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Trends in food commodity prices, compared to trends in crude oil prices (indices)
The impacts of reduced food availability, higher food prices and thus lower access to food by many people have been dramatic. It is estimated that in 2008 at least 110 million people have been driven into poverty and ...
02 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Potential for cropland expansion
Current projections suggest that an additional 120 million ha – an area twice the size of France or one-third that of India – will be needed to support the traditional growth in food production by 2030, mainly in deve...
02 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Food lost
Food losses in the field (between planting and harvesting) could be as high as 20–40% of the potential harvest in developing countries due to pests and pathogens (Kader, 2005). Postharvest losses vary greatly among co...
02 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Supermarket share of retail food sales
Large urban markets create the scope for the establishment of big supermarket chains, with implications for the entire food supply chain. In 2002, the share of supermarkets in the processed/packaged food retail market...
02 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Food consumption – trends and projections
Increase in crop production has mainly been a function of increases in yield due to increased irrigation and fertilizer use. However, this may change in the future towards more reliance on cropland expansion, at the co...
02 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Projected changes in cereal productivity in Africa, due to climate change – current climate to 2080
Water is essential not only to survival but is also equally or even more important than nutrients in food production. Agriculture accounts for nearly 70% of the water consumption, with some estimates as high as 85% (H...
02 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
World capture fisheries and aquaculture production
Current projections for aquaculture suggest that previous growth is unlikely to be sustained in the future as a result of limits to the availability of wild marine fish for aquaculture feed (FAO, 2008). Small pelagic...
02 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
FAO Food price index (FFPI)
The current world food crisis is the result of the combined effects of competition for cropland from the growth in biofuels, low cereal stocks, high oil prices, speculation in food markets and extreme weather events. T...
02 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Crushed by war and world conflicts
Conflicts increase the risk of food supply instability tremendously (Figure 31). Countries in conflict and post-conflict situations tend to be food insecure, with more than 20% of the population, and in many cases far...
02 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Country income groups (World Bank classification)
There are huge regional differences in the above trends. Globally, poverty rates have fallen from 52% in 1981 to 42% in 1990 and to 26% in 2005. In Sub-Saharan Africa, however, the poverty rate remained constant at ar...
02 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Water requirements for food production 1960-2050
The requirements for water in agriculture will need to increase in order to meet the Millennium Development Goal 1, target 2 'Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger'. To decrease hu...
02 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Market access (estimated travel time) in agricultural areas
Accessibility to food is also determined by the long-term trend in food prices (which is a different issue from price volatility). The rising trend in global food prices is likely to persist in the next decade. In the...
02 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Agricultural trends, production, fertilisers, irrigation and pesticides
Figure 8: Global trends (1960–2005) in cereal and meat production, use of fertilizer, irrigation and pesticides. (Source: Tilman, 2002; FAO, 2003; International Fertilizer Association, 2008; FAOSTAT, 2009).
02 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Projected agriculture in 2080 due to climate change
With our climate changes, we have to adapt our ways to a new environment – in most cases warmer and possibly wetter and drier. Projections on the climate in the future provide some guidance for us, but how can we create ...
02 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Trends in mean depth of fish catches
Food losses in the field (between planting and harvesting) could be as high as 20–40% of the potential harvest in developing countries due to pests and pathogens (Kader, 2005). Postharvest losses vary greatly among co...
02 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Projected land use changes
A central component in preventing loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services, such as provisioning of water, from expanding agricultural production is to limit the trade-off between economic growth and biodiversity b...
02 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Trends in world agricultural exports
The availability of food within a specific country can be guaranteed in two ways: Either by food production in the country itself or by trade. The first option has been discussed extensively in the previous chapters. ...
02 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Selected drought events in Africa, 1981-1999, and livestock impacts
Water scarcity in terms of drought or depleted groundwater could therefore have great impacts on livestock and rangelands. These interactions are also complex. While drought can directly threaten livestock, other fact...
02 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Trends in urban and rural populations, less developed regions, 1960-2030 (estimates and projections)
According to the latest UN estimates, almost all of the world’s population growth between 2000 and 2030 will be concentrated in urban areas in developing countries (Figure 32). By 2030, almost 60% of the people in dev...
02 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Biofuels production 2005, by country (ethanol and biodiesel)
Production of crops for biofuels also competes with food production (Banse et al., 2008). Indeed, the corn equivalent of the energy used on a few minutes drive could feed a person for a day, while a full tank of ethan...
02 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
A photographic impression of the gradual changes in two ecosystem types
Globally, over 1,000 (87%) of a total of 1,226 threatened bird species are impacted by agriculture. More than 70 species are affected by agricultural pollution, 27 of them seriously. Europe’s farmland birds have decl...
02 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Historic CO2 emissions by region
Carbon cycle, carbon fluxes and stocks.
27 May 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Carbon storage in terrestrial ecosystems
Terrestrial ecosystems store about 2100 Gt C in living organisms, litter and soil organic matter, which is almost three times that currently present in the atmosphere.
27 May 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Temperate forests
Temperate forests are active carbon sinks and deforestation in the temperate zone has largely stopped. Where demand for land and/or water allows, reforestation would enable carbon sequestration and could provide other be...
06 Nov 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Boreal forest
The boreal forest biome holds the second largest stock of carbon; most of this is stored in the soil and litter. The draining of boreal forest peatlands, inappropriate forestry practices and poor fire management may al...
27 May 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Peat distribution in the World
Peatland soils store a large amount of carbon but there is a grave risk that much of this will be lost as peatland ecosystems worldwide are being converted for agriculture, plantations and bioenergy. Conservation and res...
01 Nov 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Ocean carbon cycle
Without the contribution of oceans and coastal ecosystems to global biological carbon sequestration today’s CO2 concentration in the atmosphere would be much larger than it is. But the uptake capacity of oceans and coa...
27 May 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Tundra
Tundra ecosystems are dense in carbon. They have little potential to gain more carbon but a huge amount could be lost if the permafrost were to thaw. Prevention of climate change is currently the only failsafe method o...
27 May 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Carbon stored by biome
Dividing the world into seven biomes, we estimate that tropical and subtropical forests store the largest amount of carbon, almost 550 Gt.
27 May 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Temperate Forests
Temperate forests are active carbon sinks and deforestation in the temperate zone has largely stopped. Where demand for land and/or water allows, reforestation would enable carbon sequestration and could provide other ...
13 Sep 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Plantation forestry
Timber forestry can be adapted to increase the amount of carbon held in plantations.
27 May 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Desert and dry shrublands
The large surface area of drylands gives dryland carbon sequestration a global significance, despite their relatively low carbon density. The fact that many dryland soils have been degraded means that they are currentl...
27 May 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Savannas and tropical grasslands
Savannas cover large areas of Africa and South America and can store significant amounts of carbon, especially in their soils. Activities such as cropping, heavy grazing and increased frequency or intensity of fires ca...
27 May 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
World soil demand
Human needs and ecosystem conservation
01 Nov 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Carbon cycle
Living systems play a vital role in the carbon cycle. Photosynthesising organisms – mostly plants on land and various kinds of algae and bacteria in the sea – use either atmospheric carbon dioxide or that dissolved in se...
27 May 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Forest, crops and the people
There are competing demands for land use. Any policy that aims to promote ecosystem carbon management must resolve conflicts between different land uses and take care not to disadvantage the poor.
27 May 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Tropical agriculture
There is great potential to restore carbon in tropical agricultural soils through management practices that, in the right circumstances, can also increase productivity. Agroforestry can offer particularly large carbon ...
27 May 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
The vicious cycle of depletion
Agricultural systems in the temperate zone tend to occupy fertile soils that would have formerly supported temperate grassland or forest. Land clearance for croplands and pasture has greatly reduced above ground carbo...
27 May 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Tropical forests
Tropical forests hold the largest terrestrial carbon store and are active carbon sinks. Reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation is a vital component of tackling dangerous climate change. In addition, tack...
06 Nov 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Simulated Future Temperature Trends
Weather patterns are altered.
27 Oct 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Annual Temperatures Increases for 2001-2005 Relative to 1951-1980
Average surface temperature anomaly (oC)
27 Oct 2009 - by Laura Margueritte
East Siberian Arctic Shelf
The degradation of arctic sub-sea permafrost is already releasing methane from the massive, frozen, undersea carbon pool and more is expected with further warming.
27 Oct 2009 - by Laura Margueritte
Area with near-surface permafrost (North of 45°N)
Simulated a) permafrost area and active layer thickness (a) 1980- 1999 and (b) 2080-2099. (c) Observational estimates of permafrost (continuous, discontinuous, sporadic, and isolated). (d) Time series of simulated globa...
01 Oct 2009 - by Laura Margueritte
Depht-corrected density of Labrador Sea water (northern North Atlantic) at 200-800 m depth
The global ocean circulation system will change under the strong influence of arctic warming.
27 Oct 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Antarctic References
Images of Antarctica (left) and Greenland (right) to scale. Antarctica is 50 per cent larger than the United States or Europe. Greenland is 7 times smaller than Antarctica. There is enough ice in Antarctica to raise glob...
27 Oct 2009 - by Laura Margueritte
Temperature anomalies of the intermediate Atlantic Water in Arctic Ocean
The Arctic Ocean connections are changing
27 Oct 2009 - by Laura Margueritte
Arctic Ocean
Left panel: Schematic of the Arctic Ocean, central basin (Canada and Eurasian basins) and arctic continental shelves (with approximate boundaries for each Arctic Ocean coastal sea), and major rivers draining into the re...
27 Oct 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
The Arctic Ocean
The Arctic Ocean experiences much less exchange with the atmosphere than other oceans; momentum exchange (wind drag), heat exchange and freshwater exchange are limited due to the sea ice cover.
01 Oct 2009 - by Laura Margueritte
Global Sea-level Rise
The loss of ice from the Greenland Ice Sheet has increased and will contribute substantially to global sea level rise.
27 Oct 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Near Surface Temperature
Summary of arctic amplification depicted from one of the climate models participating in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC 2007).
27 Oct 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Gas Arctic
The temperature regime of sub-sea permafrost is determined by the annual temperature of the surrounding seawater, just like the thermal regime of terrestrial permafrost is determined by the arctic surface temperature.
27 Oct 2009 - by Laura Margueritte
Global Carbon Storage in Soils
Arctic terrestrial ecosystems will continue to take up carbon, but warming and changes in surface hydrology will cause a far greater release of carbon.
27 Oct 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Mass balance of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet
Increase in mass loss by the West Antarctic ice sheet. The mass loss has been steadily increasing since the 1970s as a result of accelerations in glacier flow; snowfall has not changed significantly in Antarctica over t...
27 Oct 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
South West Greenland Ocean Temperature
Initially, meltwater was assumed to be the prime cause of glacier acceleration, making its way to the ground beneath ice sheets, lubricating it and causing the glaciers to flow more quickly to the sea.
27 Oct 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Regional Variability in Sea-level Change
Regional variability in sea level change relative to the global average by the end of this century.
27 Oct 2009 - by Laura Margueritte
Radiation
Arctic sea ice and atmospheric circulation.
27 Oct 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Methane in Air Above Water Surface
Mixing ratio of methane in the air above the water surface measured along a ship’s route in September 2005. The dotted line shows the Latitude-specific monthly average of 1.85 parts per million by volume established for ...
27 Oct 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet
Changes in mass of the Greenland Ice Sheet from 1958-2007.
27 Oct 2009 - by Laura Margueritte
Surface Temperature Degree
No data
27 Oct 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Arctic Soil Organic Carbon Content
A new assessment has estimated that there are 1,650 gigatonnes of carbon stored in the northern circumpolar permafrost region4, more than twice the amount of carbon in the atmosphere.
27 Oct 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Arctic Ocean surface Temperatures
Consistent with the rapid retreat of sea ice, the surface waters of the Arctic Ocean have been warming in recent years, because declining sea-ice cover allows the water to absorb more heat from the sun.
27 Oct 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Uptake of Carbon Dioxide from the Atmosphere
Atmosphere-ocean exchanges of carbon.
27 Oct 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Modeled strength of the atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation at 30° North
MOC strength in a suite of coupled climate models.
27 Oct 2009 - by Laura Margueritte
Average sea level 1900-2009
Sea-level rise is accelerating.
27 Oct 2009 - by Laura Margueritte
Concentration Extent
Reduced sea ice amplifies warming.
27 Oct 2009 - by Laura Margueritte
Surface Temperature
At the regional, ocean basin scale, the area between the insulating sea-ice cover and the open ocean (known as the ice margin) is characterized by particularly strong temperature gradients during winter, favoring the dev...
27 Oct 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Regional Distribution of Sea-level Trends 1950-2003
Satellite altimetry data has revealed that sea level is not rising uniformly.
27 Oct 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Wastewater, a global problem with differing regional issues
The significance of wastewater and contents of wastewater vary greatly between and even within regions. In Africa for example, it is the impact on people’s health that is the major factor, in Europe, the input of nutrien...
01 Mar 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Wastewater - Contaminants and their effects
The contaminants in waste- water come from many different sources and can have cumulative and synergistic effects requiring a multi-pronged response.
01 Mar 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Water withdrawal and use
Regional variation in water withdrawal per capita and its use by sector.
01 Mar 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Water desalination
Desalination is an increasingly important practice to secure clean water in a number of countries. Monitoring is key to minimize negative impacts on the ecosystem.
01 Mar 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
A look inside - Concentrations of micro-organisms excreted in one litre of wastewater
What one litre of wastewater might contain in terms of pathogens.
01 Mar 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
World population living in river basins with severe water stress
Increasing water scarcity with population increase.
01 Mar 2010 - by Giulio Frigieri
Population living in river basins where freshwater withdrawal exceeds 40 per cent of renewable resources
Population by region was calculated averaging the results forecasted by the scenarios of the GEO-4 report using the WaterGAP modeling.
01 Mar 2010 - by Giulio Frigieri
Wastewater in urban agriculture - Resource or threat?
Is reuse of wastewater a benefit or a threat for agri- culture?
01 Mar 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Sanitation sewage and treatment in big cities - Two study cases
Case study to compare two urban centres.
01 Mar 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Access to sanitation facilities
Access to improved sanitation remains a pressing issue in many regions.
01 Mar 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Freshwater and wastewater cycle - Water withdrawal and pollutant discharge
As water is extracted and used along the supply chain, both the quality and quantity of water is reduced.
01 Mar 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Distribution of causes of death among children under five years and within neonatal period
Distribution of causes of death among children un- der five years and within the neonatal period, 2004 (Figure from WHO, 2008).
01 Mar 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Centralized or decentralized? - Uganda. A study case
Looking at the costs and benefits, centralized systems may not be the answer in terms of best result for the investment. The chart on the left shows that the financial NPV does not change with increasing population size ...
01 Mar 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
World fresh water supply
Water is the life force of our planet, but only 1 per cent of all the freshwater on Earth is available for human use.
01 Mar 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Water for food
The volume of water required to produce different food products varies enourmously, as do the waste products.
01 Mar 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Population increase and water resources
The world’s water resources will not change, but the human population and its demands on supply are growing rap- idly. Meeting these demands will require wise investment in how we use and reuse our water (UN Water Statis...
01 Mar 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Wastewater, Health and Human well being - Investing in water supply and sanitation
Investment to improve basic access to a safe water source and sanitation (WHO scenario A) can have a significant return with the largest impact on health in particular averting diarrhoea cases and time saved (increasing ...
01 Mar 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Child mortality rates
Child mortality rates by cause and region, 2004. Source: WHO, 2008.
01 Mar 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Converting water into red meat
Production of red meat has a significant demand on water with impacts on quality.
01 Mar 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Logging in the Congo river basin forest
China is the largest consumer of logs from the DRC, buying near 38% of the roundwood produced in official statistics in 2008 (Ministère des Eaux, Forêts, Chasses et Pêches du DRC, 2009). However, the official numbers onl...
17 Mar 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni
Mining the conflict - Importing from Kivu war zone
Accessibility to minerals and illegal exploitation has been central in the conflict and in financing continued warfare in the DRC.
01 Mar 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni
Mining the forest
Mining and deforestation.
01 Mar 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni
Ebola - A Central Africa decennal course - 1994-2003
Ebola epidemic outbreaks across the Congo Basin are a significant threat to gorillas, and also impact the few remaining populations less exposed to poaching and habitat loss.
06 Mar 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
The Walikale community gorilla reserve
The Walikale community gorilla reserve.
01 Mar 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni
Mineral deposits in eastern Congo
Mineral deposits in eastern Congo are at the heart of conflict and the continued unhindered transport across borders and the funds from companies based in the EU and Asia are key to the continuation of environmental crim...
01 Mar 2010 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
Corporation
Multinational companies in the EU and in Asia, among other, operate through subsidiary companies in the DRC region and contribute directly or most often indirectly with funds for financing the illegal exploitation of res...
01 Mar 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius
Wood exports from Congo Basin
Companies originating in the EU, and companies based in Austria, Belgium, Canada, China, Hong Kong (China), India, Malaysia, Thailand, Rwanda, South Africa, Switzerland, The Netherlands, The Russian Federation, The Unite...
01 Mar 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni
Taxation system in eastern DR Congo conflict zone - Part of CNDP incomes from local resources
Militias and collaborating subsidiary companies or dealers are involved in everything from road “taxes” and “taxes” on local impoverished populations to massive scale exploitation of minerals, timber and charcoal.
01 Mar 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni
Corruption
Even though the logging concessions fall out- side of the protected areas, it is not uncommon – due to lack of resources for enforcement – that companies log inside protected areas, where often more valuable timber is pr...
01 Mar 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius
Charcoal illegal trade
As valuable timber becomes rare outside of parks, militias enter parks and illegally cut and produce charcoal inside parks – even the best protected park of the Virungas housing large shares of the Worlds remaining mount...
01 Mar 2010 - by Riccaro Pravettoni
Charcoal business in Virunga area
Charcoal business in the Virunga area.
01 Mar 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni