctic terrestrial ecosystems may be predisposed to invasion becau...
01 Nov 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Distribution and current trend of polar bear subpopulations throughout the circumpolar Arctic
Polar bears occur in 19 relatively discrete subpopulations with an estimated worldwide abundance of 20,000– 25,000 animals. Our knowledge of the status and trend of each subpopulation varies due to availability, reliabil...
01 May 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Sturgeons distribution in the Black Sea
Illustration in a set of graphics prepared for a pilot assessment report on the Black Sea drainage basin, for the UNEP Global Impact on Waters Assessment (GIWA). All data and information were prepared in close collaborat...
07 Nov 2010 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Distribution of polar bear populations in the Arctic
Worldwide there are thought to be 22,000-27,000 polar bears (Ursus maritimus)in 20 separate populations. They can be found in the United States, Canada, Russia, Greenland and on the Arctic islands of Norway.
21 May 2010 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Distribution of coral, mangrove and seagrass diversity
Similar to corals, the region of greatest mangrove diversity is in Southeast Asia, particularly around the Indonesian Archipelago (Burke et al., 2001). There are three distinct areas of seagrass diversity in the Pacific ...
21 May 2010 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Turbot distribution in the Black Sea
Illustration in a set of graphics prepared for a pilot assessment report on the Black Sea drainage basin, for the UNEP Global Impact on Waters Assessment (GIWA). All data and information were prepared in close collaborat...
07 Nov 2010 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Distribution of common eider, breeding and wintering ranges in the Arctic
The common eider, Somateria mollissima, has a circumpolar distribution breeding mainly on small islands in Arctic and boreal marine areas in Alaska (Bering Sea region), Canada, Greenland, Iceland, western Europe, and the...
01 Nov 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Coral Reefs
Distribution of the world's coral reefs. Oceans blue carbon sinks, along with coral reefs and kelp communities, all fulfil very important functions in the coastal zone while providing opportunities for jobs and coastal p...
21 May 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Comb-jelly (Mnemiopsis leidyi) spreading through the Caspian Sea (invasive species)
The comb jelly (Mnemiopsis leidyi) is well adapted to the habitat (salinity, temperature, and food range) and reproduces faster than endemic species. As it eats the same food as them, it has had a drastic effect on their...
21 May 2010 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Arctic char species complex, distribution map
The Arctic char species complex, sensu stricto, represent a key component of the marine and freshwater ecosystems of the north. Chars are stressed by factors such as fisheries, climate change and pollutants. We are possi...
01 Nov 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Coldwater coral reefs, distribution
Scientists are just beginning to learn about the many species in the remote, deep waters of the polar oceans. Corals, for example, are not limited to the warm, shallow waters of the tropics. They also exist in many cold,...
21 May 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Distribution of lodgepole pine in Sweden
Forest distribution in Scandinavia is affected by several different species. This is to demonstrate the concentration of lodgepole pine (pinus contorta) in Sweden. The lodgepole pine is a tall, slender tree with a narrow...
21 May 2010 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
How the comb-jelly (Mnemiopsis leidyi) is spreading through European seas (invasive species)
The most threatening event for the Caspian ecosystem was the arrival of the North American comb jelly (Mnemiopsis leidyi). It was brought accidentally to the Caspian in the ballast water of oil tankers. Invasive and alie...
21 May 2010 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
World map of forest distribution (Natural resources - forests)
Approximately 240 million of the world's poor that live in forested areas of developing countries depend on forests for their livelihoods. Forest and its products provide cash income, jobs, and consumption goods for poor...
06 Nov 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Orangutan distribution on Borneo (Indonesia, Malaysia)
The distribution of Orangutan on Borneo is rapidly decreasing, as mankind is reducing the available habitat for the apes. The loss of forest, through logging, clearing and burning, means reduced opportunities for hiding ...
21 May 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
L’indice UV a l’echelle mondiale
« L’indice UV mondial (IUV) est une mesure simple du niveau de rayonnement UV à la surface de la Terre. Il a été mis au point de façon à indiquer les effets négatifs potentiels sur la santé et pour inciter les gens à se ...
26 May 2010 - by GRID-Arendal
Processus chimique de dégradation de l’ozone dans la stratosphère
L’ozone stratosphérique, l’ozone troposphérique et le « trou » de la couche d’ozone.
26 May 2010 - by GRID-Arendal
Le protoxyde d’azote : un coupable de premier rang après 2010. D’origine agricole pour l’essentiel
« Nous avons calculé que le potentiel d’appauvrissement de l’ozone représenté par le N2O serait 50% plus élevé si le taux de chlore baissait à son niveau de l’année 1960. » Pour comprendre comment, selon Ravishankara, i...
26 May 2010 - by GRID-Arendal
БОЛЕЕ ХОЛОДНАЯ АНТАРКТИЧЕСКАЯ ЗИМА ПРИВОДИТ К ФОРМИРОВАНИЮ ДЫРЫ НАД ЮЖНЫМ ПОЛЮСОМ
Средняя температура. Температура, при которой возможно образование стратосферных облаков. Условия для ускорения истончения озонового слоя.
27 May 2010 - by GRID-Arendal
РАЗЛИЧНЫЕ ВИДЫ ОТВЕТСТВЕННОСТИ
Тысяча тонн озоноразрушающей способности
27 May 2010 - by GRID-Arendal
МИРОВЫЕ ЗАПАСЫ ОРВ ПО ОТРАСЛЯМ
Потенциал глобального потепления на тысячу тонн вещества
27 May 2010 - by GRID-Arendal
Wolverine population in the Arctic
Wolverines occur in various distinct populations across the circumpolar region, ranging from Fennoscandia and the Russian Federation, Mongolia and China, through to Alaska, Canada, and some of the northernmost states of ...
01 Nov 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Towns and industrial activities in the Arctic
The Arctic is home to approximately 4 million people, with the share of indigenous and non-indigenous populations varying widely between the Arctic states. Larger settlements are usually located in resource-strategic pos...
13 Oct 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Red king crab native and invasive distribution
The red king crab is native to the Okhotsk and Japan Seas, the Bering Sea, and the northern Pacific Ocean, where it is an important economic resource. In Alaskan waters, red king crabs have historically been the second m...
13 Oct 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Compensation for sheep losses in Norway
Minimizing conflicts with livestock husbandry is the most important challenge for the conservation of wolverines. In Fennoscandia, few areas exist within the wolverines’ range where there is no conflict potential with sh...
01 Nov 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Polar bear sub-populations and pollution
There are thought to be between 20,000 and 25,000 bears in the world, which occur in19 relatively discrete sub-populations, some of which are shared between nations. Topping the food chain in the Arctic, the polar bear i...
13 Oct 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Marine mammals in the Arctic
Seven species of marine mammals live in the Arctic year-round – the bowhead whale, beluga whale, narwhal, ringed seal, beaded seal, walrus, and polar bear - and many more migrate to the Arctic seasonally. Many marine mam...
13 Oct 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Projected changes in the Arctic climate, 2090
The averages of the scenarios in the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA) are presented in this figure, for the year 2090, with the surface temperatures over land, the size of the polar ice cap, and the outer limits o...
13 Oct 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Seal catches in the Arctic
Large-scale commercial harvests are restricted to harp and hooded seals, except for the hooded seal population in the Jan Mayen area of the Greenland Sea. Both species faced intense commercial hunting in the 19th and 20t...
13 Oct 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Murre colonies and human activities
The thick-billed murre and common murre have ranges 1,000,000 km2 and number in the millions or tens of millions of breeding pairs. However global populations are declining, although increases have occurred in some regio...
13 Oct 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Wild caribou (rangifer) herds and areas of reindeer husbandry
Distribution and observed trends of wild Rangifer populations throughout the circumpolar Arctic (from The Circum Arctic Rangifer Monitoring and Assessment Network, CARMA). Currently wild reindeer and caribou have decline...
01 Oct 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
The Arctic and the World - migration paths
The Arctic plays host to a vast array of biodiversity, including many globally significant populations. Included among these are more than half of the world´s shorebird species, 80% of the global goose populations, sever...
01 May 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Demography of indigenous peoples of the Arctic based on linguistic groups
Language not only communicates, it defines culture, nature, history, humanity, and ancestry. The indigenous languages of the Arctic have been formed and shaped in close contact with their environment. They are a valuable...
01 Oct 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Vegetation and land cover in the Arctic
The land mass in the Arctic - Greenland and parts of Canada, Alaska, Russia and the Nordic countries - surrounds the Arctic Ocean. In the low Arctic, down to the temperate regions, the taiga coniferous forests represents...
13 Oct 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Protected areas and World Heritage sites in the Arctic (CAFF area)
Protected areas have long been viewed as a key element for maintaining and conserving Arctic biodiversity and the functioning landscapes upon which species depend. Arctic protected areas have been established in strategi...
01 Oct 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Arctic, topography and bathymetry (topographic map)
The Arctic represents the northermost area of the World, the Arctic Ocean and the land areas that surrounds it. The region is characterized but cold temperatures, and ice and snow. The summers are short, but with long pe...
01 Oct 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Ratification of multilateral environmental agreements
Multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs) are a main component of international environmental governance. The number of MEAs created in response to global environmental challenges has risen steadily since the UN Confe...
13 Oct 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Arctic biodiversity - pressures and impacts
The Arctic plays host to a vast array of biodiversity, including many globally significant populations. Included among these are more than half of the world´s shorebird species, 80% of the global goose populations, sever...
01 May 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
The Arctic, as defined by summer temperature
The Arctic is a region not easily delineated by one boundary or definition - it includes the Arctic Ocean and the land areas around it, including Greenland, Eurasia and North America. A climate definition of the Arctic i...
01 Nov 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Vulnerability of large cities to climate hazards
The effects climate change has on different countries are not proportional to their respective contributions to greenhouse gas emissions. Rather, they vary greatly and in some cases the effects may even be positive in sp...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Use of Renewable Fuels and Waste for Electricity Generation
In 2007, 15.8% of the supply of primary energy in Latin America and the Caribbean came from renewable fuels and waste (solid and liquid biomass, biogas, and industrial and urban waste). This is higher than the worldwide ...
06 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Deteriorated forest hotspots
Despite showing signs of slowing at the global level, the present pace of deforestation continues to be a source of serious concern for Latin America and the Caribbean. While the region’s forests represent one of the mos...
22 Nov 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Greenhouse gas emissions per capita in Latin America and the Caribbean, 2005
In 2005, per capita emissions in Latin America and the Caribbean, not taking emissions associated with land use changes into account, amounted to 5.5 MtCO2-e, with Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay and the Bolivarian Republic...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Retreat of the snowcapped volcano of Santa Isabel, Colombia
Between 1959 and 1996, the snowcapped volcano of Santa Isabel in Colombia showed a 44% decrease in its ice-covered peak. This process of decrease in ice has continued, causing it to lose its attraction as a tourist site,...
22 Nov 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Sea level rise caused by the melting of mountain and subpolar glaciers
Another process that results in rising sea levels is the addition of water mass from land ice. Melting glaciers and ice caps, as well as the vast ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica, raise sea-levels if their water ma...
22 Nov 2010 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Share of world greenhouse gas emissions (includes land use change)
The total amount of CO2 emissions, including those associated with land use changes, highlight the contribution of Latin America and the Caribbean to total global emissions of CO2. In total the region contributes to 13% ...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Forest conservation and sustainable management initiatives
In November 2009, in an attempt to preserve the forests and slow deforestation, the Governments of Guyana and Norway signed a memorandum of understanding for cooperation on issues related to combating climate change, pro...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Emissions per GDP in Latin America and the Caribbean, 2005 (includes land use change)
A strong heterogeneity in the ratio emission to GDP, including the land use change, is observed among the countries of the region. Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay and Bolivia stand out because of the importance of emissions re...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo (Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal)
Energy intensity of economy: Percentage growth from 1980
Emissions increase as economies and populations grow; however, there can also be an energy decoupling (relation between energy and GDP) and a decoupling of emissions and decarbonization (relation between emissions and en...
22 Nov 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Climate change impacts that could affect attainment of the Millennium Development Goals
Sustainability in the Latin American and Caribbean countries may be affected by climate change impacts. Costs associated with climate change can intensify budget constraints as countries attempt to reduce poverty and wor...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Carbon intensity of economy: Percentage growth from 1980
The ratio of emissions to GDP in Latin America and the Caribbean remained constant between 1980 and 2005. This is very much in contrast to the world as a whole, the OECD countries and in particular when compared to China...
22 Nov 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Electricity Production and Sources
Changes in energy intensity in Latin America and the Caribbean reveals the importance of improving energy efficiency levels, on both the supply and the demand side, and of expanding the use of renewable energies. In Sout...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Share of the world’s greenhouse gas emissions (excludes land use change)
In 2005 the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean accounted for only 8% of global greenhouse gas emissions, excluding emissions associated with land use changes. Between 1990 and 2005, such emissions in the region...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Global emissions of carbon dioxide, 2006
The region of Latin America and the Caribbean is highly vulnerable to climate change despite the fact that it contributes relatively little to global greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions ...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Retreat of seven Andean glaciers
The seven Andean glaciers Antizana 15a and Antizana 15b in Ecuador, and Broggi, Uruashraju, Yanamarey, Cajap and Pastoruri in Peru have shown a substantial retreat since the 1970s and this is a clear indication of how cl...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Relative changes in precipitation
Projections for changes in precipitation patterns are extremely complex, involving a high degree of uncertainty and large heterogeneity. Summer climate projections under climate change scenario A1B (this scenario assumes...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Energy intensity in Latin America and the Caribbean
Available evidence indicates that energy intensity – the ratio between energy consumption and gross domestic product (GDP), expressed in purchasing power parity (PPP) at 2005 prices – in Latin America and the Caribbean r...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Hurricanes on Mesoamerica and the Caribbean, 1904-2009
The extreme climatic events of the Mesoamerican and Caribbean region show that there is a strong correlation (most likely non-linear) between greenhouse gas emissions, temperature increases, increased intensity of hurric...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Index of biodiversity potential in Central America
Biodiversity is vitally important to human well-being as it provides ecosystem services on which humans depend. For many species that are sensitive to even small variations in climate, their primary threat is climate cha...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Marginal abatement cost curve for Mexico in 2020
Estimating mitigation costs is a complex task that incorporates a high degree of uncertainty due to the variety of factors involved. However, this exercise provides valuable information to design mitigation strategies. E...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo (Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal)
Emissions per GDP, 2005 (includes land use change)
Taking into account total CO2 emissions, including those associated with and use changes, the Latin American and Caribbean region rates poorly compared to other regions with regard to emissions of CO2 equivalent per US$ ...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo (Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal)
Greenhouse gas emissions scenarios and surface temperature projections
Climate change manifests itself primarily through a gradual increase in the average temperatures of the earth’s surface, alterations in precipitation patterns, changes in the intensity and/or frequency of extreme climati...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Emissions of the Brazilian Amazon
Brazil has been recognized as the fifth highest emitter of greenhouse gasses in the world, and is also the highest emitter within the Latin American and Caribbean region. This high level of emission is first and foremost...
22 Nov 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Rapid decline of the San Quintin glacier, Northern Patagonia
Glaciers grow and retreat at intervals depending on changes in local climate, and local variations in temperature and precipitation play a particularly important role in this. Retreating and diminishing mountain glaciers...
22 Nov 2010 - by Viktor Novikov, Zoï Environment
Sustainable development mechanism projects by type
Of the 1003 projects falling under the framework of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) which have been implemented in the region of Latin America and the Caribbean, the majority of the projects are related to renewable en...
22 Nov 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Emissions per GDP, 2005 (excludes land use change)
Examining CO2 emissions in 2005, excluding those associated with land use changes, it can be seen that the Latin American and Caribbean region has a higher level of emissions per US$ million of GDP (598 tonnes of CO2 equ...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo (Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal)
Greenhouse gas emissions, 2005 (includes land use change)
The disaggregation of emissions by type of gas makes clear the domination of carbon dioxide (CO2), both globally and at the regional level. On a country basis, the five top emitters in the world are China and the United ...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Assosciate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Change in sea level as a result of changes in ocean density and circulation
Changes in sea levels resulting exclusively from changes in ocean density and circulation patterns, results of atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCM) for climate change scenario A1B (this scenario assumes fu...
01 Oct 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Latin America greenhouse gas emitters by sector
According to reports from the region’s countries, contained in national communications to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the main sources of greenhouse gas emissions relate to changes in land ...
22 Nov 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Expected impacts of climate change in 2050
It is expected that by 2050 there will be threats to ecosystem services in the Andes and Mexico, in the Central American and Caribbean sub-regions, and in southeastern Brazil, while there will be negative effects on fish...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Carbon intensity of energy use: Percentage growth from 1980
By comparing the emissions:energy ratio (carbon intensity) between regions, one finds different patterns over time. Thus, between 1980 and 1995, decarbonization in Latin America and the Caribbean was in line with the wor...
22 Nov 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Retreat of tropical glaciers
The retreat of glaciers is a clear indication of how climate change is affecting the Latin American region. The Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador show evidence of reductions in the size of their gla...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Emissions per GDP in Latin America and the Caribbean, 2005 (excludes land use change)
Evidence at international level shows a positive, although not a linear, relation between GHG emissions and the trajectory of the gross domestic product (GDP). There is a strong heterogeneity in the ratio of emissions to...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo (Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal)
Marginal abatement cost curve for Central America in 2030
Estimates of the marginal costs of emissions reduction for Central America show that decarbonization options should be directed towards energy efficiency in the residential and services sectors, mainly arising from savin...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo (Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal)
Chacaltaya glacier
The retreat of glaciers is a clear indication of climate change in Latin America. Since the mid-1990s, the Chacaltaya glacier in the Plurinational State of Bolivia has lost half of its surface area and two thirds of its ...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Projects under the clean development mechanism
At present, 1003 projects falling under the framework of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) has been implemented throughout the Latin American and Caribbean region. The countries in the region with the greatest number of ...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Hydrometeorological events in Latin America and the Caribbean
Latin America and the Caribbean has seen a recent increase in extreme climatic events, and with it a rise in the number of people affected. The number of storms between 2000 and 2009 increased by 12 compared to the perio...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Estimated deaths attributable to climate change, 2000
The extent to which mortality is attributable to climate change remains a matter of intense debate. Data from the World Health Organization (WHO) for 2000 indicate that, in Latin America and the Caribbean, there were bet...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Official Development Assistance
In addition to funds specifically for CDM projects, another source of funds for developing countries facing climate change are those designated as Official Development Assistance (ODA). Between 2000 and 2007, the region ...
22 Nov 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions in Latin America and the Caribbean
In addition to carbon dioxide (CO2), other greenhouse gasses that play an important role in the region are methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). These gasses are produced primarily in the sectors of waste management, mi...
22 Nov 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal